Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Bonaire is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. Its capital is Kralendijk, located near the ocean on the lee side of the island. Aruba and Curaçao form the ABC islands located 80 km off the coast of Venezuela. Unlike much of the Caribbean region, the ABC islands lie outside Hurricane Alley; the islands have an arid climate that attracts visitors seeking sunny weather year round. Bonaire is a popular snorkeling and scuba diving destination because of its multiple shore diving sites and easy access to the island's fringing reefs; as of 1 January 2016, the island's population totaled 19,408 permanent residents, an increase of 500 from 2015. The island's total land area is 288 square kilometres. A short 0.80 kilometres west of Bonaire across the sea is the uninhabited islet Klein Bonaire with a total land area of 6 km2. Klein has low growing vegetation, no trees, is bordered by white sandy beaches and a fringing reef; the reefs, beaches and on-island reserves located on both Bonaire and Klein Bonaire are under the protection of the Bonaire National Marine Park, managed by Stichting Nationale Parken Bonaire.
Bonaire was part of the Netherlands Antilles until the country's dissolution in 2010, when the island became a special municipality within the country of the Netherlands. It is one of the three BES islands in the Caribbean, along with Sint Saba. An 80% majority of Bonaire's population are Dutch nationals, nearly 60% of its residents were born in the former Netherlands Antilles and Aruba; the name'Bonaire' is thought to be derived from the Caquetio word'Bonay', meaning'low country'. The early Spanish and Dutch modified its spelling to Bojnaj and Bonaire. French influence, while present at various times, was never strong enough to make the assumption that the name means'good air'. Bonaire's earliest known inhabitants were the Caquetio, a branch of the Arawak who came by canoe from Venezuela in about 1000 AD. Archeological remains of Caquetio culture have been found at certain sites northeast of Kralendijk and near Lac Bay. Caquetio rock paintings and petroglyphs have been preserved in caves at Spelonk, Ceru Pungi and Ceru Crita-Cabai.
The Caquetios were a tall people, for the Spanish name for the ABC islands was'las Islas de los Gigantes' or'the islands of the giants'. In 1499, Alonso de Ojeda arrived in Curaçao and a neighboring island, certainly Bonaire. Ojeda was accompanied by Juan de la Cosa. De La Cosa's Mappa Mundi of 1500 shows Bonaire and calls it Isla do Palo Brasil or "Island of Brazilwood"; the Spanish conquerors decided that the three ABC Islands were useless, in 1515 the natives were forcibly deported to work as slaves in the copper mines of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola. In 1526, Juan de Ampies was appointed Spanish commander of the ABC Islands, he brought back some of the original Caquetio Indian inhabitants to Curaçao. Ampies imported domesticated animals from Spain, including cows, goats, horses and sheep; the Spaniards thought. The cattle were raised for hides rather than meat; the Spanish inhabitants lived in the inland town of Rincon, safe from pirate attack. The Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621.
Starting in 1623, ships of the West India Company called at Bonaire to obtain meat and wood. The Dutch abandoned some Spanish and Portuguese prisoners there, these people founded the town of Antriol, a contraction of Spanish al interior; the Dutch and the Spanish fought from 1568 to 1648 in. In 1633, the Dutch—having lost the island of St. Maarten to the Spanish—retaliated by attacking Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba. Bonaire was conquered in March 1636; the Dutch built Fort Oranje in 1639. While Curaçao emerged as a center of the slave trade, Bonaire became a plantation of the Dutch West India Company. A small number of African slaves were put to work alongside Indians and convicts, cultivating dyewood and maize and harvesting solar salt around Blue Pan. Slave quarters, built of stone and too short for a man to stand upright in, still stand in the area around Rincon and along the saltpans as a grim reminder of Bonaire's repressive past. Dutch was not spoken on the island outside of colonial administration.
Students on Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire were taught predominantly in Spanish until the late 19th century when the British took Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. The teaching of Spanish was restored when Dutch rule resumed in 1815. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Netherlands lost control of Bonaire twice, once from 1800 to 1803 and again from 1807 to 1816. During these intervals, the British had control of the neighboring island of Bonaire; the ABC islands were returned to the Netherlands under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. During the period of British rule, a large number of white traders settled on Bonaire, they built the settlement of Playa in 1810. From 1816 until 1868, Bonaire remained a government plantation. In 1825, there were about 300 government-owned slaves on the island. Many of the slaves were freed and became freemen with an obligation to render some services to the government; the remaining slaves were freed on 30 September 1862 under the Emancipation Regulation. A
Isabella II of Spain
Isabella II was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, whose refusal to recognize a female sovereign led to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, formally abdicated in 1870, her son, Alfonso XII, became king in 1874. Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the Cortes Generales to help him set aside the Salic law, introduced by the Bourbons in the early 18th century, to reestablish the older succession law of Spain; the first pretender to the throne, Ferdinand's brother Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, fought seven years during the minority of Isabella to dispute her title.
Carlos' and his descendants' supporters were known as Carlists, the fight over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century. Isabella's reign was maintained only through the support of the army; the Cortes and the Moderate Liberals and Progressives reestablished constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders and confiscated their property, tried to restore order to Spain's finances. After the Carlist war, the regent, Maria Christina, resigned to make way for Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. Espartero, a Progressive, remained regent for only two years. Baldomero Espartero was turned out in 1843 by a military and political pronunciamiento led by Generals Leopoldo O'Donnell and Ramón María Narváez, they formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquín María López y López. This government induced the Cortes to declare Isabella of age at 13. Three years on 10 October 1846, the Moderate Party made their sixteen-year-old queen marry her double-first cousin Francisco de Asís de Borbón, the same day that her younger sister, infanta Luisa Fernanda, married Antoine d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier.
The marriages suited France and Louis Philippe, King of the French, who as a result bitterly quarrelled with Britain. However, the marriages were not happy; the Carlist party asserted that the heir-apparent to the throne, who became Alfonso XII, had been fathered by a captain of the guard, Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. Isabella had nine children, but only five reached adulthood: Ferdinand Isabel, Princess of Asturias, who married her mother's and father's first cousin Prince Gaetan, Count of Girgenti. María Cristina Alfonso XII María de la Concepcion María del Pilar María de la Paz, who married her cousin Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria. Francisco de Asís Eulalia de Asís de la Piedad, who married her cousin Infante Antonio, Duke of Galliera; the couple was rather caustically described by an English contemporary thus: … The Queen is large in stature, but rather what might be called bulky than stately. There is no dignity either in her face or figure, the graces of majesty are altogether wanting.
The countenance is cold and expressionless, with traces of an unchastened and impulsive character, the indifference it betrays is not redeemed by any regularity or beauty of feature. The King Consort is much smaller in figure than his royal two-thirds, is not a type that could be admired for its manly qualifications. Moderados and Unión Liberals succeeded each other to keep out the Progressives, thus sowing the seeds for the Revolution of 1868. Queen Isabella II interfered in politics, she showed favour to the Church and religious orders. Spain fought two wars during her reign: the war against Morocco in 1859, which ended in a treaty advantageous for Spain and cession of some Moroccan territory, the fruitless Chincha Islands War against Peru and Chile, her reign saw tensions with the United States over the Amistad affair and over the war in the Pacific. By virtue of a royal decree, she opened Iloilo in the Philippines to world trade on September 29, 1855 to export sugar and other products to America and Europe.
At the end of September 1868, the defeat of Isabella's forces at the Battle of Alcolea led to her deposition and exile to France. The revolt against Isabella played out in the battle is known as the Glorious Revolution. In 1870, the provisional government replaced Isabella with Amadeo I, second son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, after much deliberation. Amadeo's abdication under pressure in 1873 led to the period of the First Spanish Repub
1980 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1980 Atlantic hurricane season was tied with 1932, 1969, 1994 for having the most named storms form in the Atlantic Ocean during the month of November – only to be surpassed in 2001 and 2005. The season began on June 1, 1980, lasted until November 30, 1980; these dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The season was active, with fifteen tropical cyclones forming, it was the first time since the 1971 season that there were no active tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin during the month of June. The season was neutral, having neither an a La Niña. Three tropical cyclones during in the Atlantic Ocean in 1980 were notable. Hurricane Allen was the earliest Category 5 hurricane on record and devastated portions of the Caribbean Sea and the United States. Tropical Storm Hermine caused significant flooding in Mexico, which resulted in at least 38 fatalities. Hurricane Jeanne was one of only four tropical cyclones at hurricane intensity to enter the Gulf of Mexico and not make landfall.
The Atlantic hurricane season began on June 1, though the first tropical depression did not develop until July 17. During the season, 15 tropical depressions formed. Eight of the depressions attained tropical storm status, eight of these attained hurricane status. Two of the hurricanes further strengthened to become major hurricanes. Only Allen made landfall at hurricane strength during the season, although Hurricane Charley and tropical storms Danielle and Hermine caused damage and fatalities; those three cyclones collectively caused $1.57 billion in damage. The last storm of the season, Hurricane Karl, dissipated on November 27, only three days before the official end date of November 30; the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season had a rather slow beginning, with only one tropical depression developing prior to the month of August. In contrast, August was an active month, with five tropical cyclones forming, three of which became hurricanes. During that month, Hurricane Allen became the earliest known Category 5 hurricane on August 5, a record broken by only Hurricane Emily on July 16, 2005.
September had five tropical cyclones, all of which became named storms. Tropical cyclogenesis abruptly halted with only Hurricane Ivan developing in that month. However, the month of November was considered to be active, with three storms forming during that month. Two of the systems became named storms, a record, tied with 1932, 1969, 1994, but surpassed when three tropical storms existed in the Atlantic in November 2001 and November 2005; the season's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy rating of 149, classified as "above normal". ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots or tropical storm strength. Although subtropical cyclones are excluded from the total, the figure above includes periods when storms were in a subtropical phase. A decaying cold front entered into Gulf of Mexico, developed a low-pressure area of July 17.
That day, the low-pressure area developed into Tropical Depression One halfway between Louisiana and the Yucatan Peninsula. The depression moved northwestward, minimal intensification occurred, as it approached the Gulf Coast of the United States; the depression made landfall in Texas near the Galveston area, dissipated by July 21. Minimal impact was recorded from the depression, light rainfall was reported in Texas and western Louisiana, peaking at 3.77 in in Refugio, Texas. A tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa on July 30 and developed into Tropical Depression Two about two days later. By August 2, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Allen; the storm intensified and became a hurricane on August 3. Thereafter, Allen deepened, was a major hurricane only 24 hours later. While it was becoming a Category 3 hurricane, a Category 4 hurricane, shortly after, Allen passed through the Windward Islands. Upon entering the Caribbean Sea, Allen continued to strengthen and became a Category 5 hurricane on August 5, while about halfway between Puerto Rico and Venezuela.
Allen curved northwestward and approached the Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti. Shortly thereafter, Allen weakened on August 6, but was still a Category 4 when it bypassed Jamaica. While paralleling the south coast of Cuba, Allen re-strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane; that day, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 190 mph and a minimum barometric pressure of 899 mbar. Following peak intensity, Allen entered the Gulf of Mexico and weakened back to a Category 4 hurricane on August 8. On the day next, Allen re-intensified into a Category 5 hurricane. However, just offshore Allen abruptly weakened to a low-end Category 3 hurricane prior to landfall near Brownsville, Texas on August 10; the storm weakened inland and dissipated about 36 hours after striking land. Although 500 houses were either damaged or destroyed on Barbados, losses totaled to only $1.5 million. Having passed only 8 miles south of St. Lucia, Allen produced sustained winds as high as 104 mph on the island; the storm caused $88 million in damage on that island.
In addition, one death was reported in Guadeloupe. High winds and flooding in Haiti left 836,200 people homeless. In addition, 220 d
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Los Roques archipelago
Los Roques archipelago is a federal dependency of Venezuela consisting of 350 islands and islets in a total area of 40.61 square kilometers. The archipelago is located 128 kilometers directly north of the port of La Guaira, in the Caribbean Sea; the islands' pristine coral reef attracts many wealthy visitors from Europe, some of whom come in their own yachts and anchor in the inner, protected shallow waters. Development and tourism are controlled; because of the wide variety of seabirds and rich aquatic life, the Venezuelan government declared Los Roques a National Park in 1972. The archipelago is sparsely populated, having about 1,500 permanent inhabitants; the major islands of the archipelago have an atoll structure, with two external barriers formed by coral communities, an inner lagoon and sandy shallows. The park consists of 40.61 km², 1500 km² of coral reefs, 42 coral cays surrounding a shallow central lagoon of 400 km², two barrier reefs and 300 sand banks and cays, ranging in size from Cayo Grande to the Gran Roque.
Other important islands are Francisqui, Nordisqui and Crasqui. El Gran Roque is the only populated island in the group, it has an airport suitable for Los Roques Airport. The airport is controlled from the Maiquetía airport on the mainland. From El Gran Roque most visitors that arrive, go to the port and travel to the keys in small boats called "peñeros" from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. Activities include fishing, snorkeling, paddling and kitesurfing, there is a sea turtle research center located on Dos Mosquises. Accommodations include Pez Raton Lodge, a property used to host fishing guests, Posada Mediterraneo, a five-room inn which accommodates non-fishing guests, dozens more like El Canto de la Ballena and Posada La Gaviota; the islands were sighted by early European navigators, in 1589 the governor of the Venezuelan province ordered the formal takeover of these islands on behalf of the colony. The Dutch considered Los Roques to belong to their island territory of Curaçao because of its proximity to Bonaire which belonged to the Dutch.
The author M. D. Teenstra in 1836 still writes: "The Government of Curaçao includes the uninhabited islets and rocks Little Curaçao, Aves and Orchilla." In 1871 the Venezuelan president Antonio Guzmán Blanco created by decree the Territorio Colón which included Los Roques and other adjacent islands. The island of Gran Roque was named as the center of territorial government; the climate is warm and dry, with average annual temperature of 27.3 °C in July and August, reaches a maximum of 34 °, between September and January are presented occasional rain, with relative humidity 83% annually. Rainfall is 256.6 mm / year. The population of the Roques concentrates on the island of Gran Roque and to a lesser extent its adjacent islets, for 1941, was estimated at about 484 people for 1950 reached 559, in 1987 663 permanent inhabitants. According to the Venezuelan census of 2001 1.209 inhabitants were counted, by 2008 it is estimated that the number of its inhabitants is around 1,800. Its growth is limited because of restrictions involving the declaration as a national park in the 1970s most of the population is margariteño origin who came to the islands to engage in fishing since the early twentieth century in addition to the presence of small groups of foreigners.
Federal Dependencies of Venezuela List of national parks of Venezuela List of marine molluscs of Venezuela List of Poriferans of Venezuela National Park Institute, Venezuela