Ma'alim fi al-Tariq Ma'alim fi'l-tareeq, or Milestones, first published in 1964, is a short book by Egyptian Islamist author Sayyid Qutb in which he lays out a plan and makes a call to action to re-create the Muslim world on Quranic grounds, casting off what Qutb calls Jahiliyyah. Ma'alim fi al-Tariq has been called "one of the most influential works in Arabic of the last half century", it is Qutb's most famous and influential work and one of the most influential Islamist tracts written. It has become a manifesto for the ideology of "Qutbism". Commentators have both praised Milestones as a ground-breaking, inspirational work by a hero and a martyr, reviled it as a prime example of unreasoning entitlement, self-pity and hatred, a major influence on Islamist terrorism. English translations of the book are entitled "Milestones"; the title Ma'alim fi al-Tariq translates into English as "Milestones Along the Way", "Signposts on the Road", or different combinations thereof. Ma'alim fi al-Tariq marked the culmination of Qutb's evolution from modernist author and critic, to Islamist activist and writer, to Islamist revolutionary and theoretician.
It was written in prison, where Qutb spent 10 years under charges of political conspiracy against Egypt's Nasser regime, first published in 1964. Four of its thirteen chapters were written for Qutb's voluminous Quranic commentary, Fi Zilal al-Qur'an. Less than a year after its publication, Qutb was again arrested and brought to trial in Egypt under charges of conspiring against the state. Excerpts from the book were used to incriminate Qutb and he was found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in 1966, his death elevated his status to martyr in the eyes of many Muslims. Milestones became a bestseller and distributed across the Arab speaking world. To date, close to 2,000 editions of the work are said to have been published. In his book, Qutb seeks to set out "milestones" or guiding markers along a road that will lead to the revival of Islam from its current "extinction." According to Qutb, the Muslim community has been "extinct for a few centuries" and reverted to Jahiliyyah because those who call themselves Muslims have failed to follow "the laws of God" or Sharia, traditional Islamic law.
Following the sharia is not just important but a defining attribute of Muslims, more necessary than belief itself, because "according to the Shari'ah,'to obey' is'to worship'." This means Muslims must not only refrain from worshiping anything other than God, they must not obey anything other than God: "anyone who serves someone other than God"—be that someone a priest, president, a parliament, or a legal statute of a secular state— is "outside God's religion", although he may "claim to profess this religion". Qutb sees sharia as much more than a code of public laws, it is a "complete" way of life based on "submission to God alone," crowding out anything non-Islamic. Its rules range from "belief" to "administration and justice" to "principles of art and science." Being God's law, sharia is "as accurate and true as any of the laws known as the'laws of nature,'" such as gravity or electricity, part of the universal law "which governs the entire universe". The modern Muslim world has erred by approaching the Qur'an for the sake of "discussion and information" or "to solve some scientific or legal problem."
In fact it should be approached as a source of "instruction for obedience and action" to remove man from the servitude of other men and to the servitude of God. When of God's law is established on earth, it will lead to blessings falling on all mankind. Sharia is "the only guarantee" against "any kind of discord" in life, and will "automatically" bring "peace and cooperation" among individuals. Knowledge of the "secrets of nature, its hidden forces and the treasures concealed in the expanses of the universe," will be revealed "in an easy manner." The "harmony between human life and the universe" of sharia law will approach the perfection of heaven itself. Just as sharia is—in Qutb's view—all encompassing and all wonderful, whatever is non-Muslim is "evil and corrupt," and its existence anywhere intolerable to true Muslims. In preaching and promoting Islam, for example, it is important not to demean Islam by "searching for resemblances" between Islam and the "filth" and "the rubbish heap of the West."According to Qutb, to ignore this fact and attempt to introduce elements of socialism or nationalism into Islam or the Muslim community, is against Islam.
Qutb stresses that in the early days of Islam, Muhammad did not make appeals to ethnic or class loyalty. Though these crowd-pleasing appeals would have undoubtedly shortened the thirteen years of hardship Muhammad had to endure while calling unresponsive Arabs to Islam, "God did not lead His Prophet on this course.... This was not the way," and so must not be the way now. To restore Islam on earth and free Muslims from "jahili society, jahili concepts, jahili traditions and jahili leadership," Qutb preaches that a vanguard be formed modeling itself after the original Muslims, the companions of Muhammad. Qutb believes these Muslims vanquished Jahiliyyah principally in two ways: They cut themselves off from the Jahiliyyah—i.e. They ignored the learning and culture of non-Muslim groups, separated themselves from their old non-Muslim friends and
Muhammad Asad was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian, Pakistani Ambassador, Muslim journalist, writer, thinker, political theorist and Islamic scholar. Asad was one of the most influential European Muslims of the 20th century. By the age of thirteen, young Weiss had acquired a passing fluency in Hebrew and Aramaic, other than his native languages German and Polish. By his mid-twenties, he could read and write in English, French and Arabic. In Mandatory Palestine, Weiss engaged in arguments with Zionist leaders like Chaim Weizmann, voicing his reservations about some aspects of the Zionist Movement. After traveling across the Arab World as a journalist, he converted to Sunni Islam in 1926 and chose for himself the Muslim name "Muhammad Asad"—Asad being the Arabic rendition of his root name Leo. During his stay in Saudi Arabia, he spent time with Bedouins and enjoyed the close company of Ibn Saud—the founder of modern Saudi Arabia, he carried out a secret mission for Ibn Saud to trace the sources of funding for the Ikhwan Revolt.
Due to these activities, he was dubbed in a Haaretz article as "Leopold of Arabia"—hinting similarity of his activities to those of Lawrence of Arabia. On his visit to India, Asad became friends with Muslim poet-philosopher Muhammad Iqbal, who persuaded him to abandon his eastward travels and "help elucidate the intellectual premises of the future Islamic state", he spent five years in internment by the British Government at the outbreak of World War II. On 14 August 1947, Asad received Pakistani citizenship and served at several bureaucratic and diplomatic positions including the Director of Department of Islamic Reconstruction, Deputy Secretary in the Foreign Ministry of Pakistan and Pakistan's Envoy to the United Nations. In the West, Asad rose to prominence as a writer with his best-selling autobiography, The Road to Mecca. After seventeen years of scholarly research, he published his magnum opus: The Message of the Qur'an—an English translation and commentary of the Quran; the book, along with the translations of Pickthall and Yusuf Ali, is regarded as one of the most influential translations of the modern era.
An ardent proponent of Ijtihad and rationality in interpreting religious texts, he dedicated his works "to People who Think". In 2008, the entrance square to the UN Office in Vienna was named Muhammad Asad Platz in commemoration of his work as a "religious bridge-builder". Asad has been described by his biographers as "Europe's gift to Islam" and "a Mediator between Islam and the West". Leopold Weiss was born on 2 July 1900 to a Jewish family in Lemberg, Galicia part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Weiss was a descendant of a long line of Jewish rabbis. Leopold received a religious education and was proficient in Hebrew from an early age, as well as familiar with Aramaic, he studied the Jewish Bible or Tanakh, the text and commentaries of the Talmud, the Mishna and Gemara delving into the intricacies of Biblical exegesis and the Targum. At the age of fourteen he joined the Austrian army under a false name. After a week or so, his father traced him with the help of the police, he was escorted back to Vienna.
After abandoning university in Vienna, Weiss drifted aimlessly around 1920s Germany, working for the expressionist film director Fritz Lang. By his own account, after selling a jointly written film script, he splurged the windfall on a wild party at an expensive Berlin restaurant, in the spirit of the times. While working as a telephone operator for an American news agency in Berlin, Weiss obtained a coveted interview with Russian author Maxim Gorky's wife, his first published piece of journalism, after ringing up her hotel room. In 1922 Weiss moved to the British Mandate of Palestine, staying in Jerusalem at the house of his maternal uncle Dorian Feigenbaum at his invitation. Feigenbaum was a psychoanalyst, a disciple of Freud, founded the Psychoanalytic Quarterly, he picked up work as a stringer for the German newspaper Frankfurter Zeitung, one of the most prestigious newspapers of Germany and Europe, selling articles on a freelance basis. His pieces were noteworthy for their understanding of Arab fears and grievances against the Zionist project.
He published a small book on the subject in 1924, this so inspired the confidence of the Frankfurter Zeitung that it commissioned him to travel more still, to collect information for a full-scale book. Weiss made the trip. To gain closer assignments in the Arabic world, Weiss developed an ever-deepening engagement with Islam; this adopting an Arabic name, Muhammad Asad. Asad spoke of Islam: "Islam appears to me like a perfect work of architecture. All its parts are harmoniously conceived to support each other. Magazine Saudi Aramco World in a 2002 essay described his journey to conversion in these words: "Two roads diverged in Berlin in the 1920s: a well-worn one to the West, the other traveled, to the East. Leopold Weiss, a gifted young writer and linguist with a thorough knowledge of the Bible and the Talmud and with deep roots in European culture, took the road eastward to Makkah." After his conversion to Islam, Asad moved to Saudi Arabia making a journey by camel across the Arabian Desert, from Tayma to Mecca
Mohamed Morsi is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed Morsi from office in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after the June 2013 Egyptian protests. As president, Morsi issued a temporary constitutional declaration in late November that in effect granted him unlimited powers and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts as a pre-emptive move against the expected dissolution of the second constituent assembly by the Mubarak-era judges; the new constitution, hastily finalised by the Islamist-dominated constitutional assembly, presented to the president, scheduled for a referendum, before the Supreme Constitutional Court could rule on the constitutionality of the assembly, was described by independent press agencies not aligned with the regime as an "Islamist coup". These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, led to the 2012 Egyptian protests.
As part of a compromise, Morsi rescinded the decrees. In the referendum he held on the new constitution it was approved by two thirds of voters. On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, in which protesters called for the president's resignation. In response to the events, Morsi was given a 48-hour ultimatum by the military to meet their demands and to resolve political differences, or else they would intervene by "implementing their own road map" for the country, he was unseated on 3 July by a military coup council consisting of Defense Minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, the Grand Imam of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, Coptic Pope Tawadros II. The military suspended the constitution and appointed the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour as the interim-president; the Muslim Brotherhood protested against the military coup, but the pro-Morsi protests were crushed in the August 2013 Rabaa massacre in which at least 817 civilians were killed.
Opposition leader Elbaradei quit in protest of the massacre. Since his overthrow, Egyptian prosecutors have charged Morsi with various crimes and sought the death penalty, a move denounced by Amnesty International as "a charade based on null and void procedures." His death sentence was overturned in November 2016, so he will receive a retrial. However, Morsi is still imprisoned. Mohamed Morsi was born in the Sharqia Governorate, in northern Egypt, of modest provincial origin, in the village of El Adwah, north of Cairo, on 8 August 1951, his father was his mother a housewife. He is the eldest of five brothers, told journalists that he remembers being taken to school on the back of a donkey. In the late 1960s, he moved to Cairo to study at Cairo University, earned a BA in engineering with high honors in 1975, he fulfilled his military service in the Egyptian Army from 1975 to 1976, serving in the chemical warfare unit. He resumed his studies at Cairo University and earned an MS in metallurgical engineering in 1978.
After completing his master's degree, Morsi earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. He received a PhD in materials science from the University of Southern California in 1982 with his dissertation "High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity and Defect Structure of Donor-Doped Al2O3". While living in the United States, Morsi became an assistant professor at California State University, Northridge from 1982 to 1985. Morsi, an expert on precision metal surfaces worked with NASA in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines. In 1985, Morsi quit his job at CSUN and returned to Egypt, becoming a professor at Zagazig University, where he was appointed head of the engineering department. Morsi was a lecturer at Zagazig University's engineering department until 2010. Morsi was first elected to parliament in 2000, he served as a Member of Parliament from 2000 to 2005 as an independent candidate because the Brotherhood was technically barred from running candidates for office under Mubarak.
He was a member of the Guidance Office of the Muslim Brotherhood until the founding of the Freedom and Justice Party in 2011, at which point he was elected by the MB's Guidance Office to be the first president of the new party. While serving in this capacity in 2010, Morsi stated that "the two-state solution is nothing but a delusion concocted by the brutal usurper of the Palestinian lands."Morsi condemned the September 11 attacks as "horrific crime against innocent civilians". However, he accused the United States of using the 9/11 attacks as a pretext for invading Afghanistan and Iraq, claimed that the US had not provided "evidence" that the attackers were Muslims, he stated that the aircraft collision alone did not bring down the World Trade Center, suggesting something "happened from the inside." Such views are held including Egyptian liberals. His comments drew criticism in the United States. Morsi was arrested along with 24 other Muslim Brotherhood leaders on 28 January 2011, he escaped from prison in Cairo two days later.
The break of Wadi el-Natroun Prison received widespread news coverage within hours of its occurrence, with some reports indicating the political prisoners were sprung from detention by "armed gangs" taking advantage of the chaos of the Egyptian Revolution. Four years Morsi faced trial for his role in the prison break, he and 105 others were sentenced to death on 16 May 2015. The court of cassation overturned the death sentence on Morsi and five others and ordered retrials. After Khairat El-Shater was disqualified from
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death, he was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989. Khomeini was born in 1902 in what is now Iran's Markazi Province, his father was murdered in 1903. He began studying the Quran and the Persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother. Khomeini was a marja in Twelver Shia Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih and author of more than 40 books, but he is known for his political activities.
He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists; this principle, was appended to the new Iranian constitution after being put to a referendum. According to The New York Times, Khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution. Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be democratic is disputed, he was Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1979 for his international influence, Khomeini has been described as the "virtual face of Shia Islam in Western popular culture". In 1982, he survived one military coup attempt. Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis, his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and Soviet Union as the "Lesser Satan."
Khomeini has been criticized for human rights violations of Iranians. He has been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity", a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars, who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias, a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy. Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran and by his supporters internationally, he is referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others. In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehrān's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his adherents, he is considered "inviolable", with Iranians punished for insulting him. Ruhollah Khomeini's ancestors migrated towards the end of the 18th century from their original home in Nishapur, Khorasan Province, in northeastern part of Iran, for a short stay, to the kingdom of Awadh – a region in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh, India – whose rulers were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian origin.
During their rule they extensively invited, received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, jurists and painters. The family settled in the small town of Kintoor, near Lucknow, the capital of Awadh. Ayatollah Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi, was born in Kintoor, he left Lucknow in 1830, on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Imam Ali in Najaf, Ottoman Iraq and never returned. According to Moin, this migration was to escape from the spread of British power in India. In 1834 Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi visited Persia, in 1839 he settled in Khomein. Although he stayed and settled in Iran, he continued to be known as Hindi, indicating his stay in India, Ruhollah Khomeini used Hindi as a pen name in some of his ghazals. There are claims that Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi departed from Kashmir, instead of Lucknow. Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose first name means "spirit of Allah", was born on 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province, he was raised by his mother, Hajieh Agha Khanum, his aunt, following the murder of his father, Mustapha Musavi, five months after his birth in 1903.
Ruhollah began to study the Qur'an and elementary Persian at the age of six. The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned religion, noheh khani, other traditional subjects. Throughout his childhood, he continued his religious education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far, his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh. After World War I arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak, he was placed under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi. In 1920, Khomeini commenced his studies; the following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred to the Islamic seminary in the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. Khomeini's studies included Islamic law and jurisprudence, but by that time, Khomeini had acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy.
So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philos
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism. The term is broadly defined in the modern era to denote opposition to the political movement of Jews to self-determination within the territory of the historic Land of Israel. Anti-Zionism is defined as opposition to the State of Israel or, prior to 1948, its establishment; the term is used to describe various religious and political points of view, but their diversity of motivation and expression is sufficiently different that "anti-Zionism" cannot be seen as having a single ideology or source. There is a difference between how it is discussed philosophically and how it is enacted within a political or social campaign. Many notable Jewish and non-Jewish sources take the view that anti-Zionism has become a cover for modern-day antisemitism, a position that critics have challenged as a tactic to silence criticism of Israeli policies. Others, such as Steven M. Cohen, Brian Klug and Todd Gitlin, see no correlation between the two. Jewish anti-Zionism is as old as Zionism itself, enjoyed widespread support in the Jewish community until World War II.
The Jewish community is not a single united group and responses vary both among and within Jewish groups. One of the principal divisions is that between religious Jews; the reasons for secular opposition to the Zionist movement are different from those of religious Jews. Opposition to a Jewish state has changed over time and has taken on a diverse spectrum of religious and political positions; the legitimacy of anti-Zionist views has been disputed to the present day, including the more recent and disputed relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism. Other views regarding the various forms of anti-Zionism have been discussed and debated. There is a long tradition of Jewish anti-Zionism that has opposed the Zionist project from its origins; the Bundists, the Autonomists, Reform Judaism and the Agude regarded both the rationale and territorial ambitions of Zionism as flawed. Orthodox Judaism, which grounds civic responsibilities and patriotic feelings in religion, was opposed to Zionism because, though the two shared the same values, Zionism espoused nationalism in secular fashion, used "Zion", "Jerusalem", "Land of Israel", "redemption" and "ingathering of exiles" as literal rather than sacred terms, endeavouring to achieve them in this world.
Orthodox Jews opposed the creation of a Jewish state prior to the appearance of the messiah, as contradicting divine will. By contrast, reform Jews rejected Judaism as a national or ethnic identity, renounced any messianic expectations of the advent of a Jewish state. Hope for return to the land of Israel is embodied in the content of the Jewish religion. Aliyah, the Hebrew word meaning "ascending" or "going up", is the word used to describe religious Jewish return to Israel, has been used since ancient times. From the Middle Ages and onwards, many famous rabbis and their followers returned to the land of Israel; these have included Nahmanides, Yechiel of Paris, Isaac Luria, Yosef Karo, Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk among others. For Jews in the Diaspora Eretz Israel was revered in a religious sense, they prayed, thought of the return, as being fulfilled in a messianic age. Return remained a recurring theme for generations in Passover and Yom Kippur prayers, which traditionally concluded with, "Next year in Jerusalem", as well as the thrice-daily Amidah.
Following Jewish Enlightenment however, Reform Judaism dropped many traditional beliefs, including aliyah, as incompatible with modern life within the Diaspora. Zionism re-kindled the concept of aliyah in an ideological and political sense, parallel with traditional religious belief. Support for aliyah does not always equal immigration however, as a majority of the world Jewish population remains within the Diaspora. Support for the modern Zionist movement is not universal and, as a result, some religious Jews as well as some secular Jews do not support Zionism. Non-Zionist Jews are not anti-Zionists, although some are. However, Zionism does have the support of the majority of the Jewish religious organizations, with support from segments of the Orthodox movement, most of the Conservative, more the Reform movement. Many Hasidic rabbis oppose the creation of a Jewish state; the leader of the Satmar Hasidic group, Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum's book, VaYoel Moshe, published in 1958, expounds one Orthodox position on Zionism, based on a literal form of midrash.
Citing to Tractate Kesubos 111a of the Talmud Teitelbaum states that God and the Jewish people exchanged three oaths at the time of the Jews' exile from ancient Israel, forbidding the Jewish people from massively immigrating to the Land of Israel, from rebelling against the nations of the world. Prior to the Second World War many Jews regarded Zionism as a unrealistic movement. Many liberals during the European Enlightenment had argued that Jews should enjoy full equality only on the condition that they pledge their singular loyalty to their nation-state and assimilate to the local national culture; those liberal Jews who accepted integration and/or assimilation principles saw Zionism as a threat to efforts to facilitate Jewish citizenship and equality within the European nation-state context. The Jewish Anti-Zionist League, in Egypt, was a Communist-influenced anti-Zionist league in the years 1946–1947. In Israel, there are several Jewish anti-Zionist organisations an
Hizb ut-Tahrir is an international, pan-Islamist political organisation, which describes its ideology as Islam, its aim as the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah to resume the Islamic way of life in the Muslim world. The caliphate would unite the Muslim community upon their Islamic creed and implement the Shariah, so as to carry the proselytising of Islam to the rest of the world; the party was founded in 1953 as a political organisation in Jerusalem by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, an Islamic scholar and appeals court judge from Haifa. Since Hizb ut-Tahrir has spread to more than 50 countries, grown to a membership estimated to be between "tens of thousands" to "about one million". Hizb ut-Tahrir is very active in Western countries in the United Kingdom, in several Arab and Central Asian countries, despite being banned by a number of governments. Members meet in small private study circles, but in countries where the group is not illegal it engages with the media and organises rallies and conferences.
The basis of the party's ideological structure has been "meticulously thought out and published in many detailed books" that are available. Al-Nabhani developed a program and "draft constitution" for the caliphate, which would be run by a Caliph. Articles of the constitution detail canons fundamentally related to the economy, judiciary and more. Hizb ut-Tahrir has been banned in countries such as Germany, China, Egypt and all Arab countries except Lebanon and the UAE. In July 2017, the Indonesian government formally revoked Hizbut ut-Tahrir's charter, citing incompatibility with government regulations on extremism and national ideology. Hizb ut-Tahrir states its aim as unification of all Muslim countries over time in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, headed by a caliph elected by Muslims. This, it holds, is an obligation decreed by God, warning that he will punish those Muslims "who neglect this duty." Once established, the caliphate will expand into non-Muslim areas, through "invitation" and through military jihad, so as to expand the land of Islam" and diminish land of unbelief.
To "achieve its objective" HT seeks "to gain the leadership of the Islamic community" so that the community will "accept it as her leader, to implement Islam upon her and proceed with it in her struggle against the Kuffar and in the work towards the return of the Islamic State..."The nature of the "Islamic state"/caliphate/khilafah is spelled out in a detailed program and "draft constitution" which notes the caliphate being a unitary state, run by a caliph head of state elected by Muslims. Other specified features include: "The currency of the State is to be restricted to gold and silver"—article 163. Forbidden by the constitution are such things as copyrights on educational materials, military treaties, memberships by the state in secular international organizations. In addition to the constitution, "many detailed books" expand on the HT ideology and "method of work", according to its 2010 Information pack. Although hizb means party in Arabic, in the countries where Hizb ut-Tahrir is active it has not registered as a political party or attempted to elect candidates to political office, although it did early in its history.
Hizb ut-Tahrir put forward candidates for office in Jordan in the 1950s when it was first formed and before it was banned, according to Suha Taji-Farouki. Kyrgyz Hizb ut-Tahrir members campaigned unsuccessfully for an affiliated candidate in Kyrgyzstan's national presidential election in July 2005, have participated in municipal elections where their followers have won in a number of regions. One observer describes the strategy as "global, grassroots revolution, culminating in a sudden, millenarian victory", as opposed to a slog through a political process "that risks debasing the Koran and perpetuating the ummah’s subjugation to the West"; the party plans its political progress in three stages, taking after the process "by which the Prophet Muhammad established the Caliphate in thirteen years." According to an analyst of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Kazakhstan, where the group is outlawed: "First they convert new members. Secondly, they establish a network of secret cells, they try to infiltrate the government to work to legalize their party and its aims."
A more sympathetic description of this strategy is that Hizb ut-Tahrir works to: Establish group of elites as a community of Hizb ut-Tahrir members who carry the invitation to Muslim societies to support an Islamic state. Members should accept the goals and methods of the organization as their own and be ready to work to fulfill these goals. Build public opinion among the Muslim masses for the caliphate and the other Islamic concepts that will lead to a revival of Islamic thought. (This process of what the party calls "intellectual transformation through political and cultural interaction", attempts to imitate Muhmmad's using his core of supporters to win over the population of Mecca and Medina