Islamic terrorism in Europe (2014–present)
Since 2014, Islamic terrorist attacks in Europe have variously been carried out by ISIL operatives, operatives of Al-Qaeda, and Islamist lone wolves. The deadliest attacks were the November 2015 Paris attacks (130 killed), the 2016 Nice attack (86 killed) and the 2016 Atatürk Airport attack (45 killed).
Since 2014, more than 20 fatal attacks have been carried out. France saw eight attacks between December 2014 and July 2016; this included the January 2015 Île-de-France attacks, the November 2015 Paris attacks, and the July 2016 Nice truck attack. The United Kingdom saw three major attacks carried out in a span of four months in early 2017 (Westminster attack, Manchester Arena bombing and London Bridge attack). Other targets in Europe have included Belgium, Germany, Russia, and Spain. The transcontinental city of Istanbul also saw both bombings and shootings, including in January 2016, June 2016 and January 2017.
According to a review by Swedish news agency Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå, about two thirds of attackers in Western Europe (44 out of the 68 individuals involved in the total of 37 attacks between 2014 and August 2017) had been influenced by Islamic hate preachers and became radicalised as a result of personal contact, rather than online.
According to Europol's annual report, in 2016 attack planning against Western countries took place in Syria and Iraq. Groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIL had the intent and capabilities to mount mass casualty attacks with volunteers.
After the Manchester Arena bombing in May 2017, British authorities and MI5 revealed they had 500 ongoing investigations into 3,000 jihadist extremists as potential terrorist attackers, with a further 20,000 having been "subjects of interest" in the past, including the Manchester and Westminster attackers.
According to the British think tank ICSR, up to 40% of terrorist plots in Europe are part-financed through petty crime such as drug-dealing, theft, robberies, loan fraud and burglaries. Jihadists use ordinary crime as a way to finance their activity and have also argued this to be the "ideologically correct" way to wage jihad in non-Muslim lands.
List of attacks
|24 May 2014||Brussels, Belgium||Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting||A man opened fire in the Jewish Museum in Brussels, leaving four people dead. On 30 May, a man who in 2013 had fought for Islamists in the Syrian Civil War, was arrested in Marseille and admitted to the shooting.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as religiously inspired terrorism, and noted that the attack was the first by a returnee from the Syrian Civil War.||4||0|
|20 December 2014||Joué-lès-Tours, France||2014 Tours police station stabbing||A man entered a police station shouting the Islamic takbir Allahu Akbar ("God is Great"), and attacked officers with a knife, injuring three before he was shot dead. Europol classified the attack as religiously inspired terrorism.||0 (+1 attacker)||3|
According to Europol, terrorist attacks attributed to jihadists in the European Union increased from one in 2014 to seventeen in 2015, while the number of people killed increased from four to 150. Non-EU areas of Europe are not included in the Europol figures.
|7–9 January 2015||Île-de-France, France||January 2015 Île-de-France attacks||From 7 January 2015 to 9 January 2015, terrorist attacks occurred across the Île-de-France region, particularly in Paris. Three attackers killed a total of 17 in four shooting attacks, and police then killed the three assailants. The main attacks were the Charlie Hebdo shooting and the Porte de Vincennes siege. The organization Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula claimed responsibility and said that the coordinated attacks had been planned for years. Europol classified the attacks as jihadist terrorism.||17 (+3 attackers)||22|
|3 February 2015||Nice, France||2015 Nice stabbing||Three soldiers, guarding a Jewish community center in Nice, were attacked by a man with a knife. The attacker was arrested by police.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||3|
|14–15 February 2015||Copenhagen, Denmark||2015 Copenhagen shootings||A man opened fire at an event at Krudttønden organized by Lars Vilks, known for his controversial drawings of Muhammad. Later, a Jewish man was shot outside the Great Synagogue. The attacker was later shot dead by police. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||2 (+1 attacker)||6|
|26 June 2015||Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France||Saint-Quentin-Fallavier attack||An attacker beheaded his employer, impaled his head on a fence, and then blew up gas cylinders at a factory by ramming his van into them. The attacker was arrested, but committed suicide by hanging himself in his cell later the same year. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||1||2|
|21 August 2015||Oignies, France||2015 Thalys train attack||A man threatened passengers with an assault rifle on a Thalys train between Amsterdam and Paris. One passenger was shot in the neck with a pistol when the rifle jammed. Two United States military personnel and their civilian friend overcame the attacker.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||3 (+1 attacker)|
|17 September 2015||Berlin, Germany||Rafik Yousef||An Iraqi citizen stabbed a German policewoman in the neck. He was then shot dead by another officer. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0 (+1 attacker)||1|
|13–14 November 2015||Paris and Saint-Denis, France||November 2015 Paris attacks||A series of co-ordinated attacks began over about 35 minutes at six locations in central Paris. The first shooting attack occurred in a restaurant and a bar in the 10th arrondissement of Paris. There was shooting and a bomb detonated at Bataclan theatre in the 11th arrondissement during a concert by the Eagles of Death Metal. Approximately 100 hostages were then taken and overall 89 were killed there. Other bombings took place outside the Stade de France stadium in the suburb of Saint-Denis during a football match between France and Germany. Europol classified the attacks as jihadist terrorism.||130 (+7 attackers)||413|
In 2016, a total of 135 people were killed in ten completed jihadist attacks in the European Union, according to Europol figures. Thirteen attacks were attempted. The number of arrests increased on the previous year, to 718. In France, the number of arrests increased from 377 in 2015 to 429 in 2016. One in four (26%) of those arrested in 2016 were women, an increase from 18% the previous year. The threat in 2016 consisted of remotely directed individuals operating alone or in small groups. In addition to these, there were those that were inspired by propaganda but not instructed or directed.
|7 January 2016||Paris, France||January 2016 Paris police station attack||An asylum seeker wielding a knife and a fake bomb vest shouted "Allahu Akbar" outside a police station. He was shot dead by police as he tried to force his way in. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0 (+1 attacker)||1|
|11 January 2016||Marseille, France||A 15-year-old Turkish boy, claiming to be "acting in the name of ISIL," attempted to behead a teacher from a Jewish school with a machete. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||1|
|12 January 2016||Istanbul, Turkey||January 2016 Istanbul bombing||A suicide bomber blew himself up near Hippodrome of Constantinople near the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, killing 13 people and wounding another 9, most of whom were foreign tourists. No group claimed responsibility, but Turkish authorities suspected ISIL. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||13 (+1 attacker)||9|
|26 February 2016||Hanover, Germany||Hanover stabbing||A police officer was critically injured in a stabbing attack by a 15-year-old girl. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||1|
|19 March 2016||Istanbul, Turkey||March 2016 Istanbul bombing||A suicide bombing took place in Istanbul's Beyoğlu district in front of the district governor's office. The attack occurred at 10:55 (EET) at the intersection of Balo Street with İstiklal Avenue, a central shopping street. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||4 (+1 attacker)||36|
|22 March 2016||Brussels and Zaventem, Belgium||2016 Brussels bombings||There were three coordinated suicide bombings in Brussels: two at Brussels Airport in Zaventem, and one at Maalbeek metro station. In these attacks, 32 people and the three bombers were killed, and 340 people were injured. Europol classified the attacks as jihadist terrorism.||32 (+3 attackers)||340|
|13 June 2016||Magnanville, France||2016 Magnanville stabbing||A man stabbed and killed a police officer in his home, before taking the officer's wife and son hostage. Police raided the house and killed the attacker and found the officer's wife dead but his son alive. ISIL claimed responsibility. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||2 (+1 attacker)||0|
|28 June 2016||Istanbul, Turkey||2016 Atatürk Airport attack||A terrorist attack, consisting of shootings and suicide bombings, occurred on 28 June 2016 at Atatürk Airport in Istanbul, Turkey. Gunmen armed with automatic weapons and explosive belts staged a simultaneous attack at the international terminal of Terminal 2. Forty-five people were killed, in addition to the three attackers, and more than 230 people were injured. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||45 (+3 attackers)||230|
|14 July 2016||Nice, France||2016 Nice attack||A cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, resulting in the death of 86 people and injuring 458. The driver was shot dead by police. ISIL claimed the responsibility for the attack. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||86 (+1 attacker)||458|
|18 July 2016||Würzburg, Germany||Würzburg train attack||A 17-year-old Afghan asylum seeker attacked passengers on a train with an axe and a knife. The attacker was killed by police. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0 (1 attacker)||5|
|24 July 2016||Ansbach, Germany||2016 Ansbach bombing||A 27-year-old Syrian refugee detonated a bomb at a wine bar after being denied entry to a nearby music festival, killing himself and wounding 15 civilians. Authorities found a recorded video message on the attacker's phone, pledging his allegiance to ISIL. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism. The Ansbach bombing was the first suicide bombing in Germany by Islamist terrorists.||0 (1 attacker)||15|
|26 July 2016||Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, France||2016 Normandy church attack||Two assailants took hostages at a church, killing a priest and seriously wounding another man. The attackers were killed by French Special Forces. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||1 (+2 attackers)||3|
|6 August 2016||Charleroi, Belgium||2016 stabbing of Charleroi police officers||Two policewomen were attacked by an attacker wielding a machete and shouting "Allahu Akbar". The assailant was shot and killed by a third officer. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0 (1 attacker)||2|
|17 August 2016||Moscow Oblast, Russia||2016 Shchelkovo Highway police station attack||Two men with firearms and axes attacked the police station on the Shchelkovo Highway near Moscow. Two traffic police officers were seriously wounded, one fatally. The attackers, natives of the Chechen Republic, were killed by police during the attack. ISIL claimed responsibility. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||1 (+2 attackers)||1|
|5 October 2016||Brussels, Belgium||2016 stabbing of Brussels police officers||Three police officers were attacked by a man wielding a machete in the Schaerbeek neighborhood of Brussels. Two of them suffered stab wounds, while the third was physically assaulted but otherwise uninjured. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||3 (+1 attacker)|
|19 December 2016||Berlin, Germany||2016 Berlin attack||Twelve people died and 56 others were injured after a truck was driven into a Christmas market in Berlin. Days later, having fled to Italy, the attacker shot an Italian police officer doing a routine check, before being killed by police. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||12||56|
In 2017, a total of 62 people were killed in ten completed jihadist attacks in the European Union, according to Europol figures. The number of attempted jihadist attacks reached 33 in 2017, double that of the previous year. Most of the deaths were in the UK (35), Spain (16), Sweden (5) and France (3). In addition to those killed, a total of 819 people were injured in 14 attacks. The pattern of jihadist attacks in 2017 led Europol to conclude that terrorists preferred to attack ordinary people rather than causing property damage or loss of capital.
According to Europol's annual report on terrorism in the European Union, the jihadist attacks in 2017 had three patterns: indiscriminate killings (London attacks in March and June and Barcelona attacks), attacks on Western lifestyle (the Manchester bombing in May 2017), and attacks on symbols of authority (Paris attacks in February, June and August). The agency's report also noted that jihadist attacks had caused more deaths and casualties than any other type of terrorist attack, that such attacks had become more frequent, and that there had been a decrease in the sophistication and preparation of the attacks.
In 2017, a total of 705 individuals were arrested in 18 EU Member states, 373 of those in France. Most arrests were on suspicion of membership in a terrorist organisation (354), suspicion of planning (120), or of preparing (112) a terrorist attack.
|1 January 2017||Istanbul, Turkey||2017 Istanbul nightclub shooting||A mass shooting occurred at a nightclub in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on 1 January 2017. The attack occurred at about 01:15 FET (UTC+3) at the Reina nightclub in Ortaköy, where hundreds of people were celebrating the New Year. At least 39 people were killed and at least 70 were injured in the incident. The gunman was arrested in the city on 17 January 2017, and ISIL claimed credit for his actions.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||39||70|
|22 March 2017||London, United Kingdom||2017 Westminster attack||A 52-year-old Muslim convert drove a car into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge, injuring 50 people, five of them fatally. He then crashed his car into the fence of the Palace of Westminster and fatally stabbed an unarmed policeman before being shot dead by other officers. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||5 (+1 attacker)||50|
|3 April 2017||Saint Petersburg, Russia||2017 Saint Petersburg Metro bombing||A suicide bomber blew himself up on the St Petersburg Metro, on the day Vladimir Putin was due to visit the city. Sixteen people were killed, including the bomber, and 64 others were injured. Imam Shamil Battalion, an Al-Qaeda affiliate, claimed responsibility, but according to the FSB, attacker acted on the orders of a field commander from ISIL. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||15 (+1 attacker)||64|
|7 April 2017||Stockholm, Sweden||2017 Stockholm attack||A hijacked truck was driven into pedestrians along a shopping street before crashing into a department store. Five people were killed and 14 others wounded. Police said the attacker, an Uzbek immigrant, had shown sympathies for extremist organizations including ISIL. He was sentenced to life in prison and lifetime expulsion from Sweden in June 2018. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||5||14|
|20 April 2017||Paris, France||April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack||Three police officers and a bystander were shot by an attacker wielding an AK-47 rifle on the Champs-Élysées, a shopping boulevard in Paris. The attacker was shot dead during the incident. He had a note defending ISIL, and had previously attempted to communicate with ISIL fighters in Iraq and Syria. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||1 (+ 1 attacker)||3|
|22 May 2017||Manchester, United Kingdom||Manchester Arena bombing||A suicide bombing was carried out at Manchester Arena after a concert by American singer Ariana Grande, killing 22 civilians. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||22 (+1 attacker)||512|
|3 June 2017||London, United Kingdom||2017 London Bridge attack||A van ran into pedestrians on London Bridge and then drove to Borough Market, where the three occupants attacked people with knives before being shot by police. Eight people were killed and 48 were injured. The injured included four unarmed police officers. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||8 (+3 attackers)||48|
|6 June 2017||Paris, France||2017 Notre Dame attack||An Algerian PhD student, who prosecutors allege had pledged allegiance to ISIL in a video, was arrested for using a hammer to attack an officer guarding Notre Dame de Paris. Knives were later found in his rucksack.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||1 (+1 attacker)|
|19 June 2017||Paris, France||June 2017 Champs-Élysées car ramming attack||A car loaded with guns and explosives was rammed into a Gendarmerie vehicle on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, France. The attacker was shot and killed by police. He had pledged his allegiance to ISIL and stated the attack should be treated as a "martyrdom operation." Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0 (+ 1 attacker)||0|
|20 June 2017||Brussels, Belgium||June 2017 Brussels attack||A Moroccan immigrant ran into the Brussels Central Station where he detonated a small bomb which caused no injuries. The perpetrator then ran towards soldiers in another part of the station, and was shot and killed. The attack failed. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0 (+1 attacker)||0|
|28 July 2017||Hamburg, Germany||2017 Hamburg attack||A man stabbed with a 20 cm-long kitchen knife seven civilians: one was killed and the other six were injured. In March 2018, he was sentenced to life in prison. The attacker said that "he would die as a martyr" and that "his aim was to kill as many Germans as possible to avenge Muslim suffering worldwide". Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||1||6 (+1 attacker)|
|9 August 2017||Levallois-Perret, France||Levallois-Perret attack||A car rammed into a group of around dozen soldiers taking part in Opération Sentinelle, injuring six. The prosecutor said the suspect had showed interest in ISIL.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||6 (+1 attacker)|
|17 August 2017||Barcelona, Spain||2017 Barcelona attacks||A van was driven into pedestrians in Las Ramblas, Barcelona, killing 14 and injuring at least 130. Two suspects then fled on foot, stabbing another civilian to death in the process. A woman and five attackers were killed in a related attack in Cambrils when a car tried to run into pedestrians and attackers stabbed people. Two suspects were killed in an initial accidental explosion during the preparation of explosives that were to be used in the attack in Alcanar. 16 were injured when another bomb accidentally exploded during the excavation of the site. ISIL claimed responsibility for the Ramblas attack. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||16 (+8 attackers)||152|
|18 August 2017||Turku, Finland||2017 Turku stabbing||Two civilians were killed and eight others where injured by a man inspired by ISIL. The attacker said during interrogation that he started having an interest in ISIL propaganda three months prior to the attack. Police believed he acted alone and there was no evidence of contact with any terrorist organization. The attacker possessed ISIL photos and videos on his mobile phone and his computer. He said a motive for his attack was airstrikes by the Western Coalition during the 2017 Battle of Raqqa in Syria. According to the NBI, his vision was that he would die in the attack as a martyr.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||2||8 (+1 attacker)|
|15 September 2017||London, United Kingdom||Parsons Green bombing||A botched bomb containing TATP exploded on a District line train at Parsons Green tube station, with thirty people treated for injuries. The main suspect arrested was an 18-year old Iraqi refugee.[needs update] Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||0||30|
|1 October 2017||Marseille, France||Marseille stabbing||Two women, 20 and 21-year-old cousins, were attacked by an illegal immigrant from Tunisia using a knife. Patrolling soldiers shot him dead at the scene. French police were cautious as to whether it was a terrorist attack. ISIL later claimed responsibility, a claim which French intelligence services described as "opportunistic". The prosecutor opened an investigation for "murder in connection with a terrorist enterprise". Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||2 (+1 attacker)||0|
|23 March 2018||Carcassone and Trèbes, France||Carcassonne and Trèbes attack||A 26-year-old who pledged allegiance to ISIL made an attack in the French towns of Carcassonne and Trèbes: he attacked and stole a car, killing a passenger and wounding the driver, in Carcassonne. Later he arrived in Trèbes where a police officer was injured when he was shot by the attacker. Then, he attacked a supermarket, where two civilians were killed and several others were injured. The attacker was later killed by the police. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||4 (+1 attacker)||15|
|12 May 2018||Paris, France||2018 Paris knife attack||A 21-year-old Franco-Chechen man stabbed one pedestrian to death and injured four others in Paris, France. The attacker was later killed by police. The suspect had been on a counter-terrorism watchlist since 2016. Amaq News Agency posted a video of a hooded figure pledging allegiance to ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Amaq claimed this figure was the attacker. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||1 (+1 attacker)||4|
|29 May 2018||Liège, Belgium||2018 Liège attack||A man on temporary leave from prison stabbed and then shot two police officers, killing them. He then shot dead a civilian. The gunman took a woman hostage and wounded four others before he was killed by police. He is also believed to have killed a man the day before the attack. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.||4 (+1 attacker)||4|
This is a list of plots which have been classified as terrorism by a law enforcement agency and/or for which at least one person has been convicted of one or more terrorist crimes.
|Article||clarification needed (see talk)][||Location||Details|
|February 2014||France||A 23-year-old man was arrested by the French Police in February 2014 on suspicion of planning a bombing. Perpetrators[who?] were convicted[vague] in 2017 and given long prison sentences.[need quotation to verify]|
|2014 Norway terror threat||24–31 July 2014||Norway||The Norwegian Police Security Service said on 24 July 2014 that there was an imminent threat of an attack by people linked to Islamists in Syria. Security measures were introduced for a week until the threat was deemed reduced.|
|October 2014||London, United Kingdom||A man of Moroccan origin was arrested in October 2014, North Kensington. On 24 March 2016 he and his childhood friend were convicted at the Old Bailey of conspiracy to murder and preparation of acts of terrorism. The pair had planned to carry out shootings of police, soldiers and civilians. A further two suspects were cleared of terrorism charges but convicted for supplying a gun.|
|17 November 2015||Hannover, Germany||A football friendly between Germany and the Netherlands and labelled a "symbol of freedom" in the aftermath of the Paris attacks was cancelled and the spectators evacuated shortly before the match, due to a bomb threat. A German newspaper later claimed that a French intelligence dossier, detailing plans to carry out five bombings, had prompted the Germans to order the evacuation.|
|26 March 2016||Birmingham, United Kingdom||A man was arrested on 26 March 2016 by MI5 when a handgun, a pipe bomb and a cleaver inscribed with the word "kafir" (English: unbeliever) was found in his car. His neighbour in the Sparkhill area was arrested as were two others. A sword was found in one of the men's car. Two of them had previously been arrested and jailed in 2013 for going to an al-Qaeda training camp in Pakistan. All four were convicted of preparation of an act of terrorism in August 2017.|
|2016 Düsseldorf terrorism plot||2 June 2016||Düsseldorf, Germany||Four migrants were arrested on suspicions of being part of a cell of up to ten ISIL terrorists from Syria who had planned to launch attacks in Düsseldorf similar to the November 2015 Paris attack.[needs update] Europol classified the plot as jihadist terrorism.|
|2016 Balkans terrorism plot||17 November 2016||Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania||18 people were arrested over ten days across Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania, after a suspected plot to attack the Israeli national football team and Israeli supporters during an Albania-Israel match.[needs update] Kosovo police said the attack was planned by Islamic terrorists.|
|27 April 2017||London, United Kingdom||A man armed with knives was arrested on 27 April 2017 near Parliament Square in London. He was found to have planned a knife attack. He declared himself to investigators to be an Islamic warrior (mujahid) and that he was engaged in jihad. In July 2018, he was sentenced to 25 years in prison for preparing terrorist acts in Britain and a minimum of 40 years for previously having made explosives for the Taliban in Afghanistan.|
|May 2017||London, United Kingdom||A group of men who were arrested on 17 May 2017 were convicted in March 2018 of a planning a terrorist attack using children. The ringleader was jailed for life with a minimum 25-year sentence for two counts of preparation of terrorist acts. A further two men also received jail sentences for complicity.|
|2017||London, United Kingdom||Four women were arrested in 2017 for planning attacks, including one on the British Museum. In 2018 they were convicted on terrorist charges, with one of the women becoming the youngest female terrorist linked to the Islamic State. Three of the four were found guilty of involvement in planning attacks, while the fourth was found guilty of failing to disclose information about the plots.|
Response to terrorism
|Arrests for suspicion of jihadist-related terrorist offences|
in the European Union 2009[relevant? ]-2017
| 2017. 2018|
According to Europol, the number of people arrested on suspicion of jihadist-related terrorist offences in the European Union increased from 395 in 2014 to 687 in 2015.
In 2015, most arrests were made in France (377), followed by Spain (75) and Belgium (60); statistics for the United Kingdom were not available. During 2015, jihadist terrorism related verdicts were 198 out of a total of 527 terrorism related verdicts. The average sentence for jihadist terrorism increased from 4 years in 2014 to 6 years. In Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Sweden, all terrorism verdicts concerned jihadist terrorism.
In 2016, a total of 718 people were arrested on suspicion of jihadist-related terrorist offences in the European Union. During 2016, 358 verdicts on jihadi terrorism were delivered by courts in the EU, the vast majority of all terrorism verdicts. Belgium had the highest number of such verdicts at 138. All terrorism verdicts in Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Portugal and Sweden related to jihadist terrorism. Of those convicted for jihadist terrorist offences, 22 were women, such offences were punished with an average sentence of 5 years in prison.
In 2017, the total number of arrests was 705. During 2017, 352 verdicts on jihadi terrorism were delivered by courts in the EU, this was the vast majority of all terrorist convictions (569). The average sentence remained at 5 years in prison. The country with the highest number of jihadist convictions was France with 114.
A number of European countries—Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom—made legal changes which enable deprivation of citizenship of individuals engaged in terrorism who have dual citizenship.
|Opération Sentinelle||12 January 2015 - ongoing||France|
|2015 anti-terrorism operations in Belgium||15 January 2015||Verviers, Belgium|
|Operation Ruben||6–7 May 2015||Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|2015 Saint-Denis raid||17–18 November 2015||Saint-Denis, France|
|2016 Brussels police raids||15–18 March 2016||Brussels, Belgium|
|2016 Balkans terrorism plot||4–16 November 2016||Kosovo, Macedonia, Albania|
|2017 St. Petersburg raid||13–14 December 2017||Saint Petersburg, Russia|
- List of Islamist terrorist attacks
- Islam and violence
- List of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL
- Stabbing as a terrorist tactic
- Vehicle-ramming attack
- failed, foiled, and completed
- not including attackers
- "EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat)". Europol. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
- Hussey, Andrew (30 July 2016). "France church attack: Even if you are not a Catholic, this feels like a new and deeper wound". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "Religiösa hatpredikanter styr islamistisk terror i Europa". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
Av de inblandade individerna i terrordåden går det, av polisens och åklagarnas utredningar att döma, att koppla minst två tredjedelar, 44 av 68, till någon eller några religiösa ledare. Det visar rapporter från Europol, amerikanska UD, och analyser i internationella medier. [Of the individuals involved in the terror attacks it is possible, according to the police's and prosecutors' investigations, to link at least two thirds, 44 out of 68, to one or several religious leaders. This is shown by reports from Europol, the American DOS, and analyses in international media.]
- "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 22–28, 33–35, 52. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95200-79-1.
- "Huge scale of terror threat revealed: UK home to 23,000 jihadists". The Times. 27 May 2017.
- Archetti, Cristina (2012-10-29). Understanding Terrorism in the Age of Global Media: A Communication Approach. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 103. ISBN 9780230360495.
The London think tank, International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR) [...]
- "Criminal Pasts, Terrorist Futures: European Jihadists and the New Crime-Terror Nexus / ICSR". The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence. 2016-10-11. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
- "Brussels Jewish Museum killings Suspect 'admitted attack'". BBC. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Pourquoi Mehdi Nemmouche est le principal suspect de la tuerie de Bruxelles". Le Monde.fr (in French). 2014-06-01. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
"Assassination attempt linked to a terrorist attempt" (« Tentative d'assassinat en lien avec une entreprise terroriste »); "In suspect's luggage, policemen have also found a video of 40 seconds including ISIS flag" ("Dans les bagages du suspect, les policiers ont aussi trouvé une vidéo d'une quarantaine de secondes, comportant le drapeau de l'Etat islamique")
- "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2015". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 18–19. 2015. ISBN 978-92-95200-56-2.
- "French police shoot dead knifeman who was shouting Islamic slogans". The Daily Telegraph. 20 December 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Leveille, David (22 December 2014). "France endures deadly attacks". Public Radio International. Reuters (credited in; not copy of). Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2016". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 22–28, 47. 2016. ISBN 978-92-95200-68-5.
- "French security forces kill gunmen, end terror rampage". 9 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "French security forces kill gunmen to end terror rampage; 20 dead in 3 days of violence". 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Al Qaeda branch claims Charlie Hebdo attack was years in the making". CNN. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "A catalogue of terror in France". Yahoo News. AFP. 21 April 2017.
- "Danish police kill 22-year-old suspected of Copenhagen shootings". Reuters. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Barrett, David (23 August 2015). "Revealed: The mystery man who tackled AK-47 assault rifle from train gunman". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "France train shooting: Hollande thanks 'heroes' who foiled gunman". BBC. 22 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Bolton, Doug (17 September 2015). "Islamic extremist shot dead in Berlin after stabbing police officer". The Independent. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- Elgot, Jessica; Phipps, Claire; Bucks, Jonathan (14 November 2015). "Paris attacks: day after atrocity - as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Hall, John (12 January 2016). "Marseille machete attack: 15-year-old suspect claims he stabbed Jewish teacher 'in the name of Isis'". The Independent.
- Lilla, Mark (10 March 2016). "France: Is there a way out?". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "Turkey: 'IS suicide bomber' kills 10 in Istanbul Sultanahmet district". BBC news. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Police identifies Istanbul bomber as ISIL member - CRIME". Hürriyet Daily News - LEADING NEWS SOURCE FOR TURKEY AND THE REGION. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Bombing killed 31 people in Brussels". BBC News. 22 March 2016.
- The Straits Times, World (2 July 2016). "Toll rises to 45 as child dies". Straitstimes.com. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- AP, The Big Story (30 June 2016). "Turkish authorities identify suicide bombers". Bigstory.ap.org. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- "France Says Truck Attacker Was Tunisia Native With Record of Petty Crime". 16 July 2016 – via The New York Times.
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