The Hatran alphabet is the script used to write Aramaic of Hatra, a dialect, spoken from 98/97 BC to 240 AD by early inhabitants of present-day northern Iraq. Many inscriptions of this alphabet could be found at Hatra, an ancient city in northern Iraq built by the Seleucid Empire and used by the Parthian Empire, but subsequently destroyed by the Sassanid Empire in 241 AD. Assur has several inscriptions which came to an end following its destruction by the Sasanian in 257 AD while the rest of the inscriptions are spread sparsely throughout Dura-Europos, Tur Abdin, Tikrit, Sa'adiya and Qabr Abu Naif. Many of the contemporary ruins were destroyed by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in early 2015, it was encoded in the Unicode Standard 8.0 with support from UC Berkeley's Script Encoding Initiative. The script is written from right to left of Aramaic scripts and of most abjads. Numerals are written from right to left, there are two known punctuation marks as well; some common ligatures exist, they don't appear to be necessary, are rather just a shorthand form of writing.
Some 600 texts are known to exist. Hatran script was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2015 with the release of version 8.0. The Unicode block for Hatran is U+108E0–U+108FF
Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum
Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum is a museum located in Margareten, Vienna. The original Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum existed from January 1925 until it was suppressed by the Austrofascists in February 1934, it was the base for the development of the Vienna Method. It was evolved out of the Museum für Siedlung und Städtebau; this had been set up following Neurath's involvement in the Austrian Association for Settlements and Small Gardens. The museum developed a collaborative relationship with the Otto Glöckel. In 1927, Willem Sandberg visited Vienna. In 1928 Neurath recruited Gerd Arntz from Düsseldorf to lead the Design team there. Arntz was unsure about whether to take up the job offer, but thanks to the encouragement of Franz Seiwert he accepted and was soon joined by Peter Alma and Augustin Tschinkel, both associated with the Cologne Progressives, the art group Seiwert and Arntz had set up; the GeWiMu was the home of one of the most significant developments in graphic design: the Vienna Method.
This evolved out of Neurath's desire to produce informational material, understandable regardless of the language skills of the onlooker. 1924-1934 Otto Neurath 1945-1972 Franz Rauscher, a student of Otto Neurath founded the Austrian Institute of Economic and Social Affairs statistics 1972-2000 Josef Docekal Under his leadership, the public museum re-established in 1988 2000–present Hans Hartweger runs the museum
Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. Italian Renaissance painters and architects including Filippo Brunelleschi, Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca and Luca Pacioli studied linear perspective, wrote treatises on it, incorporated it into their artworks, thus contributing to the mathematics of art. Linear perspective always works by representing the light that passes from a scene through an imaginary rectangle, to the viewer's eye, as if a viewer were looking through a window and painting what is seen directly onto the windowpane. If viewed from the same spot as the windowpane was painted, the painted image would be identical to what was seen through the unpainted window; each painted object in the scene is thus a flat, scaled down version of the object on the other side of the window.
Because each portion of the painted object lies on the straight line from the viewer's eye to the equivalent portion of the real object it represents, the viewer sees no difference between the painted scene on the windowpane and the view of the real scene. All perspective drawings assume. Objects are scaled relative to that viewer. An object is not scaled evenly: a circle appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid; this distortion is referred to as foreshortening. Perspective drawings have a horizon line, implied; this line, directly opposite the viewer's eye, represents objects infinitely far away. They have shrunk, to the infinitesimal thickness of a line, it is analogous to the Earth's horizon. Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing. A one-point perspective drawing means that the drawing has a single vanishing point directly opposite the viewer's eye and on the horizon line. All lines parallel with the viewer's line of sight recede to the horizon towards this vanishing point.
This is the standard "receding railroad tracks" phenomenon. A two-point drawing would have lines parallel to two different angles. Any number of vanishing points are possible in a drawing, one for each set of parallel lines that are at an angle relative to the plane of the drawing. Perspectives consisting of many parallel lines are observed most when drawing architecture; because it is rare to have a scene consisting of lines parallel to the three Cartesian axes, it is rare to see perspectives in practice with only one, two, or three vanishing points. The earliest art paintings and drawings sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their spiritual or thematic importance, not their distance from the viewer, did not use foreshortening; the most important figures are shown as the highest in a composition from hieratic motives, leading to the so-called "vertical perspective", common in the art of Ancient Egypt, where a group of "nearer" figures are shown below the larger figure or figures.
The only method to indicate the relative position of elements in the composition was by overlapping, of which much use is made in works like the Parthenon Marbles. Chinese artists made use of oblique perspective from the first or second century until the 18th century, it is not certain. Oblique projection is seen in Japanese art, such as in the Ukiyo-e paintings of Torii Kiyonaga. In the 18th century, Chinese artists began to combine oblique perspective with regular diminution of size of people and objects with distance. Systematic attempts to evolve a system of perspective are considered to have begun around the fifth century BC in the art of ancient Greece, as part of a developing interest in illusionism allied to theatrical scenery; this was detailed within Aristotle's Poetics as skenographia: using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth. The philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of perspective for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his house designed using skenographia, so this art was not confined to the stage.
Euclid's Optics introduced a mathematical theory of perspective, but there is some debate over the extent to which Euclid's perspective coincides with the modern mathematical definition. Various paintings and drawings from the Middle Ages show amateur attempts at projections of objects, where parallel lines are represented in isometric projection, or by nonparallel ones without a vanishing point. By the periods of antiquity, artists those in less popular traditions, were well aware that distant objects could be shown smaller than those close at hand for increased realism, but whether this convention was used in a work depended on many factors; some of the paintings found in the ruins o
Austrofascism was the authoritarian system installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934, which ceased with the annexation of the newly founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938. It was based on the Fatherland Front and the Heimwehr paramilitary militia. Leaders were Engelbert Dollfuss and, after Dollfuss's assassination, Kurt Schuschnigg, who were politicians of the Christian Social Party, integrated into the new movement. Austrofascism, Catholic and corporatist and espoused Austrian nationalism, must be contrasted with Austrian National Socialism, pan-German and anti-semitic in outlook; the Austrofascist movement's origin lies in the Korneuburg Oath, a declaration released by the Christian Social paramilitary organization Heimwehr on 18 May 1930. The declaration condemned both the "Marxist class struggle" and the economic structures of "liberal-capitalism". Furthermore, it explicitly rejected "the Western democratic parliamentary system and -party state"; the declaration was directed at the Social Democratic opposition in response to the Linz Program of 1926, was not only taken by the Heimwehr but by many Christian Social politicians, setting Austria on a course to an authoritarian system.
Ideologically, Austrofascism was rooted in Austria's political Catholicism. It somewhat resembled Italian fascism as expounded by Giovanni Gentile; the election in Vienna in 1932 made it that the coalition of Christian Social Party, the Landbund, the Heimwehr would lose their majority in the national parliament, depriving the Austrian government of its parliamentary basis. To ensure proper and efficient governance over citizens, the government sought to replace Austrian democracy with an authoritarian system based in Austrian Catholic principles; these efforts were supported from abroad by Benito Mussolini. The Ständestaat concept, derived from the notion of Stände, constituted the form favoured form by Dollfuss and by Kurt Schuschnigg; the opportunity for such a transition arrived on 4 March 1933 when the national parliament was paralysed by procedural disputes. Dollfuss held a one-vote majority in parliament. During a dispute over a voting recount, the speaker and vice-speakers of parliament resigned in order to be able to cast their votes, in the absence of the three speakers, there existed no procedural means to reconvene Parliament.
Dollfuss branded this as the "self-elimination of the Parliament" and proceeded to rule on the basis of the Wartime Economy Authorization Act. This law had been passed in 1917 during World War I to enable the government to issue decrees ensuring the supply of necessities; the law had never been explicitly revoked and was now used by the Austrian government to inaugurate an authoritarian state. On 7 March 1933, the Council of Ministers issued a ban on assembly and protests. Press regulations were levied by the Wartime Economy Authority Law and touted as economic safeguards; the law allowed for the government to require approval of a newspaper, printed up to two hours before its distribution under certain circumstances, for instance if "through damage to patriotic, religious or moral sensibility, a danger to public peace and security" would arise. This allowed for censorship of the press, but the government was eager to avoid the appearance of open censorship, forbidden by the constitution; the opposition made a final attempt to reverse the changes in parliament, met by police power on 15 March 1933.
As Großdeutsche, who advocated a merger with Germany, Social Democrats arrived at the Parliament building, the government sent 200 detectives to Parliament to prevent the representatives from taking their places in the assembly hall. On 31 March, the government dissolved the Republikanischer Schutzbund. On 10 April 1933, the decree by former Social Democratic Education Minister Otto Glöckel, which had made Catholic religious lessons in schools non-mandatory, was abolished. On 10 May, all federal and local elections were cancelled; the Communist Party of Austria was dissolved on 26 May, the National Socialist Workers' Party on 19 June, the Free Thinkers Guild on 20 June. The Hotel Schiff, an asylum of the Social Democrats in Linz, was raided by the police in February 1934; the Social Democrats resisted, leading to the Austrian Civil War, quelled with military and paramilitary force. Afterward, the Social Democratic Party was banned in Austria. On 30 April 1934, the national parliament, in its last session, passed a law that enabled the government to assume all the powers held by parliament.
On 1 May, Dollfuss' government proclaimed the May Constitution, which diminished the term Republic and instead used as the official name of the state "Federal State of Austria", though the constitution reduced the individual states' autonomy. The Federal Council was retained, though only as a limited check on the Federal government. Rather than establishing the composition of a fifty-nine member National Council through direct suffrage, this was accomplished by four "Councils" representing the professionals from Austrian Culture, State affairs, the States of Austria and Economic affairs; the National Council lost its power to initiate legislation but was still expected to approve decrees from the government. All essential power lay with the Federal Chancellor, who appointed his government single-handedly, the Federal President, who named the Chancellor
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs combined logographic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood; the hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Siniatic script that evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Through the Phoenician alphabet's major child systems, the Greek and Aramaic scripts, the Egyptian hieroglyphic script is ancestral to the majority of scripts in modern use, most prominently the Latin and Cyrillic scripts and the Arabic script and Brahmic family of scripts; the use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty. Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period.
The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. With the final closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost. Although attempts were made, the script remained undeciphered throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period; the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing would only be accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω; the glyphs themselves since the Ptolemaic period were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". Greek ἱερογλυφός meant "a carver of hieroglyphs". In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590 short for nominalised hieroglyphic, from adjectival use.
Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" recovered at Abydos in 1998 or the Narmer Palette; the first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia".
There are many instances of early Egypt-Mesopotamia relations, but given the lack of direct evidence for the transfer of writing, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". Instead, it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a credible argument can be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one, although Egyptian writing does make a sudden apparition at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionnary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts.
These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms in monumental and other formal writing; the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods, it appears that the misleading quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part, as a response to the changed political situation. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish'true Egyptians' from some of the foreign conquerors. Another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generally. Having learned that hieroglyphs were sacred writing, Greco-Roman authors imagined the complex but rational system as an allegorical magical, system transmitting secre
The Mundaneum is a non-profit organisation based in Mons, Belgium that runs an exhibition space and archive which celebrate the legacy of the original Mundaneum established by Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine in the early twentieth century. The Mundaneum was created in 1910, following an initiative begun in 1895 by Belgian lawyers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine, as part of their work on documentation science. Otlet first called it the Palais Mondial, meaning "world palace" in English, it occupied the left wing of the Palais du Cinquantenaire, a government building in Brussels, it aimed to gather together all the world's knowledge and classify it according to a system they developed called the Universal Decimal Classification. Otlet and La Fontaine organized an International Conference of International Associations, the origin of the Union of International Associations; the Mundaneum has been identified as a milestone in the history of data collection and management, as a precursor to the Internet.
Otlet regarded the project as the centrepiece of a new'world city'—a centrepiece which became an archive with more than 12 million index cards and documents. Some consider it a forerunner of the Internet and Otlet himself had dreams that one day, all the information he collected could be accessed by people from the comfort of their own homes. An English pamphlet published in 1914 described it: The International Centre organises collections of world-wide importance; these collections are the International Museum, the International Library, the International Bibliographic Catalogue and the Universal Documentary Archives. These collections are conceived as parts of one universal body of documentation, as an encyclopedic survey of human knowledge, as an enormous intellectual warehouse of books, documents and scientific objects. Established according to standardised methods, they are formed by assembling cooperative everything that the participating associations may gather or classify. Consolidated and coordinated in all of their parts and enriched by duplicates of all private works wherever undertaken, these collections will tend progressively to constitute a permanent and complete representation of the entire world.
The Mundaneum was housed at the Palais du Cinquantenaire in Brussels. This was renamed Palais Mondial, before the name Mundaneum was adopted. Otlet commissioned architect Le Corbusier to design a Mundaneum project to be built in Geneva, Switzerland in 1929. Although never built, the project triggered the Mundaneum Affair, a theoretical argument between Corbusier and Czech critic and architect Karel Teige. In 1933, with Otlet's agreement, Otto Neurath founded the Mundaneum Institute as a branch in The Hague in 1933, which became central to his activities when he moved to the Netherlands as a refugee following the defeat of the Austrian Social Democratic Party in the Austrian Civil War. In 1936 the Mundaneum Institute launched the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science; when Nazi Germany invaded Belgium in 1940, the Mundaneum was replaced with an exhibit of Third Reich art, some material was lost. The Mundaneum was reconstituted in a decrepit building in Leopold Park, it remained there until it was forced to move again in 1972.
The Mundaneum has since been relocated to a converted 1930s department store in Mons, where the existing museum opened in 1998. On August 23 2015, a Google Doodle depicting the Mundaneum filing cabinets was released; the Doodle was meant to pay tribute to the creators of the Mundaneum as pioneers of open information. "As We May Think", an essay by Vannevar Bush History of libraries Information science OCLC, the world's largest library network Project Xanadu, the first hypertext system, founded in 1960 WorldCat, the world's largest bibliographic databasePeoplePaul Otlet Vannevar Bush Fred Kilgour J. C. R. Licklider Douglas Engelbart Ted Nelson Andries van Dam Tim Berners-Lee IdeasExternal memory Hypermedia Hypertext Intelligence amplification Office of the future Victorian Internet, term coined to describe advanced 19th-century telecommunications technologies such as the telegraph World Wide Web Rayward's Otlet Page: Paul Otlet and Documentation Mundaneum at Google Cultural Institute World of Learning and a Virtual Library Barry James, International Herald Tribune, June 27, 1998.
The Web that time forgot Alex Wright, The New York Times, June 17, 2008. Architectures of Global Knowledge: The Mundaneum and the World Wide Web Charles van den Heuvel, Destination Library 15, 2008. Long Before the Internet: The Mundaneum, Cerebral Boinkfest website, January 19, 2011, retrieved from cerebralboinkfest.blogspot.ca on October 23, 2012: a weblog page outlining the Mundaneum's history. Dennis Pohl, „The Smart City - City of Knowledge“, in: Mondothèque: A Radiated Book / Un livre irradiant / Een irradiërend boek, Brüssel: Constant 2016, S. 235-244, ISBN 978-9-08114-595-4. Official website Official website