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Island Caribs

The Island Caribs known as the Kalinago or Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They may have been related to the Mainland Caribs of South America, but they spoke an unrelated language known as Island Carib, they spoke a pidgin language associated with the Mainland Caribs. At the time of Spanish contact, the Kalinagos were one of the dominant groups in the Caribbean, which owes its name to them, they lived throughout northeastern South America and Tobago, the Windward Islands and the southern Leeward Islands. It was thought their ancestors were mainland Caribs who had conquered the islands from their previous inhabitants, the Igneri; however and archaeological evidence contradicts the notion of a mass emigration and conquest. Irving Rouse and others suggest that a smaller group of mainland Caribs conquered the islands without displacing their inhabitants adopting the local language but retaining their traditions of a South American origin. In the early colonial period, the Caribs had a reputation as warriors who raided neighboring islands.

According to the Spanish conquistadores, the Carib Indians were cannibals who ate roasted human flesh. There are debates as to; some claim there is evidence as to the taking of human trophies and the ritual cannibalism of war captives among both Carib and other Amerindian groups such as the Arawak and Tupinamba. Others argue Europeans misunderstood rituals, or falsely portrayed them to justify conquest and genocide. Today, the Caribs and their descendants continue to live in the Antilles, notably on the island of Dominica; the Garifuna or "Black Caribs", a group of mixed Carib and African ancestry live principally in Central America. The Caribs are believed to have migrated from the Orinoco River area in South America to settle in the Caribbean islands about 1200 AD, according to carbon dating. Over the two centuries leading up to Christopher Columbus' arrival in the Caribbean archipelago in 1492, the Caribs displaced the Maipurean-speaking Taínos by warfare and assimilation; the Taíno had settled the island chains earlier in history.

Caribs traded with the Eastern Taíno of the Caribbean Islands. The Caribs produced the silver products. None of the insular Amerindians obtained it by trade from the mainland; the Caribs were skilled boat sailors. They appeared to have owed their dominance in the Caribbean basin to their mastery of warfare. According to Floyd, "The question arose in Columbus's time whether Indians could be enslaved and Queen Isabel had ruled against it. At about the same time, Ojeda and other explorers voyaging along the Spanish Main had been attacked by Indians with poisoned arrows - all such Indians were considered Caribs - which took a considerable toll of Spanish lives; these attacks and the evidence some of the perpetrators, at least, were cannibals, provided the rationale for the decree authorizing enslavement of Caribs." On 3 June 1511, king Ferdinand declared war on the Caribs. Island Caribs mostly succeeded in keeping their islands unoccupied by Spaniards. In the 17th century, Island Caribs were displaced with a great loss of life by a new wave of European invaders: French and English.

Most fatalities resulted from Eurasian infectious diseases such as smallpox, which they had no natural immunity to, as well as warfare. In 1660, France and England signed with Island Caribs the Treaty of Saint Charles that stipulated that Caribs would evacuate all the Lesser Antilles except for Dominica and Saint Vincent, which were recognised as reserves. However, the English would ignore the treaty and ended up annexing both islands in 1763. To this date, a small population of around 3,000 Caribs survives in the Carib Territory in northeast Dominica. The'Black Caribs' of St. Vincent were descended from a group of enslaved Africans who were marooned from shipwrecks of slave ships, as well as slaves who escaped here. Chief Kairouane and his men from Grenada jumped off of the “Leapers Hill" rather than face slavery under the French invaders and have served as an iconic representation of the Caribs spirit of resistance, they formed the last native culture to resist the British. It was not until 1795 that British colonists deported the Black Caribs to Roatan Island, off Honduras.

Their descendants are known as the Garifuna ethnic group. Carib resistance delayed the settlement of Dominica by Europeans; the Black Carib communities that remained in St. Vincent and Dominica retained a degree of autonomy well into the 19th century; the Kalinago of Dominica maintained their independence for many years by taking advantage of the island's rugged terrain. The island's east coast includes a 3,700-acre territory known as the Carib Territory, granted to the people by the British Crown in 1903. There are only 3,000 Caribs remaining in Dominica, they elect their own chief. In July 2003, the Kalinago observed 100 Years of Territory. In July 2014, Charles Williams was elected Kalinago Chief. Several hundred Carib descendants live in the U. S. Virgin Islands, St. Kitts & Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and St. Vincent. "Black Caribs," the descendants of the mixture of Africans live in St. Vincent whose total population is unknown. Some

Wilcox County, Georgia

Wilcox County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,255; the county seat is Abbeville. Wilcox County was formed on December 22, 1857 from parts of Irwin and Dooly counties; the county was named for General Mark Wilcox, a Georgia state legislator and one of the founders of the Georgia Supreme Court. The first county courthouse was built in 1858. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 382 square miles, of which 378 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. The northern and eastern three-quarters of Wilcox County, from State Route 215 southeast to Rochelle due south, are located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin; the southwestern portion of the county, west of Rochelle, centered on Pitts, is located in the Alapaha River sub-basin of the Suwannee River basin. Pulaski County - north Dodge County - east Telfair County - east Ben Hill County - south Turner County - southwest Crisp County - west Dooly County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 8,577 people, 2,785 households, 1,977 families living in the county.

The population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 3,320 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 62.61% White, 36.21% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.43% from two or more races. 1.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,785 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.

For every 100 females there were 123.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 131.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,483, the median income for a family was $34,968. Males had a median income of $27,171 versus $20,366 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,014. About 16.80% of families and 21.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.80% of those under age 18 and 21.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,255 people, 2,891 households, 2,027 families living in the county; the population density was 24.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,510 housing units at an average density of 9.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.7% white, 35.1% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.6% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.1% were American, 10.1% were Irish, 9.2% were English, 6.1% were German.

Of the 2,891 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 39.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $30,784 and the median income for a family was $40,552. Males had a median income of $30,755 versus $26,641 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,692. About 18.4% of families and 25.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.6% of those under age 18 and 24.9% of those age 65 or over. The county is served by Wilcox County Schools; the district headquarters are in Abbeville while the schools, including Wilcox County High School, are in Rochelle. The Ocmulgee Wild Hog Festival takes place in Abbeville annually on the Saturday before Mother's Day. Abbeville Pitts Rochelle Pineview Seville Owensboro National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilcox County, Georgia Official Website of Wilcox County Wilcox County Schools Website

Flemming Quist Møller

Flemming Quist Møller is a Danish director, children's author, drummer and actor. As a director, he started with small experimental animation in collaboration with Jannik Hastrup, he has made contributions as a children's author, in a different ballgame, he was co-author of Anders Refn films such as Strømer, The Heritage and Black Harvest. Central to Quist Møller's sprawling work stands the cartoon Benny's Bathtub which he wrote the script for and directed together with Jannik Hastrup, it was selected by the Danish Ministry of Culture in 2006 as one of the ten most important Danish film ever. The film about a boy's colorful dream life in a modern apartment building is a musical satire of regimentation and an appeal to the playful imagination - characteristics include Quist Møller's work in many fields. In 1971 he and Hastrup received Danish Film Critics Association's Bodil Honorary Award for Benny's Bathtub; the charming Jungledyret Hugo, which he both wrote and co-directed, was so successful that there were two sequels: Jungle Animal 2 - the great film hero and Hugo the Movie Star: Cheeky and free.

The drawing style had become rounder, his tone more family friendly. Cykelmyggen og Dansemyggen is based in the same musical legend style upon Quist Møller's own children's books about Cykelmyggen Egon. Quist Møller is a percussionist in Bazaar with Anders Koppel. In 1994 Quist Møller received a Bodil Honorary Award for his total stake in Danish film. 1971 Danish Film Critics Association's Bodil Honorary Award for Benny's Bathtub 1994 Danish Film Critics Association's Bodil Honorary Award for lifetime achievements Flemming Quist Møller in the Danish Film Database Flemming Quist Møller on IMDb Flemming Quist Møller in the film database danskefilm.dk