Charleston Executive Airport
Charleston Executive Airport is a public use airport located in Charleston in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States. It is six nautical miles southwest of the central business district of the city, it is owned by the Charleston County Aviation Authority. The airport serves the general aviation community, with no scheduled commercial airline service; the airport opened in April 1943 named Johns Island Army Airfield. It was an auxiliary to Columbia Army Air Base as an unmanned emergency landing airfield. On 31 March 1944, jurisdiction was transferred to Charleston Army Airfield when Charleston was reassigned to Air Transport Command, it served as an emergency landing base with no permanent structures being used for transatlantic flights. On 25 August 1945 the airfield was turned over to local authorities which converted it into a civil airport; the occasional military aircraft still uses the airport. Charleston Executive Airport covers an area of 1,373 acres at an elevation of 17 feet above mean sea level.
It has two concrete paved runways: 9/27 is 5,000 by 150 feet and 4/22 is 4,313 by 150 feet. For the 12-month period ending October 23, 2008, the airport had 55,000 aircraft operations, an average of 150 per day: 91% general aviation and 5% military and 4% air taxi. At that time there were 58 aircraft based at this airport: 79% single-engine, 16% multi-engine, 2% jet and 3% helicopter. South Carolina World War II Army Airfields List of airports in South Carolina This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. FAA Terminal Procedures for JZI, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for JZI AirNav airport information for KJZI FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
Hilton Head Island, sometimes referred to as Hilton Head, is a Lowcountry resort town and barrier island in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. It is 20 miles northeast of Savannah, 95 miles southwest of Charleston; the island is named after Captain William Hilton, who in 1663 identified a headland near the entrance to Port Royal Sound, which mapmakers named "Hilton's Headland." The island features 12 miles of beachfront on the Atlantic Ocean and is a popular vacation destination. In 2004, an estimated 2.25 million visitors pumped more than $1.5 billion into the local economy. The year-round population was 37,099 at the 2010 census, although during the peak of summer vacation season the population can swell to 150,000. Over the past decade, the island's population growth rate was 32%. Hilton Head Island is a primary city within the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 207,413 in 2015; the island has a rich history that started with seasonal occupation by Native Americans thousands of years ago, continued with European exploration and the Sea Island Cotton trade.
It became an important base of operations for the Union blockade of the Southern ports during the Civil War. Once the island fell to Union troops, hundreds of ex-slaves flocked to Hilton Head, still home to many of whom are descendants of freed slaves known as the Gullah who have managed to hold on to much of their ethnic and cultural identity; the Town of Hilton Head Island incorporated as a municipality in 1983 and is well known for its eco-friendly development. The town's Natural Resources Division enforces the Land Management Ordinance which minimizes the impact of development and governs the style of buildings and how they are situated amongst existing trees; as a result, Hilton Head Island enjoys an unusual amount of tree cover relative to the amount of development. 70% of the island, including most of the tourist areas, is located inside gated communities. However, the town maintains several public beach access points, including one for the exclusive use of town residents, who have approved several multimillion-dollar land-buying bond referendums to control commercial growth.
Hilton Head Island offers an unusual number of cultural opportunities for a community its size, including plays at the Arts Center of Coastal Carolina, the 120-member full chorus of the Hilton Head Choral Society, the Hilton Head Symphony Orchestra, an annual outdoor, tented wine tasting event on the east coast, several other annual community festivals. It hosts the Heritage Golf Classic, a PGA Tour tournament played on the Harbour Town Golf Links in Sea Pines Resort; the Sea Pines shell ring can be seen near the east entrance to the Sea Pines Forest Preserve. The ring, one of at least 50 known to exist, is 150 feet in diameter and is believed to be over 4,000 years old. Archeologists believe that the ring was a refuse heap, created by Indians who lived in the interior of the ring, kept clear and used as a common area. Two other shell rings on Hilton Head were destroyed when the shells were removed and used to make tabby for roads and buildings; the Green's Shell Enclosure, Sea Pines, Skull Creek shell rings are listed in the National Register of Historic Places and are protected by law.
Since the beginning of recorded history in the New World, the waters around Hilton Head Island have been known and fought for in turn by the English, Spanish and Scots. A Spanish expedition led by Francisco Cordillo explored the area in 1521, initiating European contact with local tribes. In 1663, Captain William Hilton sailed on the Adventure from Barbados to explore lands granted by King Charles II of England to the eight Lords Proprietor. In his travels, he identified a headland near the entrance to Port Royal Sound, he named it "Hilton's Head" after himself. He stayed for several days, making note of the trees, crops, "sweet water", "clear sweet air". In 1698, Hilton Head Island was granted as part of a barony to John Bayley of Ballingclough, County of Tipperary, Kingdom of Ireland. Another John Bayley, son of the first, appointed Alexander Trench as the island's first retail agent. For a time, Hilton Head was known as Trench's Island. In 1729, Trench sold some land to John Gascoine; the land came to be known as Jenkin's Island after another owner.
In the mid-1740s, the South Carolina provincial half-galley Beaufort was stationed in a cove at the southern tip of Hilton Head to guard against intrusions by the Spanish of St. Augustine; the point and cove are named after commander of the Beaufort. Captain Braddock was a privateer of note in Colonial times. Earlier, he had been placed in command of the Georgia schooner Norfolk by James Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, helped chase the Spanish back to St. Augustine after their failed 1742 invasion of St. Simons Island. After relocating to Savannah in 1746, he served two terms in the Georgia Commons House of Assembly while earning a living as a active privateer, he drew a well-known chart of the Florida Keys while on a privateering venture in 1756. The chart is in the Library of Congress. In 1788, a small Episcopal church called the Zion Chapel of Ease was constructed for plantation owners; the chapel's old cemetery, located near the corner of William Hilton Parkway and Mathews Drive, is all that remains.
Charles Davant, a prominent island planter during the Revolutionary War, is memorialized there. Davant was shot by Captain Martinangel of Daufuskie Island in 1781; this location is home to the oldest intact structure on Hilton Head Island, the Baynard Mausoleum, built in 1846. William
Charleston, South Carolina metropolitan area
The Charleston metropolitan area is an area centered on Charleston, South Carolina. The U. S. Office of Management and Budget designates the area as the Charleston–North Charleston, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes only by the United States Census Bureau and other federal agencies; the OMB defines the area as comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, an area with 664,607 in the 2010 census. Principal cities include Charleston, North Charleston, Summerville; the area is referred to as the Tri-County Area or the Lowcountry, though the latter term has referred to South Carolina coast in general. Berkeley Charleston Dorchester Charleston North Charleston Goose Creek Mount Pleasant Summerville Hanahan James Island Johns Island Ladson Moncks Corner Awendaw Folly Beach Hollywood Isle of Palms Kiawah Island Lincolnville Meggett Ravenel Ridgeville Seabrook Island St. George St. Stephen Sullivan's Island Bonneau Harleyville Jamestown McClellanville Reevesville Rockville Cross Gumville Huger Pineville Wadmalaw Island As of the census of 2000, there were 549,033 people, 227,957 households, 161,448 families residing within the MSA.
The racial makeup of the MSA was 65.10% White, 30.80% African American, 0.41% Native American, 1.32% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.38% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $40,345, the median income for a family was $47,186. Males had a median income of $33,229 versus $24,118 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $19,037. Portions of the Charleston, South Carolina metropolitan area are home to all branches of the United States Military. During the Cold War, the Naval Base became the third largest U. S. homeport serving over 80 submarines. In addition, the Charleston Naval Shipyard repaired frigates, cruisers, sub tenders, submarines; the Shipyard was responsible for refueling nuclear subs. During this period, the Weapons Station was the Atlantic Fleet's load out base for all nuclear ballistic missile submarines. Two SSBN "Boomer" squadrons and a sub tender were homeported at the Weapons Station, while one SSN attack squadron, Submarine Squadron 4, a sub tender were homeported at the Naval Base.
At the 1996 closure of the Station's Polaris Missile Facility Atlantic, over 2,500 nuclear warheads and their UGM-27 Polaris, UGM-73 Poseidon, UGM-96 Trident I delivery missiles were stored and maintained, guarded by a U. S. Marine Corps Security Force Company. In 2010, the Air Force Base and Naval Weapons Station merged to form Joint Base Charleston. Today, Joint Base Charleston, encompassing over 20,877 acres and supporting 53 Military Commands and Federal Agencies, provides service to over 79,000 Airmen, Soldiers, Coast Guardsmen, DOD civilians and retirees. Charleston Naval Weapons Station, Joint Base Charleston, Goose Creek and Hanahan Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Atlantic Naval Nuclear Power Training Command Nuclear Power School Nuclear Power Training Unit Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS Daniel Webster Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS Sam Rayburn Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS La Jolla, 2015 delivery Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS San Francisco, After 2015 delivery Naval Consolidated Brig, East Coast Mobile Mine Assembly Unit Eleven Naval Operations Support Center Charleston Navy Reserve Center Navy Munitions Command CONUS, Detachment Charleston Explosive Ordnance Detachment Naval Health Clinic Charleston Navy Dental Clinic Naval Criminal Investigative Service Training, Federal Complex Lay berth for Roll-On Roll-Off Naval Ships, Military Sealift Command, Federal Complex MV Cape Ducato, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Douglas, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Domingo, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Decision, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Diamond, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Edmont, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex Charleston Air Force Base, Joint Base Charleston, North Charleston Charleston Air Force Auxiliary Base, North, SC Charleston Defense Fuel Storage and Distribution Facility, Hanahan 628th Air Base Wing 628th Mission Support Group 628th Medical Group 315th Airlift Wing 437th Airlift Wing 373rd Training Squadron, Detachment 5 1st Combat Camera Squadron 412th Logistics Support Squadron OL-AC Air Force ROTC Det 772 Civil Air Patrol – Charleston Composite Squadron Marine Corps Reserve Center, Naval Weapons Station Coast Guard Sector Charleston Coast Guard Station Charleston Coast Guard Helicopter Air Facility, Johns Island Coast Guard Eurocopter HH-65 Dolphin, Johns Island Coast Guard Reserves, Charleston Coast Guard Maritime Law Enforcement Academy, Federal Complex USCGC Hamilton National Security Cutter, Federal Complex USCGC James National Security Cutter, Federal Complex USCGC Tarpon, Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boat, Tybee Island USCGC Yellowfin, Marine Protector-class coastal patrol
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
The Georgiana was a steamer belonging to the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War. Reputed to be the "most powerful" cruiser in the Confederate fleet, she was never used in battle. On her maiden voyage from Scotland, where she was built, she encountered Union Navy ships engaged in a blockade of Charleston, South Carolina, was damaged before being scuttled by her captain; the wreck lies in the shallow waters of Charleston's harbor. Due to the secrecy surrounding the vessel's construction and sailing, there has been much speculation about her intended role, whether as a cruiser, merchantman, or privateer. Georgiana was a brig-rigged, iron hulled, propeller steamer of 120 horsepower with a jib and two raked masts and stack painted black, her clipper bow sported the figurehead of a "demi-woman". Georgiana was pierced for fourteen guns and could carry more than four hundred tons of cargo, she was built by the Lawrie shipyard at Glasgow - under subcontract from Lairds of Birkenhead - and registered at that port in December 1862 as belonging to N. Matheson's Clyde service.
The U. S. Consul at Tenerife was rightly apprehensive of her as being "evidently a swift vessel." Captain Thomas Turner, station commodore, reported to Admiral S. F. du Pont that Georgiana was evidently "sent into Charleston to receive her officers, to be fitted out as a cruiser there. She had 140 men on board, with an armament of guns and gun carriages in her hold, commanded by a British naval retired officer." The Georgiana was lost on the night of 19 March 1863, while attempting to run past the Federal Blockading Squadron and into Charleston, South Carolina. She had been spotted by the armed U. S. Yacht America which alerted the remainder of the blockade fleet by shooting up colored signal flares; the Georgiana was sunk after a desperate chase in which she came so close to the big guns aboard the USS Wissahickon that her crew heard the orders being given on the U. S. vessel. With solid shot passing though her hull, her propeller and rudder damaged, with no hope for escape, Capt. A. B. Davidson flashed a white light in token of surrender, thus gaining time to beach his ship in fourteen feet of water, three-quarters of a mile from shore and, after first scuttling her, escaped on the land side with all hands.
Lt. Comdr. John L. Davis, commanding Wissahickon decided to set the wreck afire lest guerrilla bands from shore try to salvage her or her cargo: she burned for several days accompanied by large black powder explosions; the wreck was discovered by underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence in 1965. Today the Georgiana sits on the bottom with her huge boiler only five feet under the surface, she is now plumed with a wide array of sea fan, sea whips, living corals. Large sections of the hull are still intact. In places the starboard side of the shattered blockade runner protrudes over nine feet from the sand. Under the mud and sand lies the remainder of the hull of the ill-fated warship. On a clear day, skin divers can dive down into the Georgiana's immense cargo hold by holding their breath, they can swim right past the remaining iron deck supports. The ship's deck has long since been eaten away. Sea urchins and sea anemones abound on the wreck; the wreck is frequented by sea bass, flounder, stingrays and toadfish.
Once in the Georgiana's cargo hold, divers can observe encrusted artifacts sitting where they have lain for over one hundred years. Near the forward cargo hatch Spence found boxes of buttons. Spence recovered sundries and medicines worth over $12,000,000, but he never found the 350 pounds of gold believed to be hidden on the wreck; the gold could have a numismatic value of over $15,000,000. Other cargo could bring the Georgiana's total value to $50,000,000. Resting on top of the Georgiana's shattered wreckage is the remains of the sidewheel steamer Mary Bowers, which struck the wreck of the Georgiana while attempting to run the blockade into Charleston; this wreck site is important both and archaeologically. Because of the emphasis both sides or incorrectly placed on the Georgiana as a potential threat to United States shipping, archaeologically due to the site containing two distinct types of ships. Both ships were constructed of iron, but one was built with extra reinforcing and deep draft such as would be needed for operation as a privateer on the high seas and the other of light weight and shallow draft, suited for the purpose of running the blockade, which required crossing shallow shoals to evade the deeper draft vessels of the blockade fleet.
One is the other a sidewheel steamer. The two ships were built and lost in a time span of about two years, making their design differences more significant, it was for the Georgiana/Mary Bowers wreck that the first salvage license in South Carolina was granted in 1967. Hundreds of thousands of individual artifacts were recovered from the site; the first dives by State officials on the site were made in 2010. It is important in a literary sense because the Georgiana and her cargo were owned by banking and shipping magnate George Alfred Trenholm of Charleston, Treasurer of the Confederacy and the primary historical figure behind the fictional Rhett Butler in Gone With The Wind. Due to the secrecy surrounding her construction, loading and sa
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income