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1. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

2. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US\$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US\$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange

3. Boroughs of New York City – New York City, in the U. S. state of New York, is composed of five county-level administrative entities called boroughs. They are Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, each borough is coextensive with a county of New York State. The county governments were dissolved when New York City consolidated in 1898, along all city, town. The term borough was adopted to describe a form of administration for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city in 1898. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, the term is also used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the outer boroughs refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan. All of the boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the current boundaries were established. Ultimately in 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York, the borough of Queens consists of what formerly was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. The borough of Staten Island was officially the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own. Manhattan is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough and is home to Central Park and most of the citys skyscrapers. Manhattans population density of 72,033 people per mile in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world, most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions, Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a neighborhood on the United States mainland. New York Citys remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs, Brooklyn, on the western tip of Long Island, is the citys most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, downtown Brooklyn is the only central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country, marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Historically a collection of towns and villages founded by the Dutch

4. Staten Island – Staten Island /ˌstætən ˈaɪlənd/ is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the U. S. state of New York. In the southwest of the city, Staten Island is the southernmost part of both the city and state of New York, with Conference House Park at the tip of the island. The borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull, with a 2015 Census-estimated population of 474,558, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in area at 58 sq mi. Staten Island is the borough of New York with a non-Hispanic White majority. The borough is coextensive with Richmond County, and until 1975 was the Borough of Richmond and its flag was later changed to reflect this. Staten Island has been called the forgotten borough by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government. The East Shore is home to the 2. 5-mile F. D. R, Boardwalk, the fourth-longest in the world. The South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, the West Shore is the least populated and most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, Staten Island is the only borough that is not connected to the New York City Subway system. The free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. The landfill is being redeveloped as Freshkills Park, a devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island fairly rapidly after the retreat of the ice sheet, archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island, various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since then, on property owned by Mobil Oil. The island was abandoned later, possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Rossville points are a type of arrowhead that defines a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period. They are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building, at the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape. In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning as far as the place of the bad woods, or Eghquhous, the area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking

5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci

6. Fresh Kills – Fresh Kills is a stream and freshwater estuary in the western portion of the New York City borough of Staten Island. It is the site of the Fresh Kills Landfill, formerly New York Citys principal landfill, the watershed of the Fresh Kills drains much of the wet lowlands of the western portion of the island and flows into the Arthur Kill around the Isle of Meadows. Its co-tributaries include the Rahway River, Morses Creek, Piles Creek, and, via Newark Bay, the Passaic River, the channel around the north end of the Isle of Meadows is sometimes called Little Fresh Kill and the southern channel is called Great Fresh Kill. The stream has two major branches, the north branch is Main Creek. The south branch is Richmond Creek, which much of the central part of the island, with its headwaters near Historic Richmond Town. The system of streams provides recreational kayaking and wildlife viewing in the preserved wetlands, in addition, the parks design, ecological restoration and cultural and educational programming will emphasize environmental sustainability and a renewed public concern for our human impact on earth. Renewable energy is planned both for use in projects and for large-scale demonstration and public benefit. Photovoltaic cells, wind turbines and geothermal heating and cooling are components of current capital projects. While the full build-out will continue in phases for the next 30 years, the first sections of parkland to be developed opened in early 2010, geography of New York Harbor List of New York rivers

7. Arthur Kill – The Arthur Kill, also known as the Staten Island Sound, is a tidal strait and a kill between Staten Island, a borough of New York City, and Union and Middlesex counties in northern New Jersey. It is a major channel of the Port of New York. The channel is approximately 10 miles long and connects Raritan Bay on its end with Newark Bay on the north. Along the New Jersey side it is lined with industrial sites. Johns Cove is located near its northern end. The Staten Island side is lined with salt marshes. A heavily used channel, it provides access for ocean-going container ships to Port Newark. It also provides the primary access to the now-closed Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island and is the location of the Staten Island boat graveyard. The channel is dredged periodically to a depth of 35 to 37 feet, as part of its Harboring Deepening Project, the Kill is being deepened to a depth of 50 feet to accommodate larger ships and allow for their passage while carrying full loads. Because of the nature of the tides in New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary near the mouth of the Hudson River. In particular, the net flow of the channel is not well established and it was heavily polluted in the 1960s and 1970s, with few fish species able to live in it. Since the 1990s, crabs, baitfish, striped bass and bluefish have returned to this water. It is spanned by the Goethals Bridge and the Outerbridge Crossing, as well as by the Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge, a railroad bridge, for many years the Kill was traversed by a ferry between Tottenville and the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip. Another ferry ran from the tip of Victory Boulevard in Travis to Carteret and it contains two small uninhabited islands, Pralls Island and the Isle of Meadows, both of which are part of the borough of Staten Island. The Arthur Kill is a river channel carved by an ancestral phase of the Hudson River resulting from the blockage of the main channel of the Hudson at the Narrows by moraine or an ice dam. The size of the Arthur Kill channel is large, suggesting that it was, for a time, however, it could not have been a primary drainage for long because the river did not have enough time to carve a broad flood plain. Placenaming by early explorers and settlers during the era referred to a location in reference to other places, its shape, its topography. Kill comes from the Middle Dutch word kille, meaning riverbed, water channel, the area around the Newark Bay was called Achter Kol. During the British colonial era the bay was known as Cull bay, the bay lies behind Bergen Hill, the emerging ridge of the Hudson Palisades which begins on Bergen Neck, the peninsula between it and the Upper New York Bay

8. Fresh Kills Landfill – The Fresh Kills Landfill was a landfill covering 2,200 acres in the New York City borough of Staten Island in the United States. The name comes from the location along the banks of the Fresh Kills estuary in western Staten Island. The landfill was opened in 1947 as a temporary landfill but became New York Citys principal landfill in the half of the 20th century. It was once the largest landfill, as well as human-made structure, in October 2008, reclamation of the site began on a multi-phase, 30-year site development for reuse as Freshkills Park. At the end of the usable life, new real estate would be created. The advantages appeared to outweigh any known drawbacks, so the citys sanitary code was revised to allow the landfill, specifying how deep the layers of garbage, Moses saw the project as key to the development of the island. Moses saw the possibility of more parkland, highways, industry, concern was expressed about the effect of the disappearance of the salt marsh due to Fresh Kills on migratory Eastern Seaboard birds. One Staten Island congressman, Ellsworth B, Buck, called for the federal government to step in and stop the project. Despite this, shortly after Buck made his statement, the New York City Council voted to approve funding for the Fresh Kills project, one of the first steps taken was the dredging of the marsh to allow the passage of the citys garbage scows. The landfill opened in 1947 in what was then an agricultural area. The initial plan for a temporary landfill called for Fresh Kills to be used for 20 years, then developed as an area with residential, recreational. Shortly after the landfill opened, the city changed its regulations to allow landfills to top off at 10-15 feet above sea level, by 1950, by 1948, an expansion of the landfill project was approved by the City Planning Commission. It was to become a 2, 600-acre project organized in 13 sections, Operations during the 1960s were conducted in three different locations named Plant 1, Plant 2, and Brookfield Avenue. Plant #1 was located at the site of an old factory on the side of junction of the Great Fresh Kills. It was reachable via Muldoon Avenue, Plant #2 was located a bit upstream on the north side of Fresh Kills near where Richmond Creek branches off. It was reachable from Victory Boulevard, the Brookfield Avenue site was north of the Arthur Kill Road and Brookfield Avenue intersection. Plant 1 was the headquarters, and also the main repair facility. Plant 1 and Plant 2 were marine unload operations, barges arrived from the other boroughs

10. Salt marsh – It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as herbs, grasses, or low shrubs. These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a role in the aquatic food web. They also support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection, salt marshes occur on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable or emerging, or submerging if the sedimentation rate exceeds the subsidence rate. Commonly these shorelines consist of mud or sand flats which are nourished with sediment from inflowing rivers and these typically include sheltered environments such as embankments, estuaries and the leeward side of barrier islands and spits. In the tropics and sub-tropics they are replaced by mangroves, an area that differs from a marsh in that instead of herbaceous plants. Most salt marshes have a low topography with low elevations but a vast wide area, salt marshes are located among different landforms based on their physical and geomorphological settings. Such marsh landforms include deltaic marshes, estuarine, back-barrier, open coast, embayments, deltaic marshes are associated with large rivers where many occur in Southern Europe such as the Camargue, France in the Rhone delta or the Ebro delta in Spain. They are also extensive within the rivers of the Mississippi Delta in the United States, in New Zealand, most salt marshes occur at the head of estuaries in areas where there is little wave action and high sedimentation. Such marshes are located in Awhitu Regional Park in Auckland, the Manawatu Estuary, back-barrier marshes are sensitive to the reshaping of barriers in the landward side of which they have been formed. They are common along much of the eastern coast of the United States, large, shallow coastal embayments can hold salt marshes with examples including Morecambe Bay and Portsmouth in Britain and the Bay of Fundy in North America. They have a big impact on the biodiversity of the area, salt marsh ecology involves complex food webs which include primary producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers. The low physical energy and high grasses provide a refuge for animals, many marine fish use salt marshes as nursery grounds for their young before they move to open waters. Saltmarshes across 99 countries were mapped by Mcowen et al, a total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile. This estimate is at the low end of previous estimates. Mats of filamentous blue-green algae can fix silt and clay sized sediment particles to their sticky sheaths on contact which can increase the erosion resistance of the sediments. This assists the process of sediment accretion to allow colonising species to grow, as a result, competitive species that prefer higher elevations relative to sea level can inhabit the area and often a succession of plant communities develops. Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the tidal flow that occurs

11. Heron – The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons. Egrets are not a distinct group from the herons. Although egrets have the build as herons, they tend to be smaller. Herons, by evolutionary adaptation, have long beaks, similarly, the relationship of the genera in the family is not completely resolved. However, one species formerly considered to constitute a monotypic family Cochlearidae. Although herons resemble birds in other families, such as the storks, ibises, spoonbills and cranes, they differ from these in flying with their necks retracted. They are also one of the groups that have powder down. Some members of this group nest colonially in trees, while others, notably the bitterns, the herons are medium to large sized birds with long legs and necks. They exhibit very little sexual dimorphism in size, the smallest species is usually considered the little bittern, which can measure under 30 cm in length, although all the species in the Ixobrychus genus are small and many broadly overlap in size. The largest species of heron is the Goliath heron, which stand up to 152 cm tall, the necks are able to kink in an S-shape, due to the modified shape of the sixth vertebrae of which they have 20-21. The neck is able to retract and extend, and is retracted during flight, the neck is longer in the day herons than the night herons and bitterns. The legs are long and strong and in almost every species are unfeathered from the part of the tibia. In flight the legs and feet are held backward, the feet of herons have long thin toes, with three forward pointing ones and one going backward. The bill is long and harpoon like. It can vary from fine, as in the agami heron. The most atypical bill is owned by the boat-billed heron, which has a thick bill. The bill, as well as other parts of the body, is usually yellow, black or brown coloured. The wings are broad and long, exhibiting 10–11 primaries feathers, the feathers of the herons are soft and the plumage is usually blue, black, brown, grey or white, and can often be strikingly complex

12. Ibis – The ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains. Ibis derives from the Latin and Ancient Greek word for this group of birds and it also occurs in the scientific name of the cattle egret, mistakenly identified in 1757 as being the sacred ibis. Ibises all have long, down-curved bills, and usually feed as a group, probing mud for food items and they are monogamous and highly territorial while nesting and feeding. Most nest in trees, often with spoonbills or herons, all extant species are volant, but two extinct genera were flightless, namely the kiwi-like Apteribis in the Hawaiian Islands, and the peculiar Xenicibis in Jamaica. The word ibis comes from Latin ibis from Greek ἶβις ibis from Egyptian hb, there are 28 extant species and 2 extinct species of ibis. The African sacred ibis was an object of veneration in ancient Egypt. He is responsible for writing, mathematics, measurement and time as well as the moon, in artworks of the Late Period of Ancient Egypt, Thoth is popularly depicted as an ibis-headed man in the act of writing. The mascot of the University of Miami is an American white ibis, the ibis was selected as the school mascot because of its legendary bravery during hurricanes. According to legend, the ibis is the last sign of wildlife to take shelter before a hurricane hits, Harvard Universitys humor magazine, Harvard Lampoon, uses the ibis as its symbol. A copper statue of an ibis is prominently displayed on the roof of the Harvard Lampoon Building at 44 Bow Street, a short story The Scarlet Ibis by James Hurst uses the sable-hued bird as foreshadowing for a characters death and as the primary symbol. The African sacred ibis is the symbol of the Israeli Special Forces unit known as Unit 212 or Maglan. According to Josephus, Moses used the ibis to help him defeat the Ethiopians, Ibis videos - at Internet Bird Collection Ibis. The dictionary definition of ibis at Wiktionary

13. Egret – An egret /ˈiːɡrət/ is a bird that is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. Many egrets are members of the genera Egretta or Ardea which also contain other species named as herons rather than egrets, the distinction between a heron and an egret is rather vague, and depends more on appearance than biology. Several of the egrets have been reclassified from one genus to another in recent years, several Egretta species, including the eastern reef egret, the reddish egret, and the western reef egret have two distinct colours, one of which is entirely white. The little blue heron has all-white juvenile plumage, media related to Ardeidae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Ardeidae at Wikispecies Great egret Ardea alba—USGS

14. New York City Department of Parks and Recreation – The total area of the properties maintained by the department is over 30,000 acres. The department maintains more than 1,700 parks, playgrounds, Parks also cares for park flora and fauna, community gardens,23 historic houses, over 1,200 statues and monuments, and more than 2.5 million trees. The City of New York Department of Parks & Recreation produces many special events, including concerts, the largest single component of parkland maintained by the department is the forever wild Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with an area of 2,765 acres. The symbol of the department is a cross between the leaf of the London plane and a maple leaf and it is prominently featured on signs and buildings in public parks across the city. The London plane tree is on the NYC Parks Departments list of restricted use species for tree planting because it constitutes more than 10% of all street trees. The department is a mayoral agency, the current Parks Commissioner is Mitchell Silver. The current chair of the New York City Council Committee on Parks & Recreation is Mark D. Levine, the department is allocated an expense budget and a capital budget. The expense budget covers the expenses incurred by the agency. The capital budget is dedicated solely for new projects, as well as major repairs in parks that have a useful life of more than five years. Its regulations are compiled in Title 56 of the New York City Rules, Parks Enforcement Patrol officers have peace officer status under NYS Penal Law and are empowered through this status to make arrests and issue tickets. PEP officers patrol land, waterways and buildings under the jurisdiction of the Department of Parks and Recreation on foot, bicycle, horseback, boat, PEP officers are also responsible for physical site inspections of NYC park concession facilities to assure the concessionaires compliance with state laws. The Urban Park Rangers was founded as a program in 1979 by then Parks Commissioner Gordon J. Davis, with the support. The program provides free programs year-round, such as nature walks. They also operate programs such as The Natural Classroom for class trips, explorer programs are available for activities such as canoeing in the citys flagship parks in all five boroughs. NYC Urban Park Rangers are easily identified by their uniforms, although NYC Park Rangers possess peace officer status, their primary mission is environmental education, protection of park resources, and visitor safety. Law enforcement in city parks is the responsibility of the New York City Police Department, most businesses that operate or generate revenue on New York City parkland are considered concessions and must obtain a permit or license from the Revenue Division of Parks. Pursuant to the Citys Concession Rules, these licenses and permits are awarded through a public solicitation process. Approximately 500 concessions currently operate in parks throughout the five boroughs, the food service concessions range from pushcarts selling hot dogs to restaurants such as Tavern on the Green and Terrace on the Park

17. Arlington, Staten Island – Arlington is a neighborhood on the North Shore of Staten Island, in New York City. It is a subsection of the Mariners Harbor neighborhood, located north of the North Shore Rail Line ROW, Arlington was given its name by Civil War veteran and resident Commander Moses Henry Leman. Arlington is the location of the Arlington Terrace Apartments on Holland Avenue, until March 31,1953, Arlington was served by the Arlington station of the Staten Island Railway. As of 2013, Arlington is served by the S40, S46, S48 local bus routes, express bus routes in Arlington are the X12,44 and I. S.72 in Heartland Village. The local high school is Port Richmond High School, a branch of the New York Public Library is planned for the community, to be located at 206 South Avenue. It is scheduled for completion in 2011, Arlington consists of the census tract 319.02. As of the 2010 census, the demographics were 54% Black or African American, 9% Nonhispanic White, 2% Asian, hispanics of any race made up 31% of the population. According to City-data, the household income in Arlington was \$36,577 in 2009. 25. 7% of the population lives below the poverty line, making it one of the communities in Staten Island. Debi Rose, New York City Councilwoman

18. Arrochar, Staten Island – Arrochar is a neighborhood in northeastern Staten Island in New York City in the United States. It is located inland of Fort Wadsworth and South Beach, on the east side of Hylan Boulevard south of the Staten Island Expressway. It is today primarily a neighborhood of one- and two-family homes, prior to the arrival of Europeans in the late 17th century to Staten Island, the area was the site of a Lenape encampment. The name Arrochar comes from the estate of William Wallace MacFarland in the 1840s, who named it for his hometown of Arrochar in Scotland, at the beginning of the 20th century the neighborhood became a fashionable gateway to the resort communities of South Beach and Midland Beach. The house of the MacFarland estate is now part of the grounds of St. Joseph Hill Academy, across Landis Avenue from St. Joseph Hill Academy sits St. John Villa Academy, also a Roman Catholic girls school. Throughout the 20th century it became a neighborhood for various ethnic groups. Arrochar today is inhabited by many Italians and has a growing Chinese-American community as well. Arrochar is served by the elementary school P. S.39, Arrochar once had its own train station, on the South Beach Branch of the Staten Island Railway. The station was located at Major Avenue and this station was abandoned when the SIRT discontinued passenger service on the South Beach Branch to Wentworth Avenue at midnight on March 31,1953 because of city-operated bus competition. The tracks of the South Beach line have been removed and homes now stand on its former right-of-way

19. Bay Terrace, Staten Island – Bay Terrace is the name of a street, which in turn gave its name to a neighborhood, on the East Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. It is represented in the New York City Council by Joe Borelli, bay Terrace is bordered by Richmondtown to the north, Oakwood to the east, Great Kills to the west, and the Great Kills Harbor to the south. In recent years, many new commercial establishments — most notably a large shopping center built on the site of a swim club — have sprung up to serve the areas growing population. Guy Molinari, an American politician who was a member of the New York State Assembly and he also served as Staten Island Borough President from 1989-2001. Ron Thal, a rock guitar player who is currently a member of Guns N Roses lived in the area from his childhood through his mid 20s. Bay Terrace is served by the Staten Island Railway station with the same name, bay Terrace is also served by various buses along Hylan Boulevard. It is served by the S78, S79 local buses, as well as the X1, X4, X5, X7, X8, X24 express buses

20. Bloomfield, Staten Island – Bloomfield is the name of a neighborhood on the West Shore of the New York City borough of Staten Island. It lies immediately to the north of Travis-Chelsea and to the west of Bulls Head, pralls Island is situated in the Arthur Kill off its coast. Originally named Daniells Neck when first settled in the 17th Century and its present name first appeared on a local map in 1874. Throughout the 20th Century, very few people actually resided in Bloomfield, much of its land being used by companies to store heavy equipment. On February 10,1973, during an operation,42 workers were inside one of the TETCo natural gas tanks which had supposedly been completely drained ten months earlier. However, ignition occurred, causing a plume of combusting gas to rise within the tank, two workers near the top felt the heat and rushed to the safety of scaffolding outside. The other forty workers were not so fortunate and they all died as the concrete cap on the tank rose 20–30 feet in the air and then came crashing back down, crushing them to death. But the area has yet to witness the kind of construction that has been encountered virtually everywhere else on Staten Island since the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opened in 1964. Bloomfield is served by the S46, S96 local-limited bus pair along South Avenue, a proposal for the West Shore Light Rail has it running down the Travis Branch of the North Shore Railroad, stopping at a station in Bloomfield

21. Brighton Heights, Staten Island – Brighton Heights is a neighborhood in New York Citys borough of Staten Island. Silver Lake borders Brighton Heights on the south, however the name Silver Lake is applied to the community on the side of the lake. The word Heights denotes the steep hill that rises from Tompkinsville to the east, Victory Boulevard climbs this hill, and as a result the hill itself is often called Victory Hill. Stapleton Heights is on the side of Victory Hill from Brighton Heights, and north of Brighton Heights is St. George. The northern section of Brighton Heights is sometimes referred to as Fort Hill, Brighton Heights has many large, older homes. Points of interest include a Jewish Community Center and the Brighton Heights Reformed Church, Brighton Heights is served by S42, S46, S48, S96, S98 local bus routes and the X30 express bus

23. Castleton, Staten Island – Castleton is a former town in the U. S. state of New York. It was located in the part of Staten Island prior to the incorporation of Staten Island into New York City in 1898. It had an area of 3880 acres and was bounded by Upper New York Bay on the east. The town dates from the late 17th century, the original manor house was constructed along Richmond Terrace, between Dongan Street and Bodin Street. It was destroyed by fire on December 25,1878, the town was incorporated by the state of New York in 1788. The town was dissolved in 1898 upon consolidation into the City of New York, the former town included the present-day neighborhoods of Castleton Corners New Brighton St. George Silver Lake Tompkinsville

24. Castleton Corners, Staten Island – Castleton Corners is an upscale neighborhood of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City. It is in a region of the often referred as the North Shore. The word corners in the name refers to the intersection of Victory Boulevard and Manor Road. It was once called Centerville, but became popularly known as Castleton Corners when a post office by that name was opened there in 1872. The post office closed, but reopened in 1949, and today it is the general, or main, post office for Staten Island as a whole. The Todt Hill public housing project is actually in Castleton Corners in spite of its name, Castleton Corners is served by the S54, S61, S62, S66, S91, S92, S93 local bus routes, and the X12, X42 express bus routes. The former S67 route through Castleton Corners was discontinued in 2010 due to low ridership, and many bus routes through the area were truncated to run a shorter route or only during weekdays

25. Charleston, Staten Island – Charleston is a neighborhood, or section, of New York Citys borough of Staten Island. It is located on the islands South Shore, with Tottenville to the south, Pleasant Plains to the East, Rossville to the north, the neighborhood is represented in the New York City Council by Joe Borelli. Charleston, once a village settled by the Androvette family in 1699. The Androvettes engaged in farming and in approximately 1850, eight of the structures in the village belonged to the Androvette family. Many locals may still remember Charleston as Kreischerville, Balthasar Kreischer had three mansions built on Kreischer Hill, one of which stands to this day and is designated a historical landmark. The remaining Kreischer House at 4500 Arthur Kill Road at the intersection of Kreischer Street, was renovated by the Staten Island Land Development LLC, the mansion has a certificate of occupancy for a 70-seat restaurant that will operate at night. The factory, built in 1854, was destroyed by fire in 1877, the factory finally shut its doors in 1927. The name Charleston seems to have arisen during World War I, Charleston appears to have been chosen so as to name the village after Charles Kreischer, one of Balthasar Kreischers sons. Charleston once had its own United States Post Office branch, and mail sent there bore the postal code Staten Island 13, the post office, located at 28 Androvette Street, was closed in 1949. Also, a shopping center along Veterans Road West has opened hosting an Ethan Allen franchise. The Tides at Charleston, a community development of approximately 120 units broke ground in Summer 2007. Currently, a mall, the first ever in New York City, is in the early stages of construction on the neighborhoods waterfront. It is to be called the Waterfront Commons, and is slated for completion in 2010, a Kresicherville Active Adult community is slated to cost \$25 million and will preserve the Kreischer mansion as a central landmark for the development. Charleston is one of the most remote and sparsely populated areas on Staten Island, the Charleston bus depot, off Arthur Kill Road, opened in January 2011. Charleston is served by the S74/S84 and S78 local buses along Arthur Kill Road, both routes terminate by the depot at the Bricktown Mall. As of 2002, the majority of houses in Charleston are single-family houses, the varieties of houses in Charleston include ranch houses, raised ranch houses, Victorian houses, detached Colonial houses, and French mansard houses. A significant number of houses in Charleston are around 70 to 80 years old and have prices ranging from \$179,900 to \$580,000, as of that year, some houses in the area are over 100 years old. As of 2002, many groups of people live in Charleston, including families of Irish

26. Chelsea, Staten Island – Chelsea is a small neighborhood located on the West Shore of Staten Island in New York City. It is bordered on the north by South Avenue, on the east by the William T. Davis Wildlife Refuge, on the south by Meredith Avenue, the area was originally named Pralltown after a family that was granted land there in 1675. During the Revolutionary period it was called Peanutville due to the storage there of quantities of peanuts for the passengers using the ferries to travel between New York and New Brunswick. In the 1950s, there were plans for Consolidated Edison to build an electric plant on 100 acres of land that it owned in Chelsea. Chelsea is mostly open marsh and is undeveloped, although there are some businesses. It borders on the Teleport and is the site of Staten Islands West Shore Plaza, Chelsea is served by the S46, S96 and S62, S92 local buses and the X11 express bus

27. Clifton, Staten Island – Clifton is a neighborhood on the North Shore of Staten Island in New York City, United States. It is a waterfront neighborhood, facing Upper New York Bay on the east. It is bordered on the north by Stapleton, on the south by Rosebank, on the southwest by Concord, and on the west by Van Duzer Street. The name Clifton for the dates to 1817, when a town by the name. In its early history, much of the land was owned by the Vanderbilt family. As a young man, Cornelius Vanderbilt established ferry service from the waterfront to Manhattan at the foot of present Vanderbilt Avenue. Bayley Seton Hospital, north of Vanderbilt Avenue, was formerly the United States Public Health Service Hospital, in the 1840s the Townsend family built a huge home that had turrets so it was called the Townsend Castle. It was located at what is now Townsend Avenue and Tompkins Avenue, in the 1870s many roads and large homes were built near the water. The area has many Victorian houses left from the late 1800s in the area from Vanderbilt to Norwood Avenues, in 1900 the Fox Hills Golf Club encompassed the entire area of where the Park Hill Apartments are now. There was a big clubhouse on Vanderbilt Avenue, many tournaments were held there until the 1920s when it closed. The land was taken over by the government and used for military barracks during World War II, by the 1950s, it evolved into a middle-class, multi-ethnic community of civil employees including firemen, teachers, and doctors. Park Hill remained privately owned but became federally subsidized housing complex. Crime in this area has decreased since the late 1990s. Community activists are addressing the conflict between Liberian and African-American youth, primarily between the ages of 10–14. The community organizations run after-school programs to keep the youth occupied in a productive way. This helps curb gang and street violence, the community tension that occurs in Park Hill is based on poverty and unemployment. In the 1990s, the became the center for an immigrant community from Liberia. The residences in the neighborhood are mostly houses, but the last decade has seen the development of many attached homes and duplexes

28. Concord, Staten Island – Concord is a neighborhood located in the borough of Staten Island in New York City, New York, United States. Early residents of Concord included Judge William Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, in the early 19th Century, Concord had a significant German immigrant population that was dominant. Concord currently consists of homes, small apartment buildings. The neighborhood’s center is traversed by some of the most heavily traveled roads on Staten Island, including Clove Road, Richmond Road, Targee Street, in 1985, Staten Islands first mosque opened in Concord, it later moved to Tompkinsville, however. Concord is served by P. S.48 on Targee Street, Concord is served by the S74/S76 buses on Targee Street, the S53/S93 on Clove Road/Narrows Road, and the X10, X14, and X15 express buses to Manhattan

29. Dongan Hills, Staten Island – Dongan Hills is a neighborhood located within the New York City borough of Staten Island. It is on the Islands East Shore, the neighborhood was originally known by two separate names, the western half being called Hillside Park and the eastern half Linden Park. The name of Dongan Hills was originally Garretsons and it was changed to Dongan Hills to avoid confusion with Garrison on Hudson. The neighborhood was renamed for Thomas Dongan, the Irish-born governor of the Province of New York after the Kingdom of England acquired it from the Netherlands in 1682, however, there is a section of Dongan Hills that contains large hills. This portion of the neighborhood is called, the Dongan Hills Colony, the Colony is located above Richmond Road and borders the neighborhood of Todt Hill. The neighborhood is home to FDNY Engine Company 159, and quartered with it. Population growth accelerated in the area when the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge linking Staten Island with Brooklyn was opened in November 1964, indeed, recent arrivals from Brooklyn have overwhelmed the descendants of the original residents, and now form a majority of the neighborhoods population. Most of the residents are Italian American, with a small amount of other residents being of Irish. The Billiou-Stillwell-Perine House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, Dongan Hills is served by the Staten Island Railway station of the same name. Dongan Hills is also served by the S74, S76, S78, S79, S84, S86 local buses, New York Public Library operates the Dongan Hills Branch at 1617 Richmond Road, between Seaview Avenue and Liberty Avenue

30. East Shore, Staten Island – The term East Shore is frequently applied to a series of neighborhoods along the Lower New York Bay and the Raritan Bay and within New York Citys borough of Staten Island. Not only the term East Shore, but the concept is often attributed to New York Telephones East Shore Central Office. Sometimes the communities of Rosebank, Shore Acres, and Fort Wadsworth are also described as East Shore neighborhoods, like all of Staten Island except for the North Shore, the East Shore was mostly farmland until residential home construction burgeoned after World War II. This factor has contributed to the East Shore becoming the most politically conservative locality on Staten Island, since the early 2000s the trend has been for white Americans of Eastern European ancestry to immigrate to the community. Today, thriving communities of Russians, Poles, and Albanians exist on the East Shore, the area is currently not only Italian-American and Irish-American, but Russian-American, Polish-American, and Albanian-American. There is also an emerging Chinese-American population, centered in Arrochar, the commercial core of the East Shore can be found in New Dorp, at the regions geographic center, which is close to New Dorp Lane. Hylan Boulevard, a commercial boulevard, connects all the East Shore neighborhoods with each other. Points of interest located on the East Shore include Historic Richmond Town, the nearby Tibetan Museum on Lighthouse Hill, Moravian Cemetery and a significant portion of the Staten Island Greenbelt

31. Egbertville, Staten Island – Egbertville is the name of a neighborhood located immediately inland from, but classifiable within, the East Shore of the borough of Staten Island in New York City. Egbertville is at the center of the Staten Island Greenbelt, with the systems administrative offices being located there. Richmond Creek flows through a ravine, named the Egbertville Ravine after the neighborhood, the communitys main thoroughfare is Rockland Avenue, which provides a shortcut between New Dorp on the East Shore and the busy New Springville section of Mid-Island. The Jacques Marchais Center of Tibetan Art and Moore-McMillen House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, Egbertville is served by the S54, S57, S74, S84 local buses

32. Elm Park, Staten Island – Elm Park is the name of a small park in the Port Richmond section of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States. The park is located across Innis Street from Port Richmond High School, the station was situated directly beneath Morningstar Road. Passenger service on branch of the railway was halted in 1953, a dilapidated remnant of the stations platform still exists. At various times, the neighborhood was known as Jacksonville and Lowville and its present name was given to it by a local physician, Dr. John T. Harrison, and refers to the elm trees that could be found on the doctors estate. In 2008 Senator Charles Schumer and other Staten Island representatives proposed a Park and Ride under the bridge, for users of bus service to Bayonne, residents have been opposed to this move, yet local businesses, according to the Staten Island Advance, support it. As of the 2010 census, the area was 43. 2% Hispanic,24. 1% White,23. 1% Black, 7% Asian, and 2. 6% Other This is using a definition of Census Tract 239, and Block Group 2 of Tract 223. Elm Park was served by the Staten Island Railways North Shore Branch at Elm Park, Elm Park is served by S40, S44, S89, S90, S94. Most public school students in Elm Park are zoned to the following schools,22 I. S.51 Port Richmond High School

33. Eltingville, Staten Island – Eltingville is the name of a neighborhood on Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. It is on the islands South Shore, immediately to the south of Great Kills, the main commercial area of Eltingville extends down Richmond Avenue, with offshoots heading north on Amboy Road and Hylan Boulevard. The neighborhood is represented in the New York City Council by Joe Borelli, originally called South Side, and later Seaside, the neighborhood owes its present name to a prominent family by the name of Elting which settled there in the late 19th century. It was the terminus of the Staten Island Railway until 1860. The communitys main business district sprang up around the railroad station, when Honeywood 6 and nearby Tottenville 8, with operators connecting all calls, converted to dial service the combined exchanges became Yukon 4. In the early 20th century, Eltingville was settled by Scandinavians, other family names included Johnson, Erickson, Ronning, Nygren, Bundesen and Swanson. In Eltingville town, one could buy herring in barrels which would be taken home. The Optimo Cigar store was run by a Norwegian man Paul Alan Moe. Eltingville Lutheran was a support base for this community. Many of the homes built in Eltingville, and other parts of the South Shore, were built by Scandinavian carpenters. Another prominent builder was Ernst Nilsson, who emigrated from Sweden at the age of 12 making himself into a millionaire, many of these homes continue to be torn down, and little is documented about the contributions of these immigrants. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Eltingville, like many other Staten Island neighborhoods, was the scene of new home construction. This caused logistical problems, chiefly a lack of sewer lines, as a result, local traffic frequently had to be detoured from many main thoroughfares, including a large section of Hylan Boulevard in the early 1990s. The offices of State Senator Andrew Lanza and New York City Councilman Joseph Borelli are also located on Richmond Avenue in the neighborhood, there is a smaller number of Irish-Americans as well as a growing population of Russians and other ethnic groups. For many years, the Eltingville train station had an Optimo cigar store situated adjacent to the leading up to the platform. The chain of Optimo cigar stores was once an iconic sight around the five boroughs of New York City, the St. Albans Episcopal Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The area is home to schools, including P. S. 42 and Eltingville Lutheran School, all of which students to I. S.7 for middle school

34. Emerson Hill, Staten Island – Emerson Hill is the name of a hilly area, and the neighborhood upon which the hill is situated, in Staten Island, New York, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States. A highly affluent community, the roads on Emerson Hill are technically private, since the gates are seldom closed and are not staffed by security personnel, it does not qualify as a gated community. Emerson Hill is separated from its northern neighbor Grymes Hill by the Staten Island Expressway, the equally exclusive neighborhood of Todt Hill — where private roads also exist — borders Emerson Hill on the south. Willie and Haven were tutored in 1843 by Henry David Thoreau and it was the only time in his adult life that Thoreau lived anywhere but Concord, Massachusetts. In 1971, two large mock Tudor homes at the end of Longfellow Avenue served as Casa Corleone for the filming of Francis Ford Coppolas classic movie The Godfather

35. Fort Wadsworth – Prior to closing in 1994 it claimed to be the longest continually garrisoned military installation in the United States. Fort Wadsworth is now part of the Staten Island Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area, the site is said to have been continuously garrisoned since another blockhouse was built in 1663, which survived at least through 1808. During the American Revolution the area known as Flagstaff Fort, captured by the British in 1776. It became the responsibility of New York State in 1806, at which time four forts were built on the site with state resources, Fort Tompkins at that time included a red sandstone enclosure containing the 1663 blockhouse. Although these forts were contemporary with the governments second system of seacoast fortifications. Federal rebuilding of Forts Richmond and Tompkins did not begin until 1847, Fort Richmond was named for Richmond County, in which Staten Island is located. Fort Tompkins was named for Daniel D. Tompkins, New Yorks governor in the War of 1812, Fort Morton was possibly named for Major General Jacob Morton, commander of the New York state militia in the War of 1812. Fort Hudson was named for Henry Hudson, a British-born explorer for the Dutch East India Company who explored the river named for him, during the War of 1812 the state expanded Fort Richmond and its surrounding forts. In 1814 money was appropriated to complete Forts Richmond and Tompkins, New York City was not attacked in that war, so the forts never fired in anger. By 1835 Forts Richmond and Tompkins had deteriorated to the point that they were declared unfit for use, some sources state that the new Forts Richmond and Tompkins were initially designed by Robert E. Lee during his tenure as post engineer at Fort Hamilton in the 1840s. Fort Richmond had one front and three seacoast fronts, with an unusual four tiers of cannon totaling 116 guns to seaward. The four-tier arrangement was only duplicated in the United States by Fort Point in San Francisco, Fort Tompkins provided the bulk of the landward defense in the area, with one seaward and four landward fronts. It was unusual in having no embrasures for cannon in the main fort, a seacoast cannon battery was mounted on the roof of the seacoast front, and the rest of the fort had only musket loopholes. It had a ditch on the sides with tunnels to counterscarp galleries providing additional musket fire against enemies in the ditch. Both forts were ready for service, though incomplete, when the Civil War broke out in April,1861. New York City was not attacked by sea in the Civil War, however, they were important as mobilization centers, including Smiths Cantonment near the forts. The North and South Cliff batteries were built flanking Fort Richmond, two small batteries of two and five guns were also built near Fort Tompkins. Following the war, it was determined that masonry forts were obsolete, in the 1870s a large-scale but short-lived program of building new earth-protected batteries near existing forts commenced

36. Graniteville, Staten Island – Graniteville is the name of a neighborhood in Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. Graniteville was originally named Bennetts Corners and Fayetteville, quarries for trap rock were operated in the area from 1841 to 1896, leading to the communitys name being changed first to Granite Village, then Graniteville. As of the 2010 census, the demographics of Graniteville were roughly as follows,37. 4% White,16. 6% Black,29. 9% Hispanic,13. 1% Asian, 3% Other. This is defining Graniteville as everything within the boundaries of Census Tracts 303.01 &303.02. Public school students in Graniteville are mostly zoned for P. S.60 and P. S.22, the John W. Lavelle Preparatory Charter School opened in September 2009 and is the first charter school on Staten Island. Also, a new school called The Staten Island School of Civic Leadership opened in September and this is Staten Islands first K to 8 school. Residents dont have a library in the community and use the Port Richmond, Todt Hill-Westerleigh, Graniteville is served by the S48/S98 on Forest Avenue, the S46/S96 on South Avenue, the S44/S94, and S59/S89 on Richmond Avenue. It is also served by buses to Manhattan. The community currently has its own police stationhouse located at 974 Richmond Avenue and that replaces the 122nd Precinct satellite station near the Staten Island Mall in New Springville. The new precinct is the 121st Precinct and would cover the section of Staten Island, including Mariners Harbor, Port Richmond, Bloomfield, Bulls Head, Westerleigh

37. Grant City, Staten Island – Grant City is the name of a neighborhood located on the East Shore of Staten Island, New York, USA. The island comprises one of the five boroughs of New York City, to the east of Grant City lies Midland Beach, and a high cliff to the west of Richmond Road separates Grant City from Todt Hill. New Dorp is situated south of Grant City. Dongan Hills is situated to the north, many of the streets are named after historical figures such as Lincoln Ave, Fremont Ave, Adams Avenue, Colfax Ave and Greeley Ave. Many other streets were named after historical figures but those streets have been renamed. Today the neighborhoods population is heavily Italian-American by ethnicity and Roman Catholic by religion, Grant City and the neighborhoods surrounding it are also very conservative politically, with Republican Party candidates for most elected offices. In August 1990 an F0 tornado made its way north along Fremont Ave. in Grant City, toppling 100-plus year old trees and causing widespread damage. Grant City is served by the S51/81 along Midland Avenue and Lincoln Avenue, the S74/84 and S76/86 along Richmond Road, and it is also served by express buses X1, X2, X3, and X9 along Hylan Blvd

38. Grasmere, Staten Island – Grasmere is the name of a neighborhood located on the East Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City. Grasmere although crossed by major roads has retained its quiet suburban character, the area and adjoining Concord was dotted with lakes and ponds similar to the English Lake District village of Grasmere. The name is attributed to Sir Roderick Cameron, an American resident of Canadian descent who was knighted by Queen Victoria. The neighborhood has always one of the most prestigious communities on Staten Island. The Staten Island Railway stops in the neighborhood, and the distance between the Grasmere train station and that of Clifton to the north is the longest between any two stations on the line, the S78 and S79 make stops along Hylan Boulevard. The S53 runs along Clove Road, the area is also served by the X1, X2, X3 and X9 express buses to Manhattan along Hylan Boulevard. Grasmere is also the location of the offices of the Staten Island Advance. In music, second drummer of Twisted Sister, A. J. Pero grew up on West Fingerboard Road, in television, One Day At A Times Glenn Scarpelli grew up on Normalee Road. The mafioso Aniello Dellacroce resided in Grasmere at the time of his death on December 2,1985, former member of the New York State Assembly, Matthew Mirones, is a Grasmere resident and former President of the Grasmere Civic Association. John P. 11L/RNI programming originates live from Grasmere, cassius Marcellus Coolidge, the artist who created the famous Dogs Playing Poker paintings, lived in Grasmere toward the end of his life. Alan Stonegate built the community of Stonegate at Grasmere after fixing the Cyclone in Coney Island

39. Great Kills, Staten Island – Great Kills is a neighborhood within New York Citys borough of Staten Island. It is located on the islands South Shore, and according to many local geographers and it is bordered by Richmondtown to the north, Oakwood to the east, Eltingville to the west, and the Great Kills Harbor to the south. The ZIP Code for Great Kills is 10308, the neighborhood is represented in the New York City Council by Joe Borelli. The eastern half of what has been known since 1865 as Great Kills was originally named Cairedon, both later came to be known as Giffords, after Daniel Gifford, a local commissioner and surveyor. The name survives in Giffords Lane, which is located at the Staten Island Railway station, which was formerly named Giffords and in Giffords Glen. Another name associated with the neighborhood is Honeywood, which survived as the name of the exchange for many South Shore communities through the late 1950s. The Poillon-Seguine-Britton House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984 and this neighborhood is home to Great Kills Little League, one of the 8 little leagues on Staten Island. Actor Rick Schroder lived in the community as a child, as did actress Alyssa Milano, comedian Bob Levy, located right beside the Great Kills Little League, is the Great Kills Swim Club. The Great Kills Swimclub is a club that belongs to over 500 families and competes in swimming and diving with other swim clubs in the borough. The Great Kills Swim Club is also the site of the movie Staten Island Summer produced by Colin Jost, at the southeastern corner of the neighborhood is Great Kills Park, a national park site that is part of Gateway National Recreation Area. The park includes a beach, marina, trails, fishing and bird-watching areas, FDNY Engine Company 162/Ladder Company 82 and Battalion 23, serve Great Kills from quarters on Nelson Ave and Myra S. Barnes I. S.24 one of Staten Islands middle schools. Firefighter Scott Davidson, lost in the 9-11 attacks, attended I. S, Myra S. Barnes I. S.24 was named after an educator and civic activist, also known as The Fighting Lady of New Dorp. Ms. Barnes was well known for her contributions to the New York City Council, New York Public Library operates the Great Kills Branch at 56 Giffords Lane at Margaret Street. Great Kills is served by the Staten Island Railway and numerous local, the Staten Island Railway serves the neighborhood via the Great Kills station located at Giffords Lane near Amboy Road. Express train service to the St. George Ferry Terminal is maintained during the morning and evening rush hours. Local buses are the S54, S74, S78, S79, S84, and express buses are the X1, X4, X5, X7, X8, X15, X24

40. Greenridge, Staten Island – Greenridge or Marshland is a name sometimes used to denote the western part of Eltingville, a neighborhood on Staten Islands South Shore. The areas earliest settlers were French Huguenots, who are responsible for another South Shore neighborhood not far away being named Huguenot. The Dutch called it Kleine Kill, or Little Creek, and the British called it Fresh Kills, into which Richmond Creek, the area appears to have received its present name about 1876. In 1921, a popular restaurant and amusement place resembling todays Chuck E. Cheeses opened at the northwest corner of Arthur Kill Road. Known as Al Deppes, it was forced out of business in the late 1960s when its property was condemned to make way for the proposed Richmond Parkway. Only the section of the south and east of this point was constructed, overlaying a pre-existing thoroughfare named Drumgoole Boulevard. Greenridge has seen much development — a great deal of it commercial — in recent decades, including the construction of a transit center. Many passengers wait there each morning for express buses that take them to their jobs in downtown or midtown Manhattan

41. Grymes Hill, Staten Island – Grymes Hill is a neighborhood, situated upon a hill by that name, on Staten Island, in the U. S. state of New York, one of the five boroughs of New York City. The hill is named after Suzette Bosque Grymes, widow of the first governor of Louisiana, William Charles Cole Claiborne, the neighborhood has many fine homes dating from the 1920s that overlook New York Harbor. Grymes Hill is best noted currently for being the home of two institutions of learning, Wagner College, and the Staten Island campus of St. Johns University. The St. Johns campus of 16.5 acres was originally a small Catholic womens institution, Notre Dame College, which closed in 1971, also on the hill is Notre Dame Academy, a Roman Catholic elementary and high school for girls. Adjacent to Wagner College is the site of a former Roman Catholic high school, named Augustinian Academy after the order of monks who ran it, near the foot of the hill, on Foote Avenue, is P. S. Also located on Grymes Hill is Casa Belvedere, a center for Italian culture and studies in Italian language, much of Grymes Hill consists of private homes, but also included are the Grymes Hill Apartments, constructed in the late 1940s by Fred Trump. These are 423 garden apartments along Howard Avenue and Arlo Road, Fred Trumps son, Donald Trump, sold these apartments to an unrelated corporation in 2007. Grymes Hill Manor Estates was built in 1953 as rental garden apartments and it has 152 apartments centering on Seth Court, with some on other streets. Two high rise apartment buildings at the foot of Howard Avenue converted to condominiums following a fire in one. There are several apartment buildings on Victory Boulevard, two new apartment buildings have been constructed facing the Staten Island Expressway. One was turned into condominiums in 2004, the other is being offered as senior citizen housing. Grymes Hill includes two cemeteries, both located along Victory Boulevard, woodland Cemetery dates back to the nineteenth century, and some headstones are in German, reflecting the population of the day. Silver Lake Cemetery also dates back to the century, and was the original burial site for the Hebrew Free Burial Association. It is served by the S53, S61, S62, S66, S91, S92 local and limited buses, the Louis A. and Laura Stirn House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010. The east side of the hill is defined by Van Duzer Street and Richmond Road to the intersection with the Staten Island Expressway, on the west is Victory Boulevard. Some claim Cebra Avenue for the border, while others believe that the border is Louis Street. Hero Park,3 acres in size, is located at the intersection of Victory Boulevard and Louis Street, a portion of the extremely steep hillside dropping down from Howard Avenue to Van Duzer Street is protected from development by the Hillside Preservation District. Starting in the century, breweries dug caves into the hill to use in the production of beer

42. Hamilton Park, Staten Island – Hamilton Park in Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, is a neighborhood filled with homes from the 18th and 19th century, several of which are historic landmarks. Some of the names include Harvard Avenue, Franklin Avenue, Park Place, Highview Avenue. Hamilton Park is an old tight-knit community nestled in a sea of developments and it sits on top of a hill known as Brighton Heights and ranks with Todt Hill as one of the highest points on the eastern seaboard below Maine. The hilly streets of the Hamilton Park neighborhood feature rows of gingerbread-trimmed Victorian mansions, Hamilton Park Cottage,105 Franklin Ave. New Brighton was part of one of the first suburban developments in the United States and this beautiful, Italianate brick building was built in 1859 by developer Charles Kennedy Hamilton, and was one of the first American commissions for the German architect Carl Pfeiffer. It is sometimes known as Cottage Hill, unconnected to the grid of surrounding streets until 1886, it is a large, elevated tract bounded by todays East Buchanan, Franklin, Prospect and York. Dwelling sites were set on curving drives amidst a naturalistic landscape, Hamilton Parks setting remains even today one of the Islands most romantic. Traces of the carriage roads which wound through the wooded terrain are still visible. Dubbed cottages at the time, a number of suburban country dwellings of 12 to 14 rooms survive,66 Harvard Avenue, also known as the Pritchard House is believed to be the first speculatively built cottage and is the only intact survivor of Hamilton Parks original suburban residences. Hidden behind privet hedge, birch trees, and wisteria this grand, Italianate house of yellow stucco with gray stone trim features a wooden porch, balcony. It was placed with its front entrance commanding the view to the west—today its large backyard. Among German-born architect Carl Pfeiffers first American commissions in the early 1860s were 12 houses built for Hamilton, although somewhat simpler and less picturesque than the earlier Harvard Avenue house, the brick, Italianate cottage at 105 Franklin Avenue boasts a magnificent arcaded loggia. Hamilton Park is served by the S40, S42, S44, S52, S90, S94 local buses

43. Heartland Village, Staten Island – Heartland Village is a residential development located close to the geographic center of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. The name is often used to denote the immediately surrounding area. Heartland Village is located within the New Springville neighborhood of Staten Island, the Staten Island Mall is located south of Richmond Hill Road. New Springville was originally a rural and wooded community, the construction of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge led to the establishment on Staten Island of many large residential development communities. One of the largest development communities to emerge was the Heartland Village community, construction of the Heartland Village Community started in the late 1960s and would continue through the early 1980s. Most of the homes in Heartland Village consist of two family homes with six or seven rooms in the home, with three bedrooms. In recent years, with most new construction has been focused on larger homes or condominiums, with the increasing residential population, a need arose for new schools to be built in the community. In 1976, two schools opened, An elementary school, P. S. 69, the Daniel D. Tompkins School and I. S,72, the Rocco Laurie Intermediate School. Heartland Village is served by local and express buses. S44/94 S59 S89 S61/91 X17 X31 As of the 2010 census, the demographics were as follows,76. 48% White,1. 94% Black,16. 17% Asian,3. 22% Some Other Race, and 1. 99% Two or More Races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 12. 10% of the population, the population density was 21,473.61 people per square mile, with a density of housing units of 8,250.96 per square mile

44. Huguenot, Staten Island – Huguenot is the name of a neighborhood located on the South Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States. In recent years it has become customary to refer to the western part of Huguenot as a separate neighborhood called Woodrow. Huguenot is bordered by Arden Heights to the north, Woodrow to the west, Princes Bay to the south, the neighborhood is represented in the New York City Council by Joe Borelli, who was born and raised there. The community gained the Huguenot station along the Staten Island Railway soon after the line was extended to Tottenville in 1860, long noted for the beauty of its woodlands, Huguenot had a transformation that led to a significant rise in the population of the neighborhood. Road problems include potholes, and there are few organized activities for adolescents, however, the region is one of the most mainstream on Staten Island, and one of the boroughs most well maintained neighborhoods. The local Roman Catholic parish, Our Lady Star of the Sea, has completed a major reconstruction/expansion and it is one of the largest parishes on the South Shore, and has experienced overcrowding problems for many years because of the rapid boom of new residents in the area. Huguenot is served by the Staten Island Railway through the station of the same name and it is served by the S55 and S56 local buses along Luten Avenue, and the S59 and S78 along Hylan Blvd. It is also served by the X17 and X19 express buses along Huguenot Avenue, the X23 along Foster Road and Huguenot Avenue, and X24 along Woodrow Road

45. Lighthouse Hill, Staten Island – Lighthouse Hill is the name of a hill, and the neighborhood situated thereon, in the New York City borough of Staten Island. Lighthouse Hill is situated to the north of Richmondtown, south of Todt Hill, formerly known as Richmond Hill, Lighthouse Hill acquired its present name when the Staten Island Range Light, towering 141 feet above the Lower New York Bay, was built there in 1912. Its original light could be seen as far as 21 miles away, the former name of Richmond Hill survives in Richmond Hill Road, located at the southern edge of the hill. Like the other neighborhoods of Staten Island, Lighthouse Hill is noted for having some of the most opulent homes on Staten Island. The Crimson Beech is the residence in New York City designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. The LaTourette House, built as a farmhouse in 1836, now serves as the clubhouse for LaTourette Golf Course, some notable residents include Edward Arlington Robinson, best known for his poem Richard Corey. During his stay at LaTourette, Edward Arlington Robinson corresponded with Kermit Roosevelt, Robinson, by his own admission, wrote his least popular works - i. e. the plays Van Zorn and Porcuipine - while staying at LaTourette. Arthur Anderson, a radio, TV, and film personality who is best known as the Voice of the Lucky Charms Leprechaun lived on Edinboro Road for the first twelve years of his life. Anderson worked with Orson Welles in the Mercury Theatre and the radio series The Mercury Theatre on the Air which featured Shakepearean classics. Modernist painter Henry Fitch Taylor, a student of Claude Monet, lived in the LaTourette House from 1913 to 1915 with his wife, mrs. Davidge is credited with organizing the first Armory Show in 1913 in which the American public was exposed to the European Impressionists. Her husband was also featured at the Armory Show, Lighthouse Hill is served by the S54 and S74/84 local buses and the X15 express bus on Richmond Road

46. Livingston, Staten Island – Livingston is a name sometimes applied to the northeastern portion of West Brighton, a neighborhood located on the North Shore of the New York City borough of Staten Island. It is dominated by large, older homes built before 1900, one of the first Europeans to settle the area was Francis Lovelace, the second governor of the New York colony, who in 1668 started farming in the area that would become Livingston. The original name for the district was Elliotville, after a renowned ophthalmologist, Samuel MacKenzie Elliot, Livingston was formerly served by the North Shore Branch of the Staten Island Railway at Livingston, before it was closed. Livingston is now served by two pairs of bus routes, the S40, S90 and S44, S94, robert Gould Shaw was a resident of Livingston as were many abolitionists in the 19th century. Several of the 19th century homes, especially those along Davis, george William Curtis, who married Shaws sister Anna, was also a resident. Livingston was a location for movies such as School of Rock and A Beautiful Mind. The neighborhood was used for the television program The Education of Max Bickford

47. Manor Heights, Staten Island – Manor Heights is a neighborhood located in Staten Island, New York City. Locally, the neighborhood is considered an overlapping of the Willowbrook, Meiers Corners. The area quickly populated with the growth of Staten Islands population caused by the opening of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge among other factors. The neighborhood consists of small, one-family homes. A residential complex for seniors, operated by the Sisters of Charity, was later built on land adjacent to the high school. Despite its small size, Manor Heights is serviced by many local, bus routes are the S54, S57, S61, S91, X10, X11, X31, with local buses being prefixed S- and express buses being prefixed X-

48. Mariners Harbor, Staten Island – Mariners Harbor is a neighborhood located in the northwestern part of New York Citys borough of Staten Island. It is bordered by Lake Avenue to the east, Forest Avenue to the south, Richmond Terrace to the north, the northwestern section of Mariners Harbor is often known as Arlington. The neighborhood is named for its 19th-century harvesting of oysters and other products from the Kill Van Kull. Later developments included shipbuilding, repair and marine salvage work, fishing activity declined due to pollution during the 20th century. The Mariners Harbor Yacht Club remains as a reminder of the maritime past. Erastina was the first rail station built here in 1886 and named for Erastus Wiman, vacant land nearby was used for staging Buffalo Bill’s “Wild West Show”, generating over 10,000 additional passengers from the St. George Ferry Terminal over the new rail line. Erastina became Mariners Harbor soon after Wiman fell from favor due to scandal. There are three stations along the North Shore branch of the Staten Island Railway at Lake Avenue, Harbor Road. Passenger service on line was discontinued on March 31,1953. An important rail customer was Arthur Dreyer & Sons Lumber and Coal Co. near Union Avenue bridge, remnants of the site are visible today by the coal silos. The western portion of line was rebuilt, and is now used by freight trains traveling between New Jersey and the Howland Hook Marine Terminal in Port Ivory. Bethlehem Steel built United States Navy Destroyers during World War II, currently, two tugboat companies—K-Sea and McAllister—operate in the area as do a number of smaller dry docks, Great Lakes Dredge and Dock, and Mariners Harbor Cargo Terminal. The John McAllister tug boat was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001, the West Shore Little League and Public School 44 also are part of the neighborhood. The former Cross Paper Plant sits on the edge of the area, in recent years a large amount of shopping has been built up in stretch of Forest Avenue from Lake Avenue to South Avenue, revitalizing the area and bringing new traffic concerns. Mariner Harbor is home to the newest branch of the New York Public Library System, located at 206 South Avenue, the library was opened on December 16,2013 as the 13th branch in Staten Island, and the 88th system-wide. A single-story branch library situated on a 16, 000-square foot plot, the ZIP Code for Mariners Harbor is 10303. The oldest church in the neighborhood is the Summerfield Methodist Church and it still stands on Harbor Road and has an active multicultural congregation, reflecting the demographics of the neighborhood. On the corner of Richmond Terrace and Lockman Avenue is the Fellowship Baptist Church, Other churches in the area include the Seventh Day Adventist Church and St. Clement-St. Michaels Roman Catholic Church

49. Meiers Corners, Staten Island – Meiers Corners is a neighborhood on Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States. George ferry terminal on a basis in the early 1980s. The house stood near the corner of Watchogue Road and Bradley Avenue, the area along Bradley Avenue has the highest percentage of Asians on Staten Island, at roughly 24% of the population. Meiers Corners is served by a number of local and express buses, local bus routes are the S57, S61, S62, S91, S92, S93, while express bus routes are the X10, X11, X31

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