click links in text for more info


An isopycnic surface is a surface of constant density inside a fluid. In geology, Isopycnic surfaces occur in connection with cratons which are old geologic formations at the core of the continents, little affected by tectonic events; these formations are known as shields or platforms. These formations are, relative to other lithospheric formations and less dense but much more isopycnic. Isopycnic surfaces contrast with isobaric or isothermal surfaces, which describe surfaces of constant pressure and constant temperature respectively, it is common in conversational use to hear isopycnic surfaces referred to as "iso-density" surfaces, which while incorrect, is nonetheless abundantly more clear. The term "isopycnic" is encountered in the fluid dynamics of compressible fluids, such as in meteorology and geophysical fluid dynamics, astrophysics, or the fluid dynamics of explosions or high Mach number flows, it may be applied to other situations where a continuous medium has smoothly varying density, such as in the case of an inhomogeneous colloidal suspension.

In general isopycnic surfaces will occur in fluids in hydrostatic equilibrium coinciding with equipotential surfaces formed by gravity. Isopycnic describes surfaces, not processes. Unless there is a flux of mass into or out of a control volume, a process which occurs at a constant density occurs at a constant volume and is called an isochoric process and not an isopycnic process; the term "isopycnic" is encountered in biophysical chemistry in reference to a process of separating particles, subcellular organelles, or other substances on the basis of their density. Isopycnic centrifugation refers to a method wherein a density gradient is either pre-formed or forms during high speed centrifugation. After this gradient is formed particles move within the gradient to the position having a density matching their own; this technique is powerful. Isopycnic centrifugation Isosteric


STS-115 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station flown by Space Shuttle Atlantis. It was the first assembly mission to the ISS after the Columbia disaster, following the two successful Return to Flight missions, STS-114 and STS-121. STS-115 launched from LC-39B at the Kennedy Space Center on 9 September 2006 at 11:14:55 EDT; the mission is referred to as ISS-12A by the ISS program. The mission delivered the second port-side truss segment, a pair of solar arrays, batteries. A total of three spacewalks were performed, during which the crew connected the systems on the installed trusses, prepared them for deployment, did other maintenance work on the station. STS-115 was scheduled to launch in April 2003; the Columbia accident in February 2003 pushed the date back to 27 August 2006, again moved back for various reasons, including a threat from Tropical Storm Ernesto and the strongest lightning strike to hit an occupied shuttle launchpad. Note:The P3/P4 Truss segment and batteries were so heavy that the crew count was reduced from seven to six.

Canadian Space Agency astronaut MacLean became the first Canadian to operate Canadarm2 and its Mobile Base in space as he was handed a new set of solar arrays from Ferguson and Burbank controlling the original Canadian robotic arm, the Canadarm. MacLean performed a spacewalk, after Chris Hadfield to do so; the mission patch worn on the clothing used by the astronauts of STS-115 was designed by Graham Huber, Peter Hui, Gigi Lui, three students at York University in Toronto, the same university that Steve MacLean attended. The students designed Steve MacLean's personal patch for this mission; the primary payload was the second left-side ITS P3/P4 Truss segment, a pair of solar arrays, associated batteries. Delivery and installation of two truss segments Delivery and deployment of two new solar arrays Perform three spacewalks to connect truss segments, remove restraints on solar arrays, prepare the station for the next assembly mission by STS-116 NASA managers decided to move the STS-115 launch date forward to 27 August to obtain better lighting conditions to photograph the external tank.

This occurred before with STS-31 and STS-82. The launch window was co-ordinated with the Soyuz TMA-9 launch in mid-September, which delivered a new ISS crew and fresh supplies to the station; the Soyuz spacecraft operationally did not dock to the station. The mission marks: 147th NASA crewed space flight. 116th space shuttle flight since STS-1. 27th flight of Atlantis. 91st post-Challenger mission. 3rd post-Columbia mission. 1st post-Columbia mission of Atlantis. Atlantis was rolled out from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building on 24 July 2006, it was lowered onto the mobile launcher platform on 26 July and rolled out to Pad 39B in the early morning hours of 2 August. The rollout was scheduled for 31 July, but a storm in the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center resulted in a delay of two days from fears of the orbiter being hit by lightning, which could cause immeasurable damage. On the weekend of 5 to 6 August 2006, engineers completed a "flight readiness" check of the shuttle's main engines, which were deemed ready for launch.

The crew arrived at the Kennedy Space Center 7 August 2006 for four days of launch rehearsals, including a practice countdown 10 August. Top NASA managers held a Flight Readiness Review meeting 15–16 August 2006 to finalize the launch date. Foam loss from the external tank was a key issue at this meeting because on 13 August 2006, NASA announced there was an average amount of loss from the external tank of STS-121, the previous mission. Columbia's demise was due to a piece of foam, shed from its external tank, striking the shuttle's left wing during launch and causing a hole, breached during re-entry; the meeting discussed problems with the bolts securing the shuttle's Ku-band antenna, which might not have been threaded correctly. The installation hadn't experienced any problems. At the end of the two-day meeting, NASA managers had decided to proceed with the launch on 27 August 2006. However, on 18 August 2006, NASA decided to replace the antenna bolts with Atlantis still on the launch pad. NASA had no procedure to replace these on the pad, but the work was nonetheless completed by 20 August, without affecting the planned launch date.

On 25 August 2006, a direct lightning strike, the most powerful recorded at Kennedy Space Center, hit the lightning rod atop the launch pad. As a result, on 26 August the Mission Management Team ordered the mission postponed for at least 24 hours to assess damage. On 27 August, the decision was made to postpone the launch for another 24 hours, making the earliest possible launch date 29 August 2006, still unassured that there was no damage from the lightning strike and taking into account the possible threat from Hurricane Ernesto. On 28 August 2006 it was decided to postpone the launch and rollback Atlantis to the VAB after updated forecasts projected Hurricane Ernesto would regain its strength and pass closer to Kennedy Space Center than anticipated. NASA began rolling back the shuttle on 29 August 2006 in the late morning, but by early afternoon the decision was made to move Atlantis back to the launch pad to weather out Tropical Storm Ernesto instead; the change came after weather forecasters determined that the storm wouldn't hit Kennedy Space Center as forcefully as they once thought.

Its peak winds were expected to be less than 79 mph, NASA's limit for keeping t


Loughor is a Welsh town in the City and County of Swansea, within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan, Wales. It lies on the estuary of the River Loughor; the town has a community council under the name Llwchwr. The town is bordered by the communities of Bynea in Carmarthenshire, Grovesend and Gorseinon; the town's name has been called "possibly the oldest name in Gower". It derives from the name of the Roman fort of Leucarum; the town includes the site of the Roman fort of Leucarum, over which the Norman Loughor Castle was built in 1106. Loughor developed around the castle; the town has had its own lifeboat station since 1969, situated near the road bridge. The current lifeboat is a Ribcraft 5.85m RIB. Loughor grew as a port, while in the early 20th century the main industries were large tin and steel works. About 1800, John Vivian of Truro, became managing partner in the copper works at Penclawdd and Loughor was owned by the Cheadle Brasswire Company of Staffordshire; the Vivian family ran large copper-mining, copper-smelting and trading businesses in and around Swansea and throughout the 19th century did much to develop Swansea as a city.

Loughor town can be divided into two areas, defined by the present electoral wards of Lower Loughor and Upper Loughor, which have separate histories. Lower Loughor lies nearer the sea on Upper Loughor on higher ground. Loughor developed around the Norman castle in what is now the Lower Loughor ward. Upper Loughor began as a distinct settlement around what is now the Glebe Road area, became established as a separate town by the mid-19th century. Loughor today is a commuter town for Swansea and Llanelli via the Loughor bridge, has merged with the neighbouring town of Gorseinon; the West Wales line crosses the River Loughor over the Loughor Viaduct to the west of the town. Loughor railway station was closed in 1960. Local schools in the town include Casllwchwr Primary School. Opposite the Tre Uchaf Primary is one of the sites of Gower College Swansea; the local rugby union team of the town is Loughor RFC. In birth order: Evan Roberts, minister, a major figure in the 1904–1905 Welsh Revival in religious worship James Henry Govier, painter and engraver of the Swansea School, produced several images of Loughor.

Irma Chilton, children's writer in English and Welsh Leighton James, footballer Swansea Art Gallery Catalogue, 1936 The Gower Journal Who's Who in Art Dictionary of British Artists 1900–1950, by Grant M. Waters, 1975 History of Loughor photos of Loughor and surrounding area

Grand Traverse Mall

Grand Traverse Mall is an enclosed shopping mall serving Traverse City, located in Garfield Township. Opened in 1992, the mall features five anchor stores: J. C. Penney, Target Corporation, TJ Maxx, Dunham's Sports, Macy's, it is managed by Brookfield Properties Retail Group, the successor of its original developer General Growth Properties. The mall opened in phases: JCPenney and Target opened in October 1991, followed by the mall itself in March 1992 and Hudson's in July, it featured 110 stores and a nine-screen Kerasotes Theatres complex, making it the largest mall north of Saginaw, Michigan. As with all other Hudson's stores in Michigan, the Grand Traverse Mall location converted to Marshall Field's in 2001 and Macy's in 2006. Before its opening, it was involved in a lawsuit started by an existing mall in town over concerns that mall construction would pollute a nearby creek, that it would add too much retail space to the region; this lawsuit was settled out of court. Another lawsuit, regarding conflict of interest among township officials who sold land to the mall developers, was ruled in favor of the developers.

General Growth Properties, which developed the mall, transferred ownership to Rouse Properties in 2012. In October 2014, a dead body was found at the mall, causing it to be closed for a day while the body was investigated; the body was determined to be a night shift custodian. Gap and Old Navy both closed at nearby Horizon Outlets, consolidating into a new Old Navy store at Grand Traverse Mall; the space occupied by Old Navy was an f.y.e. Store; the mall's movie theater complex closed in 2015 when a newer theater was built by owner Carmike Cinemas. Mall officials announced in 2016 that the theater space would be demolished for a Dick's Sporting Goods to open in Fall 2016. Dick's canceled its plans to open the store in December 2016, The space instead become Dunham's Sports; the store opened on October 27, 2017. Grand Traverse Mall


Kaithal is a city and a municipal council in Kaithal district in the Indian state of Haryana. Kaithal was a part of Karnal District and Kurukshetra District until 1 November 1989, when it became the headquarters of the Kaithal District of Haryana. Kaithal shares common boundary with Patiala, Kurukshetra and Karnal. Kaithal district is situated in the North-West of the Haryana state, its North-West boundaries which include Guhla-Cheeka is attached to Punjab State. Kaithal is located at 29.8015°N 76.3996°E / 29.8015. It has an average elevation of 220 metres, it was known as Kapisthal, meaning "Abode of Kapi", another name of Lord Hanuman, it is said to have been founded by the Pandava Emperor, Yudhishthira of Mahabharata. It is traditionally connected with Hanuman, has a temple dedicated to Anjani, the mother of Hanuman, it is said that it is the birthplace of Lord Hanuman and there is a temple constructed at that place known as "Anjani Tila" among the residents of Kaithal. The Vridhakedara sanctum of Kaithal finds a mention in Vedic texts of Vaman Puran.

Kaithal, with many of its temples, is an important milestone in 48 Kos Parikrama pilgrimage. Timur stopped here before attacking Delhi; the city became a Muslim cultural centre, under the rule of Delhi Sultanate. Tombs of several Sufi saints dating from the 13th century can be found in the city today; the town was renovated and a fort was built during the rule of the Mughal Emperor, as per Ain-i-Akbari, it was a pargana, under the sarkar of Sirhind, had developed into an agricultural centre Razia Sultana, the first woman ruler of India, reigned as the Sultana of Delhi Sultanate from 1236 to 1240. She fled Delhi with Malik Altúniya after they were defeated on the 24th of Rabí'u-l awwal A. H. 638, reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them, were killed on 13 November 1240. Tomb of Rajia Begam is still found here; this aspect is still not well known outside Kaithal, but residents know about the mazaar of Razia Begum generations later. Timur took the town in 1398, with his army massacring or plundering the inhabitants and destroying all villages along the way to Assandh.

Many of the residents of Kaithal and the other cities had fled to Delhi in fear. In 1767, it fell into the hands of the Singh Krora Misl chieftain, Bhai Desu Singh, who led a large Sikh force from his native village of Bhucho. In the Punjab. Whose descendants, the bhais of Kaithal, ranked among the most powerful Cis-Sutlej states; the Sikh Chieftains of Kaithal, ruled from 1767 until its fall in 1843. By 1808, it came under British influence; the state was ruled by the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire and paid tributes to the Marathas, until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British. Bhai Udey Singh proved as the last King. Bhai Udey Singh died on 14 March 1843, it became a municipality in 1867. In 1901, the town was the tehsil in the district of Karnal; the fort of the Bhais is still extant, their title Bhai became common with the primary Sikh rulers. Peoples of Kaithal took active part in freedom struggle in 1857; as of 2011 Indian Census, Kaithal had a total population of 144,915, of which 76,794 were males and 68,121 were females.

Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 17,531. The total number of literates in Kaithal was 100,944, which constituted 69.7% of the population with male literacy of 75.3% and female literacy of 63.3%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Kaithal was 79.2%, of which male literacy rate was 86.1% and female literacy rate was 71.6%. The Scheduled Castes population was 24,760. Kaithal had 28547 households in 2011. Hindi is the official language of Kaithal. Punjabi and English are additional official languages. There exist remains of the fort of the Bhais, several Muslim tombs of the 13th century and later; the Kaithal fort has many gates made by British rulers and used to control the entry of trade goods and other items. The fort was restored and renovated in 2016, it now forms one of the most important landmarks of Kaithal. Tomb of Razia Sultana, who gained the throne of Delhi Sultanate under the Mamluk Sultanate, is situated 10 km north-west of the Kaithal city in Siwan on Kaithal-Cheeka-Patiala road.

It is close to the jail constructed nearby by the present administration. She and her husband Malik Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda were decapitated by the local Jat people of area, it is speculated that she might have been disinterred form Kaithal and reburied at her Delhi's tomb. Raziya al-Din, throne name Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ referred to in history as Razia Sultana, was the Sultan of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240. Like some other Muslim princesses of the time, she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary. Razia Sultan was the only woman ruler of both the Sultanate and the Mughal period, although other women ruled from behind the scenes. Razia refused to be addressed as Sultana because it meant "wife or consort of a Sultan", she would answer only to the title "Sultan." In Kaithal a 22-by-14.6-metre national flag is hoisted 63 metres above the ground in Hanuman Vatika. Following two pilgrimage points of Kaithal town form part of Kurukshetra's 48 kos pariktrama.

Vriddh Kedaar or Vidkyaar as it is popularly known is an important religious place for Hindus. This is one of the several pilgrimages in 48 kos parikrama of Kurukshetra; this pilgrimage has been mentioned

Euston bus station

Euston Bus Station serves the Euston area of Camden, England. The station is maintained by Transport for London, it is situated next to Euston main line railway station and above Euston Underground station and near Euston Square. It was designed by Richard Seifert and opened in 1979. There are five stands at the bus station that are served by routes operated by Arriva London, London Central, London General, London United, Stagecoach London and Tower Transit. List of bus and coach stations in London Transport for London