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Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R−N=C=O. Organic compounds. An organic compound with two isocyanate groups is known as a diisocyanate. Diisocyanates are manufactured for the production of a class of polymers. Isocyanates should not be confused with cyanate esters and isocyanides different families of compounds; the cyanate functional group is arranged differently from the isocyanate group. Isocyanides have the connectivity R−N≡C, lacking the oxygen of the cyanate groups. In terms of bonding, isocyanates are related to carbon dioxide and carbodiimides; the C−N=C=O unit that defines isocyanates is planar, the N=C=O linkage is nearly linear. In phenyl isocyanate, the C=N and C=O distances are 1.195 and 1.173 Å. Isocyanates are produced from amines by phosgenation, i.e. treating with phosgene: RNH2 + COCl2 → RNCO + 2 HClThese reactions proceed via the intermediacy of a carbamoyl chloride. Owing to the hazardous nature of phosgene, the production of isocyanates requires special precautions.

Isocyanates are electrophiles, as such they are reactive toward a variety of nucleophiles including alcohols and water. Upon treatment with an alcohol, an isocyanate forms a urethane linkage: ROH + R'NCO → ROCNR' If a diisocyanate is treated with a compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups, such as a diol or a polyol, polymer chains are formed, which are known as polyurethanes. Isocyanates react with water to form carbon dioxide: RNCO + H2O → RNH2 + CO2This reaction is exploited in tandem with the production of polyurethane to give polyurethane foams; the carbon dioxide functions as a blowing agent. Isocyanates react with amines to give ureas: R2NH + R'NCO → R2NCNR'The addition of an isocyanate to a urea gives a biuret: R2NCNR' + R"NCO → R2NCNR'CNHR"Reaction between a di-isocyanate and a compound containing two or more amine groups produces long polymer chains known as polyureas. Isocyanates can react with themselves. Aliphatic diisocyanates can form trimers. Isocyanates participate in Diels–Alder reactions, functioning as dienophiles.

Isocyanates are common intermediates in the synthesis of primary amines via hydrolysis: Hofmann rearrangement, a reaction in which a primary amide is treated with a strong oxidizer such as sodium hypobromite or lead tetraacetate to form an isocyanate intermediate. Schmidt reaction, a reaction where a carboxylic acid is treated with ammonia and hydrazoic acid yielding an isocyanate. Curtius rearrangement degradation of an acyl azide to an nitrogen gas. Lossen rearrangement, the conversion of a hydroxamic acid to an isocyanate via the formation of an O-acyl, sulfonyl, or phosphoryl intermediate; the global market for diisocyanates in the year 2000 was 4.4 million tonnes, of which 61.3% was methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, 34.1% was toluene diisocyanate, 3.4% was the total for hexamethylene diisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate, 1.2% was the total for various others. A monofunctional isocyanate of industrial significance is methyl isocyanate, used in the manufacture of pesticides. MDI is used in the manufacture of rigid foams and surface coating.

Polyurethane foam boards are used in construction for insulation. TDI is used in applications where flexible foams are used, such as furniture and bedding. Both MDI and TDI are used in the making of adhesives and sealants due to weather-resistant properties. Isocyanates, both MDI and TDI are used in as spraying applications of insulation due to the speed and flexibility of applications. Foams can be sprayed into structures and harden in place or retain some flexibility as required by the application. HDI is utilized in high-performance surface-coating applications, including automotive paints; the risks of isocyanates was brought to the world's attention with the Bhopal disaster, which caused the death of nearly 4000 people. The release of methyl isocyanate was the cause of this disaster. LD50s for isocyanates are several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Despite this low acute toxicity, an low short-term exposure limit of 0.07 mg/m3 is the legal limit for all isocyanates in the United Kingdom. These limits are set to protect workers from chronic health effects such as occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, or irritation of the respiratory tract.

Since they are used in spraying applications, the properties of their aerosols have attracted attention. In the U. S. OSHA conducted a National Emphasis Program on isocyanates starting in 2013 to make employers and workers more aware of the health risks. Polyurethanes have variable curing times, the presence of free isocyanates in foams vary accordingly. Both the US National Toxicology Program and International Agency for Research on Cancer have evaluated TDI as a potential human carcinogen and Group 2B "possibly carcinogenic to humans". MDI appears to be safer and is unlikely a human carcinogen; the IARC evaluates MDI as Group 3 "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans". All major producers of MDI and TDI are members of the International Isocyanate Institute, which promotes the safe handling of MDI and TDI. Isocyanates can present respiratory hazards as vapors or aerosols. Autobody shop workers are a commonly examined population for isocyanate exposure as they are exposed when spray painting automobiles and can be exposed when installing truck bed liners.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has slower onset and features c

The Ghoul (1975 film)

The Ghoul is a 1975 British Tyburn Film Productions horror film directed by Freddie Francis and starring Peter Cushing, Veronica Carlson, John Hurt and Alexandra Bastedo. In the United States, the film was released as Night Of The Ghoul and The Thing In The Attic. In 1920s England, a group of upper-class people take part in an automobile race to Land's End. One couple and Daphne, get lost in heavy fog and run out of petrol. Billy takes so long that Daphne strikes out on her own, she locates a rural estate owned by Dr. Lawrence, a former priest, he sends his disturbed gardener, Tom, to find Billy. Tom murders Billy by pushing the car with him inside into a ravine. Meanwhile, Dr. Lawrence tells Daphne about a trip; this decision was influenced by the fate of his wife and son, who were converted to a new faith by a local nobleman. The former was afterwards so horrified by the things. Still waiting for Billy, Daphne falls asleep in a guest room. Seeing this, the doctor's Indian housekeeper, goes to the house's attic and lets out a bloated, bloodstained man in a priest's mantle.

He kills Daphne with a katar, Ayah ritually cooks the girl's flesh for him to eat and burns the girl's clothes. The first couple's friends and Angela, learn of Billy's death from the police and set out on a private mission to find Daphne, they too are separated in the search for help. The local police refuse to search the marshland. Angela locates the Lawrence estate first, is abducted by Tom, who hopes to rape her; when Dr. Lawrence discovers her presence, he reluctantly decides to offer her as another sacrifice to the ghoul in his attic, she is saved from molestation when Tom is sent out to get rid of Geoffrey, who found the house and was convinced by Dr. Lawrence that Angela and Daphne were both conveyed safely back to town. Tom botches the attempt to kill Geoffrey, is half sucked into a bog in his attempt to flee. Ordered to explain himself before he is rescued, he admits that Daphne was fed to something living in Lawrence's house. Geoffrey returns to the confronts Lawrence, who admits that the ghoul is his own son.

The agonized Lawrence has tended to and protected his son because he promised his wife he would do so. Geoffrey confronts the ghoul, who kills him. Meanwhile, Tom sneaks into the room and again tries to assault her, he is killed by the ghoul, who has gotten out of control. The creature rounds on Angela. Angela runs screaming from the house. Dr. Lawrence, his heart broken by what has happened, goes to his study and shoots himself through the head. Peter Cushing as Doctor Lawrence John Hurt as Tom Rawlings Alexandra Bastedo as Angela Gwen Watford as Ayah Veronica Carlson as Daphne Wells Hunter Don Henderson as The Ghoul Ian McCulloch as Geoffrey Stewart Bevan as Billy John D. Collins as "Young Man" Dan Meaden as The Police Sergeant This was the second film produced by Tyburn Film Productions, it was shot on location at Pinewood Studios, Iver Heath, England from 4 March 1974. While the film was in production, actor Peter Cushing went through emotional turmoil: before he signed on to do this film, he lost his beloved wife Helen to natural causes, leading him to wish he would die himself and soon.

According to co-star Veronica Carlson, director Freddie Francis made Cushing do multiple takes during the scene where he talks about his love for his late wife. This reduced the widowed actor and some of the crew to tears. Cushing played other men who lost family members in other horror films in the 1970s, including the 1972 film Asylum and the 1973 film The Creeping Flesh. Variety praised the "assured acting" and "impressive set decoration" but called the film "far too tame for its own good," with a script that "moves from A to Z without generating much excitement and surprise in between." Geoff Brown of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote that the revelation of the titular character near the end was "hardly worth the wait," and that "only John Hurt injects more than a fraction of life into his character and dialogue."TV Guide gave the film two stars out of four, writing that "Cushing and other familiar Hammer faces give this the old college try, but Francis' dull direction--endless shots of Henderson's legs creeping down the stairs--makes the cause hopeless."

The Ghoul on IMDb The Ghoul at AllMovie

Douglas DC-1

The Douglas DC-1 was the first model of the famous American DC commercial transport aircraft series. Although only one example of the DC-1 was produced, the design was the basis for the DC-2 and DC-3. Development of the DC-1 can be traced back to the 1931 crash of a TWA airliner, a Fokker F.10 Trimotor in which a wing failed because water had seeped between the layers of the wood laminate and dissolved the glue holding the layers together. Following the accident, the Aeronautics Branch of the U. S. Department of Commerce placed stringent restrictions on the use of wooden wings on passenger airliners. Boeing developed an answer, the 247, a twin-engined all-metal monoplane with a retractable undercarriage, but their production capacity was reserved to meet the needs of United Airlines, part of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which owned Boeing. TWA needed a similar aircraft to respond to competition from the Boeing 247 and they asked five manufacturers to bid for construction of a three-engined, 12-seat aircraft of all-metal construction, capable of flying 1,080 mi at 150 mph.

The most demanding part of the specification was that the airliner would have to be capable of safely taking off from any airport on TWA's main routes with one engine non-functioning. Donald Douglas was reluctant to participate in the invitation from TWA, he doubted that there would be a market for 100 aircraft, the number of sales necessary to cover development costs. He submitted a design consisting of an all-metal, low-wing, twin-engined aircraft seating 12 passengers, a crew of two and a flight attendant; the aircraft exceeded the specifications of TWA with only two engines, principally through the use of controllable pitch propellers. It was insulated against noise and capable of both flying and performing a controlled takeoff or landing on one engine. Don Douglas stated in a 1935 article on the DC-2 that the first DC-1 cost $325,000 to design and build. Only one aircraft was produced; the prototype made its maiden flight on July 1933, flown by Carl Cover. It was given the model name DC-1, derived from "Douglas Commercial".

During a half-year of testing, it performed more than 200 test flights and demonstrated its superiority over the most-used airliners at that time, the Ford Trimotor and Fokker Trimotor. It was flown across the United States on February 19, 1934, making the journey in the record time of 13 hours 5 minutes. TWA accepted the aircraft on 15 September 1933 with a few modifications and subsequently ordered 20 examples of the developed production model, named the Douglas DC-2; the DC-1 was sold to Lord Forbes in the United Kingdom in May 1938, who operated it for a few months before selling it in France in October 1938. It was sold to Líneas Aéreas Postales Españolas in Spain in November 1938 and was used by the Spanish Republican Air Force as a transport aircraft. Operated by Iberia Airlines from July 1939 with the name Negron it force-landed at Málaga, Spain, in December 1940 and was damaged beyond repair. Data from McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920General characteristics Crew: 2 pilots Capacity: 12 passengers Length: 60 ft 0 in Wingspan: 85 ft 0 in Height: 16 ft 0 in Wing area: 942 sq ft Airfoil: root: NACA 2215.

Popular Aviation. XIV: 86–88. February 1934. A contemporary, somewhat technical article on the Douglas DC-1. Douglas DC-1, 2, 3 Douglas DC-1 The DC-1 story Photo: The DC-1 before sale to Howard Hughes Photo: Lord Forbes inspecting the DC-1 in London Docks on arrival in 1938 Photo: The DC-1 in Spain

University of Algarve

The University of Algarve, founded in 1979, is a Portuguese public higher education institution located in the southern region of Portugal, the Algarve, having two campi in Faro and another campus in Portimão. The University has witnessed a significant growth in terms of student population, modern facilities and the quality and diversity of programs on offer; the University student population is close to 8,000 and operates 40 graduate and 68 postgraduate programs, counting with 700 permanent teaching and research staff that developed a significant number of research projects, enhanced by the research work produced by 120 fellowship grant holders demonstrating a clear commitment towards R&D and innovation. UAlg receives international students from more than 70 countries totaling over 18% of its student population; the quality and diversity of European Masters and Doctorates, combined with graduate and post-graduate courses open to students from all over the world justify the magnitude of this mobility.

It is an important center for cultural and technological development, with strong regional and international ties, offering students the opportunity to explore various careers as they gain transferable skills. The scientific groundwork of the University of Algarve is developed around four main areas that aggregate all research work aiming that innovative ideas can be turned into products and services contributing to the excellence of the University of Algarve. Among its faculty and alumni activities, the University of Algarve has well-established research centers in several fields such as marine sciences, electronics, chemistry and communication and social sciences. Furthermore, the University of Algarve has consolidated the link established with the regional business and with the public and private organizations, encouraging the transfer of knowledge and contributing to sustainable development with an impact across the community. List of universities in Portugal Higher education in Portugal University of the Algarve Facebook Universidade do Algarve - Página oficial

Richard Newport (died 1570)

Richard Newport was an English landowner and politician of Shropshire origin, prominent regionally during the mid-Tudor and early Elizabethan periods. Richard Newport was the eldest son of Thomas Newport of High Ercall, ShropshireThe Newports were one of the leading families in Shropshire, a county dominated throughout the 16th century by its landed gentry, although they had land in several other counties. Thomas Newport himself expanded the Newports' wealth. John Leland observed that "This man, Mitton of Cotton by Shrobsbyri had Syr John Boroues landes in Shropshir and Warwik." This partnership is confirmed by land records showing, for example, that Newport and Mitton, together with John Lingen, their cousin and Sir John Burgh's grandson, sold their interest in Burgh's wood at Stirchley in 1501 to another cousin, Sir Edward Leighton of Wattlesborough. Newport inherited land in Kent from Henry Grey, 4th Baron Grey of Codnor. Anne Corbet, the daughter of Sir Robert Corbet of Moreton Corbet and his wife, Elizabeth Vernon.

The Corbets were another of the group of powerful gentry families. Anne Corbet's brothers, Roger and Reginald, were all major landowners with numerous connections at court and, at various times, MPs. Both Richard and Reginald were prominent members of the powerful Council in the Marches of Wales, Reginald a Justice of the King's Bench: both were younger than their sister Anne, not older than their nephew Richard Newport. Newport was admitted to the Inner Temple by its ruling parliament on 7 May 1525; the date of Newport's admission to the Inner Temple is the main guide to his date of birth. The parliament noted that he had paid a fine of 26s 8d or two marks to be excused holding any office at his Inn or having to attend during the vacations, these being the vacation periods at the law courts, when important academic lectures and discussions were scheduled for the students; this suggests that his legal education was never intended to be at a professional level, but the rudiments useful to a future landowner and local politician.

It was an important source of contacts: Newport was to have close social and political links with other Inner Templars throughout his career. Richard Newport began to make his mark politically before he succeeded to the family estates; some time in the 1540s he married Margaret Bromley, the daughter of Sir Thomas Bromley, a prominent member of the Inner Temple and a Justice of the King's Bench Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales. Bromley had profited both from his legal practice and from property speculation in partnership with the immensely rich merchant Sir Rowland Hill, the first known Protestant to become Lord Mayor of London; the pair had invested in lands made available by the dissolution of the monasteries the large estates of Shrewsbury Abbey. As Margaret was the only child and heir to Bromley's fortune, Newport had expectation of gaining lands across five counties to add to his patrimony. Henry VIII trusted Bromley. On the king's death in 1547, Thomas Bromley became a member of the regency council of the boy successor, Edward VI, although he kept his distance from the political in-fighting within the council.

This added access to the highest circles of government to Newport's power base among the local gentry – a factor confirmed by his own father being pricked as High Sheriff of Shropshire for 1549-50. Richard Newport was elected to represent Shropshire in the House of Commons of England in 1547, taking the second seat, after Sir George Blount; this was the first parliament of the reign of Edward VI and lasted until April 1552, sitting through the momentous changes of the most radical phase of the English Reformation. Blount was a friend and supporter of the avowedly-Protestant John Dudley, despite his own Catholic commitment, it is known that Blount supported and profited from further secularisation of church lands, including the chantries. However, nothing is known of Newport's parliamentary contribution, he was paid 13d. in 1549 by Shrewsbury's bailiffs on returning from Norfolk, which suggests that he, like Blount, was involved in the campaign to suppress Kett's Rebellion. In 1551, Thomas Newport died and Richard succeeded to his estates.

Although a large landowner, Thomas had been forced to set aside two thirds of his valuable estate at Bickmarsh in Warwickshire, in trust to yield funds for the marriage of Richard's sisters and Katherine – a process expected to take about ten years. The remaining third, in addition to estates around Newport, Shropshire, he used to set up his younger sons with homes and estates for life; this still left £ 100 to find for Richard's youngest sister. Although a considerable part of his wealth was potential rather than actual, Richard Newport was made sheriff of his native county after inheriting. In 1553 he was made commissioner for the goods of churches and fraternities in Shropshire, so he was prepared to profit from the dissolution of church institutions. Newport was in good standing with the regime, throughout changes in leadership, but this gives little indication of his true political and religious inclinations; as the example of his colleague Blount shows, personal loyalties and interests might affect actions more than ideology.

One clue to Newport's evolving beliefs is that he owned a copy of Edward Hall's chronicle of the Wars of the Roses and early Tudor period, entitled The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke. This appeared in 1548, after the author's death, is notable for its anti-clerical tone in the sections on what Hall regarded as the abuses of Cardinal Wolsey's ascendancy. Ha

Nicholas Reade

Nicholas Stewart Reade is a retired British Anglican bishop. He was the Bishop of Blackburn in the Province of York from 2004 to 2012. Reade was born on 9 December 1946, he was educated at Elizabeth College and the University of Leeds. He has completed a diploma in theology, he was ordained after studying at the College of the Resurrection, Mirfield. He began his ordained ministry with a curacy at St Chad's Coseley, he was appointed priest in charge of Holy Cross Bilbrook and the vicar of St Peter's Upper Gornal. From 1982 to 1988, he was vicar of the Church of St. Dunstan and Rural Dean of Dallington. From 1988 to 1997, he was Rural Dean of Eastbourne, he was Canon and Prebendary of Chichester Cathedral between 1990 and 1997. He became the Archdeacon of Lewes & Hastings in 1997, he was ordained to the episcopate on 2 March 2004, installation at Blackburn Cathedral on 27 March 2004. He was announced as the new bishop in August 2003. In February 2012, the diocese announced that Reade was to retire on 31 October 2012.

Reade is married with one adult daughter. Nicholas Reade Esq The Revd Nicholas Reade The Ven Nicholas Reade The Rt Revd Nicholas Reade