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An isochoric process called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant. An isochoric process is exemplified by the heating or the cooling of the contents of a sealed, inelastic container: The thermodynamic process is the addition or removal of heat; the isochoric process here should be a quasi-static process. An isochoric thermodynamic quasi-static process is characterized by constant volume, i.e. ΔV = 0. The process does no pressure-volume work, since such work is defined by W = P Δ V,where P is pressure; the sign convention is such. If the process is not quasi-static, the work can be done in a volume constant thermodynamic process. For a reversible process, the first law of thermodynamics gives the change in the system's internal energy: d U = d Q − d W Replacing work with a change in volume gives d U = d Q − P d V Since the process is isochoric, dV = 0, the previous equation now gives d U = d Q Using the definition of specific heat capacity at constant volume, C v = d U d T, d Q = m c v d T Integrating both sides yields Δ Q = m ∫ T 1 T 2 c v d T.

Where cv is the specific heat capacity at constant volume, T1 is the initial temperature and T2 is the final temperature. We conclude with: Δ Q = m c v Δ T On a pressure volume diagram, an isochoric process appears as a straight vertical line, its thermodynamic conjugate, an isobaric process would appear as a straight horizontal line. If an ideal gas is used in an isochoric process, the quantity of gas stays constant the increase in energy is proportional to an increase in temperature and pressure. Take for example a gas heated in a rigid container: the pressure and temperature of the gas will increase, but the volume will remain the same; the ideal Otto cycle is an example of an isochoric process when it is assumed that the burning of the gasoline-air mixture in an internal combustion engine car is instantaneous. There is an increase in the temperature and the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder while the volume remains the same; the noun "isochor" and the adjective "isochoric" are derived from the Greek words ἴσος meaning "equal", χώρα meaning "space."

Isobaric process Adiabatic process Cyclic process Isothermal process Polytropic process

Majic Window is a home improvement company based in Wixom, United States, that serves all of Michigan. Majic Window offers an array of different home improvements, from front door installation to siding replacement, they are best known for their replacement fiberglass home windows. Bart and Rod Rue established Maijc Windows in 1997. At the time Majic was not selling fiberglass windows. In 2001 Majic introduced the state of Michigan to fiberglass windows and began to install them in homes. Two years in 2003, Majic became the world’s largest distributor of fiberglass windows. In 2005 Mort Crim signed on to become Majic’s goodwill ambassador. Crim is a retired anchorman, well known in the city of Detroit. Will Ferrell cited Mort Crim as one of his inspirations for the fictional character Ron Burgundy. In 2006 fiberglass composite producer Owens Corning chose Majic to represent them in Michigan. In 2007 Majic Window relocated to their current corporate headquarters in Michigan. In 2014 Majic won Consumer Energy’s E3 Energy Efficiency Award.

Majic’s most popular product is their fiberglass framed window. Majic offers entry door, siding, tub liner, walk-in tubs, deck installation. Flooring includes hardwood and carpet options. Fiberglass windows are an alternative to vinyl windows found on many homes. Fiberglass windows are more expensive than vinyl or wood windows, but they do have their benefits. According to the US Department of Energy, outperforms wood and uninsulated vinyl in terms of energy efficiency. In general, fiberglass has been found to be more impact-resistant than any other replacement window material on the market. A case study conducted by the University of British Columbia found that fiberglass outlives vinyl and wood by as much as 38%. Majic fiberglass windows are manufactured from pultruded fiberglass, they can come in a variety of different shapes and styles. Wood doors warp in the winter and steel doors lack charm and decorative appeal. Majic offers a solution to these problems by producing entry doors made out of the same fiberglass they make their windows with.

Majic doors don't crack, warp, or rot, they come in a variety of different design options. However, fiberglass doors come with a higher price tag in comparison to other entry door products. Majic uses a safety-first approach for their tub design. Majic walk-in tubs come equipped with a slip-resistant tub floor, easy-grip handles, a slip-resistant contoured seat, a retractable shower head. Majic tubs are designed for the elderly, but there are benefits for those of all ages; because Majic tubs come with a built-in inline heater and hydrotherapy capabilities, using a Majic tub could promote healthier skin, increased blood flow, a reduction in stress. Majic tub liners are a easy solution to bathroom upgrades. A bathroom makeover takes several days to complete. Majic liners install over the existing wall system so the installation only takes a day. Installing tub lining can be a much more cost effective way to remodel a bathroom. Tub liners can be up to 40% less expensive than a full bathroom remodel.

Because of the nature of tub liners, they don't fix problems, they cover them up. If you have existing moisture issues with your tub it's best just to invest in a complete remodel; the U. S. Department of Energy recommends that Michigan homes have an attic insulation R-value of R49 to R60 to be as energy-efficient as possible. Many Michigan homes are insulated with rolls or batts which have R-values ranging from R13 to R21. Majic blown-in fiberglass insulation helps homes become more energy efficient by further preventing heat from escaping through the attic. Majic blown-in insulation is produced with the same fiberglass resin all of Majic's other fiberglass products are made with. Majic offers three different flooring options: hardwood and carpet flooring. Majic's hardwood is manufactured in the US and finished with Scotchgard Protector™ by 3M. Majic laminate flooring offers the timeless hardwood look at a more affordable price point. Majic laminate flooring is installed with Silent GUARD underlayment from Mohawk.

Majic carpet is made with SmartStrand™ technology, a new approach to carpet flooring invented and manufactured by DuPont. With SmartStrand technology, 700 silk-like fibers are packed into just one yarn; this density allows the carpet to maintain its appearance and soft texture for several years. Michigan weather can take a large toll on traditional wood decks. Majic installs composite decks to combat the effects of winter weather. With composite material, there's no worrying about rots, or bends in the board. Majic composite decks are produced with 95% recycled materials. One of the biggest issues with home siding is its propensity for warping at the seams. Majic installs seamless siding to prevent these common siding issues. Majic is the exclusive provider of vinyl seamless siding in Southeast Michigan. With a classic wood-like appearance, Majic seamless siding is accepted in certain historical districts where traditional vinyl siding is not; as of 2016 Majic has started installing metal roofing under the brand name Michigan Metal Roofing.

Majic installs metal tiles and shingle all produced by Decra. Metal is the perfect material for Michigan roofs, because metal reflects repels snow. There are several home window installation companies within Michigan. Majic’s biggest competitors include Hansons, WeatherGard, Wallside Windows, Andersen

The Legislative Districts of Zambales are the representations of the province of Zambales and the urbanized city of Olongapo in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The province and the city are represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through their first and second congressional districts. Zambales, including the city of Olongapo, comprised a lone district until 1972; the province and chartered city were represented in the Interim Batasang Pambansa as part of Region III from 1978 to 1984. Zambales elected one representative to the Regular Batasang Pambansa in 1984, with Olongapo sending a separate representative as a urbanized city. Effective February 11, 1987, the province was divided into two congressional districts under the new Constitution, elected members to the restored House of Representatives starting that same year. City: Olongapo Municipalities: Castillejos, San Marcelino, Subic Population: 426,317Notes Municipalities: Botolan, Candelaria, Masinloc, San Antonio, San Felipe, San Narciso, Santa Cruz Population: 387,571Notes Municipalities: Botolan, Masinloc, San Marcelino, San Narciso, Santa Cruz, Cabangan, San Felipe, San Antonio, Candelaria Notes Municipalities: Botolan, Candelaria, Iba, Palauig, San Antonio, San Felipe, San Marcelino, San Narciso, Santa Cruz, Subic

Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is a 2001 American computer-animated science fiction film directed by Hironobu Sakaguchi, creator of the Final Fantasy series of role-playing video games. It was the first photorealistic computer-animated feature film and was the most expensive video game-inspired film until the release of Prince of Persia in 2010, it features the voices of Ming-Na Wen, Alec Baldwin, Donald Sutherland, James Woods, Ving Rhames, Peri Gilpin and Steve Buscemi. The Spirits Within follows scientists Aki Ross and Doctor Sid in their efforts to free a post-apocalyptic Earth from a mysterious and deadly alien race known as the Phantoms, which has driven the remnants of humanity into "barrier cities". Aki and Sid must fight against General Hein, who wishes to use more violent means to end the conflict. Square Pictures rendered the film using some of the most advanced processing capabilities available for film animation at the time. A render farm consisting of 960 workstations was tasked with rendering each of the film's 141,964 frames.

It took a staff of 200 about four years to complete The Spirits Within. Square intended to make the character of Aki Ross into the world's first photorealistic computer-animated actress, with plans for appearances in multiple films in different roles; the Spirits Within debuted to mixed critical reception, but was praised for the realism of the computer-animated characters. Due to rising costs, the film exceeded its original budget towards the end of production, reaching a final cost of \$137 million; the film is blamed for the demise of Square Pictures. In 2065, Earth is infested by alien life forms known as Phantoms. By physical contact Phantoms consume the Gaia spirit of living beings, killing them though a minor contact may only result in an infection; the surviving humans live in "barrier cities", areas protected by an energy shield that prevents Phantoms from entering, are engaged in an ongoing struggle to free the planet. After being infected by a Phantom during one of her experiments, Aki Ross and her mentor, Doctor Sid, uncover a means of defeating the Phantoms by gathering eight spirit signatures that, when joined, can negate the Phantoms.

Aki is searching for the sixth spirit in the ruins of New York City when she is cornered by Phantoms but is rescued by Gray Edwards and his squad "Deep Eyes", consisting of Ryan Whittaker, Neil Fleming and Jane Proudfoot. It is revealed. Upon returning to her barrier city, Aki joins Sid and appears before the leadership council along with General Hein, determined to use the powerful Zeus space cannon to destroy the Phantoms. Aki is concerned the cannon will damage Earth's Gaia and delays the use of it by revealing that she has been infected and the collected spirit signatures are keeping her infection stable, convincing the council that there may be another way to defeat the Phantoms. However, this revelation leads Hein to incorrectly conclude that she is being controlled by the Phantoms. Aki and the Deep Eyes squad succeed in finding the seventh spirit as Aki's infection begins to worsen and she slips into unconsciousness, her dream reveals to her that the Phantoms are the spirits of dead aliens brought to Earth on a fragment of their destroyed planet.

Sid uses the seventh spirit to bring Aki's infection back under control. To scare the council into giving him clearance to fire the Zeus cannon, Hein lowers part of the barrier shield protecting the city. Though Hein intended that only a few Phantoms enter, his plan goes awry and legions of Phantoms invade the entire city. Aki and the Deep Eyes attempt to reach Aki's spaceship, their means of escape, but Ryan and Jane are killed by Phantoms. Hein escapes and boards the Zeus space-station where he receives authorisation to fire the cannon. Sid finds the eighth spirit at the crater site of the alien asteroid's impact on Earth, he lowers a shielded vehicle, with Gray aboard, into the crater to locate the final spirit. Just before they can reach it, Hein fires the Zeus cannon into the crater, not only destroying the eighth spirit but revealing the Phantom Gaia. Aki has a vision of the Phantom home planet, where she is able to receive the eighth spirit from the alien particles in herself; when Aki awakens and Gray combine it with the other seven.

Hein continues to fire the Zeus cannon despite overheating warnings and unintentionally destroys the cannon and himself. Gray sacrifices himself as a medium needed to physically transmit the completed spirit into the alien Gaia; the Earth's Gaia is returned to normal as the Phantoms ascend into space at peace. Aki is pulled from the crater holding Gray's body, is seen looking into the newly liberated world. Aki Ross's voice actor, Ming-Na Wen, was selected for a perceived fit between her personality and Aki's. Ming-Na, who found the role via her publicist, said she felt like she had given birth with her voice to the character, she accustomed herself to the difficulty of working without the presence and spontaneity of real actors, commented that the voice-acting work did not take much time, as she would just go into the studio "once or twice a month for about four months" with no need for make-up and costuming sessions. The workload was so light it did not interfere with her acting commitments in the television series ER.

Square accumulated four SGI Origin 2000 series servers, four Onyx2 systems, 167 Octane workstations for the film's production. The basic film was rendered at a custom render farm created by Square in Hawaii. It

Miljan Škrbić is a Serbian professional footballer who plays as a centre-forward for Bosnian Premier League club Zrinjski Mostar. On 2 March 2013, Škrbić scored on his official debut for OFK Beograd after coming on as a substitute in a 3–1 home loss to Jagodina. In September 2016, Škrbić joined Slovenian club Krško, he left Krško in 2018 and joined Giresunspor in January 2019. On 6 February 2020, Škrbić signed a two-and-a-half-year contract with Bosnian Premier League club Zrinjski Mostar, he made his official debut for Zrinjski in a 2–0 league win against Čelik Zenica on 23 February 2020. As of match played 8 March 2020. Miljan Škrbić at Sofascore PrvaLiga profile

Major-General Arthur Charles Shortt CB OBE was a British Army officer who served as Director of Military Intelligence. Shortt was commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 26 August 1916 during the First World War, he served in the Second World War as Director of Technical Training at the War Office from May 1943 before seeing action in North-West Europe in 1944. He became Director of Military Intelligence in December 1949 in which role he regarded the British Army of the Rhine Intelligence Service "as the most important Field Agency on the Soviet Army anywhere", he went on to be Head of the Joint Services Liaison Staff in Australia in September 1953 before retiring in April 1956. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in June 1945 and a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1951 New Year Honours