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Isotopes of krypton

There are 33 known isotopes of krypton with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101. Occurring krypton is made of five stable isotopes and one, radioactive with an long half-life, plus traces of radioisotopes that are produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere; the isotopic composition refers to that in air. Krypton-86 was used to define the meter from 1960 until 1983, when the definition of the meter was based on the wavelength of the 606 nm spectral line of a krypton-86 atom. Radioactive krypton-81 is the product of reactions with cosmic rays that strike the atmosphere, along with the six stable or nearly stable krypton isotopes. Krypton-81 has a half-life of about 229,000 years. Krypton-81 has been used for dating old groundwater. Radiopharmaceutical. Krypton-85 is a radioisotope of krypton; this isotope is produced by the nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear weapons testing and in nuclear reactors, as well as by cosmic rays. An important goal of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was to eliminate the release of such radioisotopes into the atmosphere, since 1963 much of that krypton-85 has had time to decay.

However, it is inevitable that krypton-85 is released during the reprocessing of fuel rods from nuclear reactors. The atmospheric concentration of krypton-85 around the North Pole is about 30 percent higher than that at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station because nearly all of the world's nuclear reactors and all of its major nuclear reprocessing plants are located in the northern hemisphere, well-north of the equator. To be more specific, those nuclear reprocessing plants with significant capacities are located in the United States, the United Kingdom, the French Republic, the Russian Federation, Mainland China, Japan and Pakistan. All of the other radioisotopes of krypton have half-lives of less than one day, except for krypton-79, which has a half-life of about 35.0 hours. This isotope decays by the emission of positrons and thus becoming bromine. Isotope masses from: Audi, Georges. P.. "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 75: 683–800. Doi:10.1351/pac200375060683.

Wieser, Michael E.. "Atomic weights of the elements 2005". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 78: 2051–2066. Doi:10.1351/pac200678112051. Lay summary. Half-life and isomer data selected from the following sources. Audi, Georges. "NuDat 2.x database". Brookhaven National Laboratory. Holden, Norman E.. "11. Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R.. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9. Brookhaven National Laboratory: Krypton-101 information

Houston Airport System

Houston Airport System is a department of the City of Houston, United States that manages city airports. Its administrative offices are on the property of George Bush Intercontinental Airport, it operates Bush, William P. Hobby Airport, Ellington Airport in Houston; the city of Houston acquired Hobby Airport in 1937. Named Houston Municipal Airport, it was renamed to honor William P. Hobby in 1967. In 1969, Houston Intercontinental Airport opened. In 1997 was renamed to honor George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States. In 1984, Ellington Airport became a part of the HAS system. In January 2013, the airport system announced that free Wi-Fi would be available at both Bush and Hobby, that it plans to select a new provider. In 2012 the system had made about $300,000 from the Boingo Wireless services, which are free for the first 45 minutes and available for a fee afterwards; the system said that modern travelers now expect free Wi-Fi, so it will change. Politics of Houston Transportation in Houston Houston Airport System

Natural nuclear fission reactor

A fossil natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred. This can be examined by analysis of isotope ratios; the conditions under which a natural nuclear reactor could exist had been predicted in 1956 by Paul Kazuo Kuroda. The phenomenon was discovered in 1972 in Oklo, Gabon by French physicist Francis Perrin under conditions similar to what was predicted. Oklo is the only known location for this in the world and consists of 16 sites at which self-sustaining nuclear fission reactions are thought to have taken place 1.7 billion years ago, ran for a few hundred thousand years, averaging less than 100 kW of thermal power during that time. In May 1972 at the Pierrelatte uranium enrichment facility in France, routine mass spectrometry comparing UF6 samples from the Oklo Mine, located in Gabon, showed a discrepancy in the amount of the 235U isotope; the concentration is 0.72% while these samples had only 0.60%, a significant difference.

This discrepancy required explanation, as all civilian uranium handling facilities must meticulously account for all fissionable isotopes to ensure that none are diverted for weapons purposes. Thus the French Commissariat à l'énergie atomique began an investigation. A series of measurements of the relative abundances of the two most significant isotopes of the uranium mined at Oklo showed anomalous results compared to those obtained for uranium from other mines. Further investigations into this uranium deposit discovered uranium ore with a 235U concentration as low as 0.44%. Subsequent examination of isotopes of fission products such as neodymium and ruthenium showed anomalies, as described in more detail below; this loss in 235U is what happens in a nuclear reactor. A possible explanation, was that the uranium ore had operated as a natural fission reactor. Other observations led to the same conclusion, on September 25, 1972, the CEA announced their finding that self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions had occurred on Earth about 2 billion years ago.

Other natural nuclear fission reactors were discovered in the region. Neodymium and other elements were found with isotopic compositions different from what is found on Earth. For example, Oklo contained less than 6% of the 142Nd isotope while natural neodymium contains 27%. Subtracting the natural isotopic Nd abundance from the Oklo-Nd, the isotopic composition matched that produced by the fission of 235U. Similar investigations into the isotopic ratios of ruthenium at Oklo found a much higher 99Ru concentration than otherwise occurring; this anomaly could be explained by the decay of 99Tc to 99Ru. In the bar chart the normal natural isotope signature of ruthenium is compared with that for fission product ruthenium, the result of the fission of 235U with thermal neutrons, it is clear. The level of 100Ru in the fission product mixture is low because of a long-lived isotope of molybdenum. On the time scale of when the reactors were in operation little decay to 100Ru will have occurred; the natural nuclear reactor formed when a uranium-rich mineral deposit became inundated with groundwater that acted as a neutron moderator, a nuclear chain reaction took place.

The heat generated from the nuclear fission caused the groundwater to boil away, which slowed or stopped the reaction. After cooling of the mineral deposit, the water returned, the reaction restarted, completing a full cycle every 3 hours; the fission reaction cycles continued for hundreds of thousands of years and ended when the ever-decreasing fissile materials no longer could sustain a chain reaction. Fission of uranium produces five known isotopes of the fission-product gas xenon; the concentrations of xenon isotopes, found trapped in mineral formations 2 billion years make it possible to calculate the specific time intervals of reactor operation: 30 minutes of criticality followed by 2 hours and 30 minutes of cooling down to complete a 3-hour cycle. A key factor that made the reaction possible was that, at the time the reactor went critical 1.7 billion years ago, the fissile isotope 235U made up about 3.1% of the natural uranium, comparable to the amount used in some of today's reactors.

Because 235U has a shorter half-life than 238U, thus decays more the current abundance of 235U in natural uranium is about 0.70–0.72%. A natural nuclear reactor is therefore no longer possible on Earth without heavy graphite; the Oklo uranium ore deposits are the only known sites. Other rich uranium ore bodies would have had sufficient uranium to support nuclear reactions at that time, but the combination of uranium and physical conditions needed to support the chain reaction was unique, as far as is known, to the Oklo ore bodies. Another factor which contributed to the start of the Oklo natural nuclear reactor at 2 billion years, rather than earlier, was the increasing oxygen content in the Earth's atmosphere. Uranium is present in the rocks of the earth, the abundance of fissile 235U was at least 3% or higher at all times prior to reactor startup. Uranium is soluble in water only in the presence of oxygen. Therefore, the rising oxygen levels during the aging of the Earth may have allowed uranium to be dissolved and transported with groundwater to places where a high enough concentration could accumulate to form rich uranium ore bodies.

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Camp Hell

Camp Hell is a 2010 American thriller film starring Will Denton, Dana Delany, Andrew McCarthy, Bruce Davison and Jesse Eisenberg. The film was titled Camp Hope, it was released August 2010 in the United States. By the end of each summer, children from the fundamentalist Catholic community in the suburbs of New Jersey visited Camp Hope. Deep in the woods, away from civilization, the children are taught the ways of cult-like Christianity, the temptations of the flesh, the horror of Satan; the head priest, who teaches the children these doctrines of fundamentalist Catholicism, has unknowingly brought evil with him by focusing on Sin instead of salvation. The priest fills these young minds with the belief, he delves deep into their psyche asking them things like whether or not they masturbate, because masturbation, according to the Catholic Church, is the same as premarital sex and gives the devil a foothold in their hearts and minds. The priest goes so far as to call a girl at the camp a whore because she was talking to a male member of the camp.

These psychological attacks take their toll, the presence of a demon starts to creep into the minds of the children the main character, Tommy Leary. Tommy's grandfather had died and the afterlife is much on his mind. At the same time, his innocent relationship with his childhood crush becomes more physical until the two escape into the woods for a sexual encounter. Melissa, his crush, is sent home, allowing the priest to focus on Tommy; the priest takes Tommy down a psychological and spiritual path that makes the presence of the demon real to him, it begins to haunt him. The movie ends with Tommy, after a confrontation with the priest and a near suicide attempt, denouncing his faith in the God he was being taught about and goes on a different path; the priest, after his brutal encounter with Tommy in his cabin, suffers a stroke. The members of the community struggle over whether to pull the plug, hoping for a miracle, while the priest spends the rest of his life in a persistent vegetative state, eyes wide open, with a look of horror on his face.

On the way home from the hospital, Tommy finds a note given to him earlier by Melissa telling him when he can to find her and be with her. As the car drives on, he opens the window and throws out the copy of Dante's Inferno, which falls open on the road to a picture of a demon. Will Denton as Tommy Leary Dana Delany as Patricia Leary Andrew McCarthy as Michael Leary Bruce Davison as Fr. Phineas McAllister Valentina de Angelis as Melissa Connor Paolo as Jack James McCaffrey as Dr. John Sasha Neulinger as Jimmy Spencer Treat Clark as Timothy Chris Northrop as Death Metal Kid Drew Powell as Bob Jesse Eisenberg as Daniel Jacobs Joseph Vincent Cordaro as Ryan Christopher Denham as Christian Caroline London as Rose Leary The film was released in the United States on August 13, 2010. Lionsgate released the film on DVD in the United States in 2011. Jesse Eisenberg filed a lawsuit against Lionsgate Entertainment and Grindstone Entertainment for trying to fraudulently capitalize on his fame by using his name and face to promote a movie in which he was absent.

Legal documents state:"Eisenberg is bringing this lawsuit in order to warn his fans and public that, contrary to the manner in which the defendants are advertising the film, Eisenberg is not the star of and does not appear in a prominent role in Camp Hell, but instead has a cameo role in Camp Hell." Eisenberg asked for damages of at least US$3 million. Camp Hell on IMDb

George John Rehring

George John Rehring was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Toledo from 1950 to 1967. Rehring was born in Ohio, to Bernard L. and Mary A. Rehring, he attended Mount St. Mary's Seminary, both in Cincinnati, he was ordained to the priesthood on March 28, 1914. He served as a curate at St. Mary's Church in Hillsboro before being assigned to SS. Peter and Paul Church in Reading. In 1921, he received his first pastorate at Guardian Angels Church in Cincinnati, he became professor of theology at Mount St. Mary's Seminary in 1923. From 1926 to 1928, he continued his studies at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome, where he earned a Doctor of Sacred Theology degree, he served as rector of Mount St. Mary's Seminary from 1931 to 1940, he was named a domestic prelate in 1932. On August 6, 1937, Rehring was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati and titular bishop of Lunda by Pope Pius XI, he received his episcopal consecration on the following October 7 from Archbishop John T. McNicholas, with Bishops Joseph H. Albers and Urban John Vehr serving as co-consecrators.

As an auxiliary bishop, he served as pastor of St. Mary's Church in the Hyde Park section of Cincinnati from 1940 to 1950. Rehring was named the fourth Bishop of Toledo on July 16, 1950, he attended all four sessions of the Second Vatican Council between 1962 and 1965. After reaching the mandatory retirement age of 75, he resigned as bishop of Toledo on February 25, 1967. Rehring died at age 85. St. Mary's Church Hillsboro, Ohio SS. Peter and Paul Church Guardian Angels Church St. Mary's Church Hyde Park, Cincinnati

John K. Snyder III

Not related to the Louisiana politician John K. SnyderJohn K. Snyder III is a writer and illustrator of comic books and graphic novels, his work has been published in the pages of the underground press, most notably The Duckberg Times, by independent comic book publishers, including Grendel for Dark Horse Comics. At DC Comics, Snyder has worked on titles such as Suicide Squad, Doctor Mid-Nite, Green Lantern, Mister E. Snyder's latest project is as adapter/artist of the graphic novel adaptation of Lawrence Block's detective noir novel, 8 Million Ways to Die. Snyder wrote and drew his first project, Fashion in Action, published by Eclipse Comics as a backup feature in Timothy Truman's Scout in 1985, as a series of specials in 1986 and 1987. During this time he began to illustrate gallery pieces and covers for books such as Comico's Jonny Quest comic book series and Alan Moore's Miracleman, he worked with Michael H. Price on Leo Kragg: The Prowler for Eclipse Comics. Snyder gained notoriety shortly thereafter with his work on Matt Wagner's Grendel series, illustrating "The God and The Devil" story arc re-issued and collected by Dark Horse Comics.

Snyder moved to DC Comics' Suicide Squad, written by John Ostrander and Kim Yale, most notably contributing to the "Janus Directive" storyline. It was shortly after Snyder's completion of the Suicide Squad run that he adapted and illustrated Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde and Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent for First Comics and Berkley Books. Snyder returned to DC Comics to work on Mister E, a Books of Magic spin-off four-issue mini-series, written by founding cyber/steampunk writer K. W. Jeter. Snyder continued to draw comic book covers and short stories, working with Harlan Ellison on producing a duo of covers for Ellison's Edgeworks series, volume II of, featured in the fourth Spectrum Illustration Annual. Snyder and writer Matt Wagner re-imagined the DC Comics Golden Age character Doctor Mid-Nite for a three-issue prestige format series in 1999, collected. Wagner and Snyder co-created Lady Zorro for Dynamite Entertainment in 2012. Snyder has illustrated numerous trading and gaming cards for various companies, including Topps, WildStorm, Upper Deck, White Wolf Publishing, the Last Unicorn Games' collectible card game Heresy: Kingdom Come.

In 2010, Snyder produced covers for the IDW graphic novel adaptation of Harlan Ellison's Phoenix Without Ashes. Snyder's first work, Fashion In Action, was restored by the creator/artist and collected by Bedside Press in 2017. Leo Kragg: The Prowler has been restored and collected in two volumes by Cremo Press. Snyder's most recent work is adapting and illustrating the graphic novel adaptation of Lawrence Block's noir classic novel, Eight Million Ways to Die featuring Block's world-famous detective, Matthew Scudder, published by IDW in June 2018. Snyder was a 1989 Eisner Award nominee, in the category of Best Art Team. John K. Snyder III at the Comic Book DB John K. Snyder III at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Gallery of John K. Snyder's work on Comicvine