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Isobaric process

An Isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but changes the internal energy of the system; this article uses the physics sign convention for work, where positive work is work done by the system. Using this convention, by the first law of thermodynamics, Q = Δ U − W where W is work, U is internal energy, Q is heat. Pressure-volume work by the closed system is defined as: W = ∫ p d V where Δ means change over the whole process, whereas d denotes a differential. Since pressure is constant, this means that W = p Δ V. Applying the ideal gas law, this becomes W = n R Δ T assuming that the quantity of gas stays constant, e.g. there is no phase transition during a chemical reaction. According to the equipartition theorem, the change in internal energy is related to the temperature of the system by Δ U = n C P Δ T,where cP is specific heat at a constant pressure. Substituting the last two equations into the first equation produces: Q = n c P Δ T − n R Δ T Q = n Δ T To find the molar specific heat capacity of the gas involved, the following equations apply for any general gas, calorically perfect.

The property γ is either called the heat capacity ratio. Some published sources might use k instead of γ. Molar isochoric specific heat: c V = R γ − 1. Molar isobaric specific heat: c p = γ R γ − 1; the values for γ are γ = 7/5 for diatomic gases like air and its major components, γ = 5/3 for monatomic gases like the noble gases. The formulas for specific heats would reduce in these special cases: Monatomic: c V = 3 2 R and c P = 5 2 R Diatomic: c V = 5 2 R and c P = 7 2 R An isobaric process is shown on a P–V diagram as a straight horizontal line, connecting the initial and final thermostatic states. If the process moves towards the right it is an expansion. If the process moves towards the left it is a compression; the motivation for the specific sign conventions of thermodynamics comes from early development of heat engines. When designing a heat engine, the goal is to have the system deliver work output; the source of energy in a heat engine, is a heat input. If the volume compresses W < 0. That is, during isobaric compression the gas does negative work, or the environment does positive work.

Restated, the environment does positive work on the gas. If the volume expands W > 0. That is, during isobaric expansion the gas does positive work, or equivalently, the environment does negative work. Restated, the gas does positive work on the environment. If heat is added to the system Q > 0. That is, during isobaric expansion/heating, positive heat is added to the gas, or equivalently, the environment receives negative heat. Restated, the gas receives positive heat from the environment. If the system rejects heat Q < 0. That is, during isobaric compression/cooling, negative heat is added to the gas, or equivalently, the environment receives positive heat. Restated, the environment receives positive heat from the gas. An isochoric process is described by the equation Q = ΔU, it would be convenient to have a similar equation for isobaric processes. Substituting the second equation into the first yields Q = Δ U + Δ = Δ The quantity U + pV is a state function so that it can be given a name, it is called enthalpy, is denoted as H. Therefore, an isobaric process can be more succinctly described as Q = Δ H.

Enthalpy and isochoric specific heat capacity are useful mathematical constructs, since when analyzing a process in an open system, the situation of zero work occurs when the fluid flows at constant pressure. In an open system, enthalpy is the quantity, useful to use to keep track of energy content of the fluid; the reversible expansion of an ideal gas can be


Gowings was a department store chain in Sydney, established in 1868. Set on several levels, It specialized in men's casual clothing, camping novelty items, it had a dining restaurant. In 1863, John Gowing opened a drapery business in East Sydney, New South Wales, he entered into partnership on 4 November 1868 with his brother Preston Robert Gowing, working as a storekeeper in Victoria. They set up the Mercery and Glove Depot, at 318 George Street, which John managed for £200 per annum plus half the profits of the business; this store was located on the corner of Market Street and George Street and the site was redeveloped in 1929 by John's son, Preston Lanchester Gowing, both as an investment and prime retail location. It became one of the most famous department stores in Sydney. In recent years Gowings embarked on an ambitious expansion plan, opening four more Gowings stores in other locations in Sydney. In 2001, Gowings divested the stores to an independent listed company, Gowings Retail, to enable them to concentrate on their investment and property interests.

Although successful in the City, their locations in suburban areas failed to attract customers. In November 2005, after three years of successive losses, G Retail Ltd entered administration. Attempts to sell the business were unsuccessful and the last remaining Gowings store was the one in George Street, which closed its doors at 5:23pm on 29 January 2006; the building was taken over by Supré. After 5 years, the building opened its doors to the public as Sydney's first Topshop store in 2011; the department store was featured in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie. Anthony Hordern & Sons Notes SourcesGone to Gowings - PDF document about the history of Gowings. What's in store for Gowings Next week Gowings will be gone

George, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

Count George of Nassau-Beilstein also Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, was the third son of Count John VI "the Elder" of Nassau-Dillenburg from his first marriage with Elisabeth of Leuchtenberg, In 1576, he studied at the University of Heidelberg. In 1578, he went to the Netherlands, to serve in the army, under Count of Günther XLI of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt. While in the Netherlands, he failed. From 1580, he attended the court of Margrave George Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach. In 1604, he purchased the district and city of Driedorf from his father. After his father died in 1606, George and his brothers decided to divide Nassau-Dillenburg; when this division was implemented in 1607, William Louis received Nassau-Dillenburg. In 1611, he purchased the Nassau share of the district of Wehrheim, which Nassau shared with Trier, from his brother John VII; until 1612, George resided in Dillenburg, as regent for his absent brother William Louis, in Holland. After his brother returned, George moved in his own territory.

In 1618, George reached an agreement with his brother John VII, in which John ceded to George the right to inherit Dillenburg if William Louis were to die childless. This came to happen in 1620. So George became the founder of the younger Nassau-Dillenburg line. Nassau-Beilstein was divided, with George keeping Hickengrund, he ruled his territory well. George died in Dillenburg in 1623. George married twice, his first wife was Anna Amalia of Nassau-Saarbrücken, the only child of Philip IV of Nassau-Weilburg. They had 15 children: John Philip Johan George unnamed son John Philip George Maria Juliana, married Count George II of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, son of Louis I, Count of Sayn-Wittgenstein, thus half-brother of her stepmother Louise Louis Henry, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg jointly with Albert from 1623 to 1626 and alone from 1626 until his death. With her, he had one more daughter: Margaret, married Count Otto of Lippe-Brake, a son of Simon VI of Lippe Joachim, "Georg, Graf von Nassau-Beilstein", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 8, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 682–

Maeil Broadcasting Network

Maeil Broadcasting Network, Inc. is a South Korean cable TV network operated by the Maeil Business Newspaper. Founded on September 23, 1993, as Mail Business TV, the station's name was changed to Maeil Broadcasting Network in March 2011; the station was operated as a news channel until December 1, 2011, at which point it transitioned into a generalist cable TV channel, launching MBN general programming alongside JTBC, Channel A, TV Chosun. On September 23, 1993 the company was founded under the name Maeil Business TV, it launched the cable industry's firs successful satellite transmission on December 6, 1994. On March 1, 1995, it began broadcasting for 15 hours per day, on January 1, 1996, it began broadcasting 24 hours per day. November 13, 2000, marked the day of the network's first digital broadcast. Daily Stock TV securities in the MK TV changed the channel name to its current SBS CNBC. Satellite TV channel providers were selected on June 4, 2001. On December 28, 2001, MK Securities TV provisionally suspended broadcasting.

The network came to an agreement with Korea Digital Satellite Broadcasting and signed a program supply agreement on September 27, 2001. 2002 April 30: USA CNBC and the business cooperation contract, plus MBN - CNBC to the channel name and logo Change 2005 July 1: MBN CNBC channel name is changed to the reduction in the MBNIn July 2008, a state-of-the-art digital news production system began operation with the opening of a new news studio. On October 5, 2009, MBN began broadcasting in HD and began transmission from Sky Life to Cable TV on October 12. In March 2011 the network was renamed the Maeil Broadcasting Network Ltd; the MBN DMB radio stations were shut down in September 2011. What's Up Vampire Idol Tears of Heaven Yeonnam-dong 539 High-End Crush Rich Man Witch's Love Devilish Charm Love Alert Best Chicken Loss Time Life Level Up Graceful Family MBN News 8 JTBC TV Chosun MBN Homepage MBN Facebook

Izukyƫ Corporation

The Izukyū Corporation is a private railroad company in Japan, a subsidiary of the Tokyu Corporation. The company operates the Izu Kyūkō Line train service on Izu Peninsula in Shizuoka Prefecture, has subsidiary operations involved in taxi and bus services, as well as real estate and leisure resort development and a cable television network; the Tokyu Corporation began preliminary work on a train line connecting Itō Station, the terminal station of the Japan National Railway’s Itō Line, with Shimoda, at the southern tip of the Izu Peninsula in 1956. A wholly owned subsidiary, the Itō-Shimoda Electric Railway Company was created on April 11, 1959, construction work on the new line began in February 1960. On February 20, 1961, the company changed its name to its current name of Izukyū Corporation. Actual train operation began at Itō Station on December 10, 1961, a centralized traffic control center established at Itō in 1982. Izukyū Corporation was listed in the Second Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange from November 1, 1972.

However, it was delisted on October 1, 2004 and returned to the status of a owned subsidiary of the Tokyu Corporation. At present, the company operates one train line, the Izu Kyūkō Line, with a total length of 45.7 kilometers. The Shimoda Ropeway is a subsidiary of the Izukyū Corporation. Sakanishi, Satoru. Management Strategy of Tokyu, Keita Gotō. Bungeisha. ISBN 978-4-8355-1142-9. Official website

Dixon Studio Tour

The Dixon Studio Tour is the oldest continuously-running studio tour in northern New Mexico. It occurs annually in the fall in the Embudo Valley, encompassing Dixon, Embudo, Apodaca and Cañoncito, Cuestacitas. During the tour, workshops in areas such as blacksmithing, hand-building in clay, stone carving and poetry are offered. During the Nixon administration, a number of artists moved to Dixon, their works were represent by museums outside of Dixon. The first Dixon Studio Tour was held in 1982; the tour was conceived by potter Nausika Richardson, inspired by "La Cienega de Santa Fe", the Santa Fe Studio Tour. The initial tour of 23 stops with 32 artists drew an unexpected 2,000 visitors. In 2011, the tour celebrated its 30th anniversary, accompanied by the publication of a limited edition book of essays, designed by David Grey, putting the tour in historical context. Endo, Miya, ed.. Dixon Studio Tour, 2011: 30 Years Creating Art and Community. Embudo Valley Arts Association. ISBN 978-0615537382.

Crawford, Stanley. "The Independent Republic of Dixon". Chronicles of the Trail. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association. 8. Retrieved 2015-04-23. Official website