Islam in Réunion
In Réunion, Zarabes is the name given to the Muslim community of Réunion. The Muslims migrated to Réunion in mid-nineteenth century. Zarabes are mostly South Asian and specifically from the modern state Gujarat in India.
In Réunion, Zarabes is the name given to the Muslim community of Réunion. The Muslims migrated to Réunion in mid-nineteenth century. Zarabes are mostly South Asian and specifically from the modern state Gujarat in India.
1. Islam – Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original, complete and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents, relatives, and neighbors have also been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, Islam began in the early 7th century. Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are also found in Horn of Africa, Europe, China, Russia, Mainland Southeast Asia, Philippines, Northern Borneo, Caucasus and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide. Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
2. Mosque – A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents, the mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat as well as a center for information, education, social welfare, and dispute settlement. The imam leads the congregation in prayer, the first mosque in the world is often considered to be the area around the Kaaba in Mecca now known as the Masjid al-Haram. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to another mosque in Medina. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city. The Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the still common in todays mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab. The Masjid al-Nabawi was also constructed with a courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is reportedly one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam. The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was reportedly the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious, like the Imam Husayn Shrine, though, nothing of its original structure remains. With the later Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools, hospitals and it was the first to incorporate a square minaret and includes naves akin to a basilica. Those features can also be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mosque of Cordoba, still, some elements of Visigothic architecture, like horseshoe arches, were infused into the mosque architecture of Spain and the Maghreb. The first mosque in East Asia was reportedly established in the 8th century in Xian, however, the Great Mosque of Xian, whose current building dates from the 18th century, does not replicate the features often associated with mosques elsewhere. Indeed, minarets were initially prohibited by the state, mosques in western China were more likely to incorporate elements, like domes and minarets, traditionally seen in mosques elsewhere. In turn, the Javanese style influenced the styles of mosques in Indonesias Austronesian neighbors—Malaysia, Brunei, Muslim empires were instrumental in the evolution and spread of mosques. Although mosques were first established in India during the 7th century, reflecting their Timurid origins, Mughal-style mosques included onion domes, pointed arches, and elaborate circular minarets, features common in the Persian and Central Asian styles
3. Gujarat – Gujarat is a state in Western India, sometimes referred to as the Jewel of Western India. It has an area of 196,024 km2 with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati-speaking people of India, the state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, such as Lothal and Dholavira. Lothal is believed to be one of the worlds first seaports, Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks, and was familiar in other Western centres of civilisation through the end of the European Middle Ages. Modern-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, the Gurjar nation, parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. Gujarat was one of the centres of the Indus Valley Civilization. It contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira, the ancient city of Lothal was where Indias first port was established. The ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, the most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat, the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt, Bahrain. The early history of Gujarat reflects the grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime and he ruled Giringer and built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, in the first half of the 1st century AD there is the story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas. The incident of the cup-bearer killed by a lion might indicate that the city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab, in Gujarat several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps, the Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya
4. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
5. Islam in Africa – Africa was the first continent into which Islam spread from Asia in the early 7th century. Almost one-third of the worlds Muslim population resides in the continent, Muslims crossed current Djibouti, Somalia and Eritrea to seek refuge in present-day Ethiopia during the Hijarat. Most Muslims in Africa are Sunni, the complexity of Islam in Africa is revealed in the schools of thought, traditions. African Islam is not static and is constantly being reshaped by prevalent social, economic, generally Islam in Africa often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems forming Africas own orthodoxies. It was estimated in 2002 that Muslims constitute 48% of the population of Africa, Islam has a large presence in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Swahili Coast, and much of West Africa, with minority but significant immigrant populations in South Africa. However, Islam has encountered criticism and resistance in several nations of Sub-Saharan Africa, on the advice of Muhammad, in Rajab 8BH, or May 614AD, twenty three Muslims migrated to Abyssinia where they were protected by its king, Al-Najashi, who may have accepted Islam later. They were followed by 101 Muslims later in the same year, most of those Muslims returned to Medina in 7H/628AD but some settled in the neighboring Zeila which was at that time part of Bilad al-Barbar. Those that settled there later built Masjid al-Qiblatayn, in 20H/641AD during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, Muslim troops took over current Egypt and conquered current Libya the following year. Muslims then expanded to current Tunisia in 27H/647AD during the reign of the third Muslim Caliph, the conquest of North Africa continued under the Umayyad dynasty, taking Algeria by 61H/680AD, and Morocco the following year. From the latter Muslim troops crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to Europe in 92H/711AD, Islam gained momentum during the 10th century in West Africa with the start of the Almoravids movement on the Senegal River and as rulers and kings embraced Islam. Islam then spread slowly in much of the continent through trade, by the 9th century Muslim Sultanates started being established in the Horn of Africa, and by the 12th century the Kilwa Sultanate had spread as far south as Mozambique. Islam only crossed deeper into Malawi and Congo in the half of the 19th century under the Zanzibar Sultanate. Then the British brought their labor force from India, including some Muslim-Indian nationals, to their African colonies towards the end of the nineteenth, in the Muslim tradition, this event is known as the first hijrah, or migration. During this first Hijra some Muslims settled in the city of Zeila and this mosque has two Qiblas because it was built before the Prophet switched the Qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca. The coastline of The Horn of Africa became the first safe haven for Muslims, seven years after the death of Muhammad, the Arabs advanced toward Africa and within two generations, Islam had expanded across the Horn of Africa and North Africa. During the reign of Umar II, the governor of Africa. Other early notable missionaries include Abdallah ibn Yasin, who started a movement which caused thousands of Berbers to accept Islam, similarly, in the Swahili coast, Islam made its way inland - spreading at the expense of traditional African religions. This expansion of Islam in Africa not only led to the formation of new communities in Africa, indeed, in the middle of the 11th century, the Kanem Empire, whose influence extended into Sudan, converted to Islam
6. Islam in Egypt – Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 85% of the population. Almost the entirety of Egypts Muslims are Sunnis, with a minority of Shia. The latter, however, are not recognized by Egypt, Islam has been recognized as the state religion since 1980. Prior to Napoleons invasion in 1798, almost all of Egypts educational, legal, public health, during the 19th and 20th centuries, successive governments made extensive efforts to limit the role of the ulama in public life and to bring religious institutions under closer state control. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques, the government mandated reform of Al-Azhar University beginning in 1961. These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn from outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama, in the late 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their center and Cairo their capital. Egypt flourished and the Fatimids developed a trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque. The Fatimid palace in Cairo had two parts and it stood in the Khan el-Khalili area at Bin El-Qasryn street. In the early 20th century, Egyptian Islam was a complex, although Muslims agreed on the faiths basic tenets, the countrys various social groups and classes applied Islam differently in their daily lives. The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version of Islam practiced by illiterate religious preachers, most upper- and upper-middle-class Muslims believed either that religious expression was a private matter for each individual or that Islam should play a more dominant role in public life. Islamic religious revival movements, whose appeal cut across lines, were present in most cities. This put an end to the independence of the Ulama. Awqaf, traditionally independent endowments for mosques and Islamic schools, became a ministry of the government, in 1961, Gamal Abdel Nasser made Al Azhar part of the Ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments. He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, in time the school became responsible for assigning imams to all major mosques, and all these imams were required to be graduates of the school. Orthodox ulama or the establishment found themselves in a difficult position during the wave of Islamic activism that swept through Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s. Most Ulama, including those of Al-Azhar University, are employees of the Egyptian state who recognize the primacy, support its stability. Radical Islamists viewed them as puppets of the status quo, to maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stances
7. Islam in Ethiopia – Islam in Ethiopia is the second-most widely practised religion after Christianity. According to the latest 2007 national census, there are over 25 million Muslim adherents, the faith arrived in Ethiopia at an early date, shortly before the hijira. Muslims arrived in the Axumite Empire during the Hijarat as early disciples from Mecca and they were received by the Christian ruler of Axum, whom Arabic tradition has named Ashama ibn Abjar, and he settled them in Negash. On the other hand, the center of Islamic culture, learning. The Quraysh sent emissaries to bring back to Arabia. The Prophet himself instructed his followers who came to the Axumite empire, Islam developed more rapidly in the eastern part of the Horn region, particularly among the Somali and Harari. This was challenged by the mostly Christian northern people of Abyssinia, including Amhara, Tigray, however the north and northeastern expansion of the Oromo, who practiced mainstream traditional Waaqa, affected the growth of Islam in its early days. Historian Ulrich Braukamper says, the expansion of the non-Muslim Oromo people during subsequent centuries mostly eliminated Islam in those areas, however, following the centralization of some Oromo communities, some of them adopted Islam and today constitutes over 50% of their population. In the 16th century, Muslims from the Adal Sultanate embarked on a Conquest of Abyssinia under the command of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, however, many Muslims dealt with such matters in terms of customary law. For example, the Somali and other pastoralists tended not to follow the requirement that daughters inherit half as much property as sons, particularly when livestock was at issue. In parts of Eritrea, the tendency to land as the corporate property of a descent group precluded following the Islamic principle of division of property among ones heirs. It was the first hijra in Islam history, according to UNESCO, it is regarded as the fourth holy city of Islam. It has 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century, as well as 102 shrines, much as the rest of the Muslim world, the beliefs and practices of the Muslims in Ethiopia are basically the same, embodied in the Quran and the Sunnah. There are also Sufi brotherhoods present in Ethiopia such as the Qadiriyyah order in Wello, numerous Muslims in Ethiopia perform the pilgrimage to Mecca every year. In Ethiopias Muslim communities, as in neighboring Sudan and Somalia, many of the faithful are associated with, nevertheless, formal and informal attachment to Sufi practices is widespread. loc. gov/frd/cs/. 109–124 Dickson, David, Political Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa, The Need for a new Research and Diplomatic Agenda, United States Institute of Peace, Special Report 140, May 2005
8. Islam in Somalia – Nearly all people in Somalia are Sunni Muslims. For more than 1400 years, Islam made a part of Somali society. Practicing Islam reinforces distinctions that further set Somalis apart from their immediate neighbors, for generations, Islam in Somalia followed the Ash’ariyah theology, Shafi’i jurisprudence, and Sufism, until recent decades when Salafism has made inroads. Influence of Islamic religious leaders has varied by region, being greater in the north than some groups in the settled regions of the south. Among nomads, the exigencies of pastoral life gave greater weight to the warriors role, the role of religious functionaries began to shrink in the 1950s and 1960s as some of their legal and educational powers and responsibilities were transferred to secular authorities. The position of religious leaders changed substantially after the 1969 revolution, Siad Barre insisted that his version of socialism was compatible with Quranic principles, and he condemned atheism. Religious leaders, however, were warned not to meddle in politics, the new government instituted legal changes that some religious figures saw as contrary to Islamic precepts. The regime reacted sharply to criticism, executing some of the protesters, subsequently, religious leaders seemed to accommodate themselves to the government. Islam was introduced to the northern Somali coast early on from the Arabian peninsula, zeilas two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn although not dated, is said to have been built back in the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque in the city. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard. He also mentioned that the Adal kingdom had its capital in the city, according to I. M. Lewis, the polity was governed by local dynasties, who also ruled over the similarly-established Sultanate of Mogadishu in the littoral Benadir region to the south. Adals history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia, in 1332, the Zeila-based King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting the Abyssinian Emperor Amda Seyon Is march toward the city. When the last Sultan of Ifat, Saad ad-Din II, was killed by Emperor Dawit I in Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen. In the early 15th century, Adals capital was moved inland to the town of Dakkar, where Sabr ad-Din II. Adals headquarters were relocated the following century, this time to Harar. From this new capital, Adal organised an army led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi that invaded the Abyssinian empire. This 16th century campaign is known as the Conquest of Abyssinia. Some scholars argue that this conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms like the musket, cannons and the arquebus over traditional weapons
9. Islam in South Africa – Islam in South Africa is a minority religion, practised by less than 1. 5% of the total population, according to estimates. Islam in South Africa has grown in three phases, the second phase was the arrival of Indians as indentured labourers to work in the sugar-cane fields in Natal between 1860 and 1868, and again from 1874 to 1911. Of the approximately 176,000 Indians of all faiths who were transported to the Natal province, the third phase has been marked - post apartheid – by the wave of African Muslims that have arrived on the shores and borders of South Africa. Recent figures put the number at approximately at 75-100000, added to this are a considerable number of Muslims from the Indo-Pak subcontinent that have arrived as economic migrants. Although, the majority of Muslims are Sunni, smaller numbers are Ahmadi, in the 17th century the Dutch controlled East Indies and the Cape. Muslims were brought from Dutch East Indies, etc. as slaves including those who waged Jihad in the Dutch colonies, the first recorded arrival of free Muslims known as Mardyckers is in 1658. Jan Van Riebeeck had requested that the Mardyckers be sent to the Cape as a labour force, the Mardyckers were prohibited from openly practising their religion, Islam. Offenders to be punished with death, but should there be amongst them those who had drawn to God to become Christians. The same Placaat was re-issued on 23 August 1657 by Governor John Maetsuycker probably in anticipation of the advent of the Mardyckers to the Cape of Good Hope, the Placaat governed the Cape as part of the Dutch Colonial Empire. During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century the Dutch continued to exile Muslim leaders from Dutch East Indies to the Cape,1667 saw the arrival of first Muslim political exiles banished by the Dutch to the Cape. The first political exiles were the rulers of Sumatra and they were Sheikh Abdurahman Matabe Shah and Sheikh Mahmood. From the very outset the Cape authorities accommodated the exiles away from Cape Town as they feared the exiles would escape, a tomb for these political exiles has been erected on Islam Hill in Constantia in the Cape. Sheikh Abdurahman Matebe Shah used his exile to consolidate the teaching of Islam among slaves in the Cape, the next Orang Cayen was Sheikh Yusuf of Bantam who arrived on board De Voetboog on 2 April 1694 along with his family and followers. They were housed on a farm in Zandvleit, near the mouth of the Eerste River in the Cape, far from Cape Town, the Companys attempt to isolate Shaykh Yusuf at Zandvleit did not succeed. On the contrary, Zandvleit turned out to be the point for fugitive slaves. It was here that the first cohesive Muslim community in South Africa was established, since the Sheikh and his followers hailed from Macassar, the district around Zandvleit is still known today as Macassar. Sa‘id Alowie, popularly known as Tuan Sa‘id, of Mocca in Yemen, Arabia and they were banished to the Cape by the Dutch and were incarcerated on Robben Island. On his release from Robben Island Tuan Said settled at the Cape where he worked as a police constable - an occupation which gave him opportunities for visiting slave quarters at night to teach
10. Islam in Ivory Coast – Muslims make up about 38. 6% of the population of Ivory Coast. In Ivory Coast, Muslims pray, fast, and give alms as required by tenets of Islam, most Ivoirian Muslims are Sunni, following the Maliki version of Islamic law. Sufism, involving the organization of mystical brotherhoods for the purification and spread of Islam, is widespread, laced with indigenous beliefs. The four major Sufi brotherhoods are all represented in Ivory Coast, although the Qadiriya, founded in the century. The Qadiriya is prevalent in the west, and the Tidjaniya, the other two major Islamic brotherhoods have few adherents in Ivory Coast. The Senoussiya is identified with Libya, where its influence is substantial, ahmadiyya movement is also present in Ivory Coast. The significant religious authority is the marabout and he is believed to be a miracle worker, a physician, and a mystic, who exercises both magical and moral authority. He is also respected as a dispenser of amulets, which protect the wearer—Muslim or non-Muslim—against evil, the influence of marabouts has produced a number of reactions in Ivoirian society, among them a series of reformist movements. These reform movements often condemn Sufism and marabouts as un-Islamic, hamallism began as an Islamic reform movement in the French Sudan early in the twentieth century and has provided a channel for expressing political and religious discontent. Its founder, Hamallah, was exiled from the French Sudan to Ivory Coast during the 1930s and he preached Islamic reform tempered by tolerance of many local practices, but he condemned many aspects of Sufism. Orthodox brotherhoods were able to convince the French authorities in Ivory Coast that Hamallah had been responsible for earlier political uprisings in the French Sudan, authorities then expelled Hamallah from Ivory Coast and banned his teachings. The massive immigration of Muslims from the Muslim majority countries Burkina Faso, Islam by country This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http, //lcweb2. loc. gov/frd/cs/