Islamic view of angels

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An angel according to Islamic arts from a Persian miniature from the 16th century

Belief in Angels (Arabic: ملائكةmalāʾikah; singular: ملاك or مَلَكْ malāk) is one of the six Articles of Faith in Islam. They are regarded as celestial beings who perform different tasks of God, the imagination of angels in Islam developed from the Quran and was influenced by pre-Islamic religions like Judaism, Zoroastrianism and probably even some gnostic beliefs,[1][2] expanded by tafsir (exegesis) and the hadith literature.[3]

Concept of angels[edit]

Angels take the role of intermediaries performing different tasks of God, they are often associated with abstract concepts,[4] specific phenomena, carrying the laws of nature[5] and can also appear personified.[6] Due to hadith tradition, angels are generally said to be created out of light, although several traditions assume exceptions including angels created from fire or ice[7], for example, based on a tradition from Ibn Abbas, Azazil was an angel created from fire or even from a whole tribe of angels, created from fire.[8] Some scholars like Al-Baydawi explained, fire and light are akin, thus it both delineate a luminous origin of angels.[9] Others suggested a distinction between the angels of mercy, created from light and angels of punishment, created from fire.[10]

Unlike humans or jinn, they have no biological needs and therefore no lower desires predicted by the natural world. Angels in Islam are believed to be able to take human form, this is known in the Quran and Hadith literature where Jibrail came in human form to announce to Mary, mother of Jesus, and to Muhammad about reciting the message that is the divine will of God, known to Muslims as the Quran.[11] They may be described as creatures of pure emotion,[12] it has been said that angels lack free will and some scholars stated based on Sura 66:6 of the Quran, they strictly obey God's commands; while others debate the extent of free will which angels have, not as beings of endowed with human reason, but as beings who may err, and if they are endowed with free will they are not subject to temptation. The implications of a well-known hadith concern an argument that took place between the angels of Mercy and the angels of Punishment about what to do with a notorious murderer who repented of his crimes but died before reaching a pre-destination that would have ensured his forgiveness, this is narrated in Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, book 56.[13] This can be seen in Islamic scholarly analysis which suggests the decision-making framework of angels is different from that of mankind, as their souls are composed of light rather than mud-like clay.[14]

The astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.[15]

Individual angels[edit]

Islam has no standard hierarchical organization that parallels the division into different "choirs" or spheres, as hypothesized and drafted by early medieval Christian theologians, but does distinguish between archangels and angels. Angels are not equal in status and consequently, they are delegated different tasks to perform.

Archangels[edit]

  • Jibra'il/Jibril/Jabril (Judeo-Christian, Gabriel),[16] the angel of revelation. Jibra'il is the archangel responsible for revealing the Quran to Muhammad, verse by verse. Jibrail is the angel who communicates with (all of) the prophets and also for coming down with the blessings of Allah during the night of Laylat al-Qadr ("The Night of Divine Destiny (Fate)").
  • Mikail (Judeo-Christian, Michael),[17] who provides nourishments for bodies and souls.[18] Mikail is often depicted as the archangel of mercy who is responsible for bringing rain and thunder to Earth.[19]
  • Israfil or Israafiyl (Judeo-Christian, Raphael), is an archangel in Islam who will blow the trumpet at the end of time. According to the hadith, Israfil is the angel responsible for signaling the coming of Qiyamah (Judgment Day) by blowing a horn.
  • 'Azrael/'Azraaiyl/Azrail also known as Malak al-maut (Judeo-Christian, Azrael), is the angel of death. He is responsible for parting the soul from the body of the deads.[20]

Other angels and angel groups[edit]

  • The angels of the Seven Heavens.
  • Hafaza, (The Guardian Angel):
    • Kiraman Katibin (Honourable Recorders),[21] two of whom are charged to every human being; one writes down good deeds and another one writes down evil deeds. They are both described as 'Raqeebun 'Ateed' in the Qur'an.
    • Mu'aqqibat (The Protectors)[22] who keep people from death until its decreed time and who bring down blessings.
  • Jundullah, those who helped Muhammad in the battlefield .
  • Those who draw out the souls of the blessed,[23]
  • Those angels who distribute (provisions, rain, and other blessings) by (God's) Command.[24]
  • Those angels who drive the clouds.[25]
  • Hamalat al-'Arsh, those who carry the 'Arsh (Throne of God),[26] comparable to the Christian Seraph
  • Those that give the spirit to the foetus in the womb and are charged with four commands: to write down his provision, his life-span, his actions, and whether he will be wretched or happy.[27]
  • The Angel of the Mountains[28]
  • Artiya'il, the angel who removes grief and depression from the children of Adam.[29]
  • Munkar and Nakir, who question the dead in their graves.[22]
  • Darda'il (The Journeyers), who travel in the earth searching out assemblies where people remember God's name.[30]
  • The angels charged with each existent thing, maintaining order and warding off corruption. Their number is known only to God.[31]
  • Ridwan, the keeper of the Paradise.
  • Maalik is the chief of the angels who govern Jahannam (Hell)

Disputed angels[edit]

The figures mentioned in the following are accoding to some traditions not actual angels but rather, demons, jinn, saints or kings, their affiliation as angels are not universally accepted among Islamic belief.

  • Zabaniah are 19 angels who torment sinful persons in hell
  • Harut and Marut, fallen angels, who taught the humans in babylon, magic.[32]
  • Azazil, a former archangel,[33] hold to be Iblis' name before his fall. Once given authority over the lower heavens and was it's keeper. Also hold to be responsible for separation in the universe and the instrument of divine anger.[34]
  • Iblis, leader of demons.
  • Khidr, sometimes regarded as an angel, which took human form, thus he can reveal hidden knowledge exceeding those of prophets to guide and help people or prophets.[35]

Distinction between Angels and Jinn[edit]

In addition to the angels, Islam assumes the existence of other invisible creatures including Jinn. Besides they also belong to the supernatural creatures, they are distinguished from the angels, since they have some characteristics in common with humans and differ from the angels. Unlike angels, the Jinn are mortals and it is said, they also eat, drink, procreate, die and have desires.[36] Furthermore, the angels belong to the celestial realm, even they can travel to other realms, if their tasks requires it, while Jinn are assumed to live either next to humans on earth or in an intermediary realm,[37] because both angels and jinn are invisible, some scholars hold, both angels and jinn are jinn, but not every jinn is an angel.[38]

According to a tradition derived from a hadith from Sahih Muslim, jinn and angels are created from different substances:

A'isha reported that Allah's Messenger said: The Angels were born out of light and the Jinns were born out of the spark of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined (in the Qur'an) for you (i. e. he is fashioned out of clay)

— Muslim 2996, also, #Sahih Muslim Vol-7, Book of Zuhd & softening of hearts, Hadeeth 7134

Some scholars like Zakariya al-Qazwini explained, the angels are created from the light of fire, the jinn from its blaze and the demons from smoke.[39]

Meaning of angels in mysticism[edit]

Sufism also notices angels as messengers between the divine and the human realms. But additionally, angels are viewed as the original state of a soul, before it touches the earthly plane, those who stay in heaven, remain as angels. Angels rank lower than humans, because they are, as already flawless and desireless beings, not capable to love God like humans do.[40] Then humans die, they can return to the heavenly spheres with all deeds, experiences and thoughts accomplished on the earthen plane.[41][42] Furthermore, angels can inspire the Sufi, these angelic inspirations are also related to Khidr encounters.[43]

Iblis as teacher of Oneness[edit]

Despite the fact Iblis is also considered as an adversary to humans spiritual development, in some Sufi traditions from Al Hallaj,[44] he represents a true monotheist and is regarded as a master of oneness. By accepting a penalty for disobience, he affirmed the oneness of God, erased the illusion of duality (good and evil) and represents a selfless believer and therefore a true lover of God.[45] Actually, the command, prostating before Adam, is considered to be a test of love, rather than a real command. Additionally Iblis as the devil, teaches evil among the earthly beings, so they learn to recognize good.[46]

Ibn Arabi cosmology[edit]

The sunni scholar and sufi mystic Ibn Arabi stated the angels are the first beings created and distinguished between angels of the corporeal and the incorporeal world, called Al-Ama (the cloud), there all of the creation will be created. In this place, angelic beings dwelled in the presence of God, but are unable to recognize each other or even themselves, until God elected one of them, to become the Higher Pen writing, everything God will create in the cosmos,[47][48] the angels in the corporeal world are more akin to the humans than in the majority Islamic view. Accordingly, angels are spirits blown into light, while humans are spirits blown into shape, and jinn spirits blown into wind [49](wind is referring to the hot air, discharged from the flame called marijin min nar, from which the jinn are created according to the Quran).[50] Humans are even superior to the angels, because angels can just follow straight lines, therefore they can function as forces of nature and perform specific tasks but are unable to know Gods names, attributes or to perceive God in different ways like humans can do.[51] Angels hesitated to bow before Adam, because they were unable to see the true nature of human, some angels erred in believing their way of perceiving God is the only way, and they become guilty of opposing Adam as a vice regent and fixing on one interpretation of God to the exclusion of others.[52][53]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jenny Rose Zoroastrianism: A Guide for the Perplexed Bloomsbury Publishing 2011 ISBN 978-1-441-12236-0 page66
  2. ^ Christian Lange Paradise and Hell in Islamic Traditions Cambridge University Press 2015 ISBN 978-1-316-41205-3 page 65
  3. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 chapter 1.1
  4. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0
  5. ^ J. I. Laliwala Islamic Philosophy of Religion: Synthesis of Science Religion and Philosophy Sarup & Sons 2005 ISBN 978-8-176-25476-2 page 28
  6. ^ J. I. Laliwala Islamic Philosophy of Religion: Synthesis of Science Religion and Philosophy Sarup & Sons 2005 ISBN 978-8-176-25476-2 page 28
  7. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0
  8. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-815-65070-6 page 46
  9. ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Band 5 BRILL 1993 ISBN 978-9-004-09791-9 page 191
  10. ^ Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb The Encyclopaedia of Islam: NED-SAM Brill 1995 page 94
  11. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/angels-in-islam-2004030
  12. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/angels-in-islam-2004030
  13. ^ http://www.islamawareness.net/Children/story22.html
  14. ^ https://www.al-islam.org/faith-and-reason-ayatullah-mahdi-hadavi-tehrani/question-16-angels-and-free-will
  15. ^ Guessoum. Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. 
  16. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 chapter 3
  17. ^ Quran 2:98
  18. ^ Ruzbeh N Bharucha The Perfect Ones Penguin UK 2015 ISBN 978-9-352-14013-8
  19. ^ Matthew L.N. Wilkinson A Fresh Look at Islam in a Multi-Faith World: A Philosophy for Success Through Education Routledge 2014 ISBN 978-1-317-59598-4 page 106
  20. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo Encyclopedia of Islam Infobase Publishing, 2009 ISBN 978-1-438-12696-8 page 42
  21. ^ Quran 82:11
  22. ^ a b Quran 13:10–11
  23. ^ Quran 79:2
  24. ^ Quran 51:4
  25. ^ Quran 37:2
  26. ^ Quran 40:7
  27. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:6:315
  28. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:54:454
  29. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0
  30. ^ Darda'il on Dinul-islam.org
  31. ^ The Vision of Islam by Sachiko Murata & William Chittick pg 86-87
  32. ^ Hussein Abdul-Raof Theological Approaches to Qur'anic Exegesis: A Practical Comparative-Contrastive Analysis Routledge 2012 ISBN 978-1-136-45991-7 page 155
  33. ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936 BRILL 1987 ISBN 978-9-004-08265-6 page 351
  34. ^ Eric Geoffroy Introduction to Sufism: The Inner Path of Islam World Wisdom 2010 ISBN 978-1-935-49310-5 page 150
  35. ^ Brannon Wheeler Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis A&C Black 2002 ISBN 978-0-826-44956-6 page 225
  36. ^ "The difference between angels, Jinns and devils". islamweb. 
  37. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 50
  38. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-710-31356-0 page 302
  39. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr Islamic Life and Thought Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-134-53818-8 page 135
  40. ^ John Renard The A to Z of Sufism Scarecrow Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-810-86343-9 page 33
  41. ^ Karin Jironet The Image of Spiritual Liberty in the Western Sufi Movement Following Hazrat Inayat Khan Peeters Publishers 2002 ISBN 978-9-042-91205-2 page 36
  42. ^ H.J. Witteveen The Heart of Sufism Shambhala Publications ISBN 978-0-834-82874-2 chapter 4
  43. ^ Noel Cobb Archetypal Imagination: Glimpses of the Gods in Life and Art SteinerBooks ISBN 978-0-940-26247-8 page 194
  44. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis A&C Black, 18.06.2002 page 16 ISBN 978-0-826-44957-3
  45. ^ Annemarie Schimmel Mystical Dimension of Islam Noura Books 2013 ISBN 978-9-794-33797-4 page 195
  46. ^ John Ryan Haule Tantra & Erotic Trance: Volume One - Outer WorkFisher King Press, 2012 page 160 ISBN 978-0-977-60768-6
  47. ^ Mohamed Haj Yousef The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos: Ibn Arabi's Concept of Time and Creation ibnalarabi 2014 ISBN 978-1-499-77984-4 page 29, 291
  48. ^ Associate Professor of Religion Kecia Ali, Kecia Ali, Oliver Leaman Islam: The Key Concepts Routledge 2007 ISBN 978-1-134-15551-4 page 8
  49. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-815-65070-6 page 47
  50. ^ Moiz Ansari Islam And the Paranormal: What Does Islam Says About the Supernatural in the Light of Qur'an, Sunnah And Hadith iUniverse 2006 ISBN 978-0-595-37885-2 page 55
  51. ^ Mohamed Haj Yousef The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos: Ibn Arabi's Concept of Time and Creation ibnalarabi 2014 ISBN 978-1-499-77984-4 page 292
  52. ^ Sa'diyya Shaikh Sufi Narratives of Intimacy: Ibn Arabi, Gender, and Sexuality Univ of North Carolina Press 2012 ISBN 978-0-807-83533-3 page 114
  53. ^ Christian Krokus The Theology of Louis Massignon CUA Press 2017 ISBN 978-0-813-22946-1 page 89