click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Isra and Mi'raj

The Israʾ and Miʿraj are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, the Islamic prophet Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621. Within Islam it signifies both a spiritual journey; the Quran surah al-Isra contains an outline account, while greater detail is found in the hadith collections of the reports, teachings and sayings of Muhammad. In the accounts of the Israʾ, Muhammad is said to have traveled on the back of a winged mule-like white beast, called Buraq, to "the farthest mosque". By tradition this mosque, which came to represent the physical world, was identified as the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. At the mosque, Muhammad is said to have led the other prophets in prayer, his subsequent ascent into the heavens came to be known as the Miʿraj. Muhammad's journey and ascent is marked as one of the most celebrated dates in the Islamic calendar; the events of Isra and Miʿraj mentioned in the Quran are further enlarged and interpreted within the supplement to the Quran, the literary corpus known as hadith, which contain the reported sayings of Muhammad.

Two of the best hadith sources are by Anas ibn Ibn ʿAbbas. Both were young boys at the time of Muhammad's journey of Mi'raj. Within the Quran, surat al-Isra, contains a brief description of Isra in the first verse; some scholars say a verse in surah an-Najm holds information on the Isra and Miʿraj. Glory to Him Who carried His beloved by night from the Sacred Masjid to the Furthest Masjid, whose precincts We have blessed, to show him of Our wonders! He it is Who is All-Hearing, All-Seeing! Remember when We said to you that your Lord encompasses mankind in His knowledge. Nor did We make the vision We showed you except as a test to people, as the accursed tree in the Quran, and he saw him a second time,By the lote-tree of the ExtremityNear, the Garden of RefugeWhen there covered the lote-tree that which covered it. The neither overreached, he saw some of his Lord's greatest wonders. From the tradition of Ibn Ishaq, the earliest biographer of Muhammad, the reference in the Quran to "the Farthest Masjid", from surat al-Isra, has been wrongly interpreted to mean only the site or location of the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.

There is not ahadith support this interpretation. The Masjid in Jerusalem was built after Muhammad's lifetime in 690–691, the term used for mosque means place of prostration and thus can imply any place of worship from a building to an open place; the mosque was built by the Umayyad caliph ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan in 690-691 with the Dome of the Rock and finished by his son al-Walid I in 705. The building was destroyed by earthquakes and rebuilt, until the reconstruction in 1033 CE, by the Fatimid caliph ‘Ali az-Zahir, that structure stands to the present day. Islamic scholars such as Heribert Busse and Neal Robinson, believe that Jerusalem is the interpretation intended in the Quran. Muslims used to pray towards Jerusalem, but according to the following verses of their Quran, God changed this direction, the Qiblah, to instead direct to al-Masjid al-Haram: And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you, and We did not make the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels.

And indeed, it is difficult except for those. And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith. Indeed Allah is, to the people and Merciful. We have seen the turning of your face, toward the heaven, We will turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram, and wherever you are, turn your faces toward it. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture well know, and Allah is not unaware of. From various hadiths we learn much greater detail; the Israʾ is the part of the journey of Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem. It began when Muhammad was in the Great Mosque, the Archangel Jibrīl came to him, brought Buraq, the traditional heavenly mount of the prophets. Buraq carried Muhammad to the "Farthest Mosque", in Jerusalem. Muhammad alighted, tethered Buraq to the Temple Mount and performed prayer, where on God's command he was tested by Gabriel, it was told by Anas ibn Malik that Muhammad said: "Jibra'il brought me a vessel of wine, a vessel of water and a vessel of milk, I chose the milk.

Jibra'il said:'You have chosen the Fitrah.'" In the second part of the journey, the Miʿraj, Jibra'il took him to the heavens, where he toured the seven stages of heaven, spoke with the earlier prophets such as Abraham, John the Baptist, Jesus. Muhammad was taken to Sidrat al-Muntaha – a holy tree in the seventh heaven that Gabriel was not allowed to pass. According to Islamic tradition, God instructed Muhammad. There are different accounts of what occurred during the Miʿraj, but most narratives have the same elements: Muhammad ascended into heaven with the angel Gabriel and

PDPR

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDPR gene. The complete cDNA of PDPR, which contains 2885 base pairs, has an open reading frame of 2634 nucleotides encoding a putative presequence of 31 amino acid residues and a mature protein of 847. Characteristics of native PDPR include ability to decrease the sensitivity of the catalytic subunit to Mg2+, reversal of this inhibitory effect by the polyamine spermine. A BLAST search of protein databases revealed that PDPr is distantly related to the mitochondrial flavoprotein dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, which functions in choline degradation; the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid synthesis. Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate PDC activity is important, because PDC inactivation is crucial for glucose conservation when glucose is scarce, whereas adequate PDC activity is required to allow both ATP and FA production from glucose.

The mechanisms that control mammalian PDC activity include its phosphorylation by a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases and its dephosphorylation by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases. As PDPR is involved in the regulation of the central metabolic pathway, its participation in disease pathophysiology is but there has been no published research on this thus far

Subinoy Roy

Subinoy Roy was an Indian singer, considered one of the best-known exponents of the songs of Rabindranath Tagore:. Roy was initiated to Rabindra Sangeet by his mother at a early age. While studying Chemistry in graduation level at Shantiniketan, he came in contact with Maestro Shailajaranjan Majumder and started learning Rabindra Sangeet from him, he learned Indian Classical Music from Girija Shankar Chakrabarty. At some time, he left Shantiniketan and pursued studying library science from England and joined Indian Statistical Institute as librarian. Still, he became renowned as a teacher of Rabindra Sangeet that too for being an authority in Rabindra Sangeet in its purest form, he became a regular artist of Rabindra Sangeet in the All India Radio since 1943. His first gramaphone record was released with two songs. Once interviewed on expiry of copyright of the songs written by Rabindranath Tagore, Subinoy Roy expressed: "I'm not sure where all these do's and don'ts came from.... Rabindranath liked the esraj, violin and tabla with his songs, but if the guitar and drums existed at the time, I'm sure he would have tried those out too.

At least he wouldn't reject them if they made his songs sound better.". Roy died in hospital in Kolkata four days after his wife. Roy, Subinoy. রবীন্দ্র সংগীত সাধনা, A Mukherjee and Sons:Kolkata

1946 Wisconsin Badgers football team

The 1946 Wisconsin Badgers football team was an American football team that represented the University of Wisconsin in the 1946 Big Nine Conference football season. The team finished in eighth place in the Big Nine Conference. Harry Stuhldreher was in his 11th year as Wisconsin's head coach; the team averaged 253.1 yards per game of total offense, 179.8 by rushing, 73.3 by passing. The team's statistical leaders included Earl Maves with 538 rushing yards, Lisle Blackbourn, Jr. with 175 passing yards, Tom Bennett with 124 receiving yards, Ben Bendrick with 30 points scored. Center Fred Negus received the team's most valuable player award. T. A. Cox led the Big Nine with an average of 43.0 yards per punt. Clarence Esser was the team captain. Earl Maves rushed for 155 yards against Marquette on September 21, 1946. In the same game, he set a Wisconsin school record with an 86-yard touchdown run; that record stood until 1957. In the Marquette game, Gene Evans set a school record with three interceptions, a record that stood until 1954.

The defense held Marquette to five rushing yards in the game. On September 28, 1946, Wisconsin set a school record by holding California to 71 yards; that record stood until 2005. The team played its home games at Camp Randall Stadium. During the 1946 season, the average attendance at home games was 45,000

Cashel (Parliament of Ireland constituency)

Cashel was a constituency represented in the Irish House of Commons to 1800. It returned two members to the Parliament of Ireland to 1800; this constituency was the borough of County Tipperary. In the Patriot Parliament of 1689 summoned by King James II, Cashel was represented with two members. Following the Act of Union 1800 the borough retained one parliamentary seat in the United Kingdom House of Commons. 1585 Denis Conway and Patrick Kearney 1613–1615 John Sale and Dr John Haley 1634–1635 Thomas Little and Dr John Haley 1639–1649 Thomas Little and Patrick Boyton 1661–1666 Richard Le Hunte and Eliah Greene O'Hart, John. The Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry: When Cromwell came to Ireland. Vol. II. Heritage Books. ISBN 0-7884-1927-7. Leigh Rayment's historical List of Members of the Irish House of Commonscites: Johnston-Liik, Edith Mary; the History of the Irish Parliament 1692-1800. Ulster Historical Foundation

William R. Davie House

The William R. Davie House, on Norman St. in Halifax, Halifax County, North Carolina, is a historic house with significance dating from 1783. William R. Davie was born in England, he was an patriot officer of mounted troops in the American Revolution, attended the Constitutional Convention from North Carolina, served as governor of North Carolina, served as a special ambassador to France during the XYZ Affair, served in the North Carolina legislature. The house known as Loretta, was built on five acres that Davie bought in 1783, it was built starting in about 1785. It is a large frame side-hall plan house beneath a gable roof, it has a two-story wing raised from an earlier one-story wing and a number of one-story rear additions. The house rests on a brick foundation, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973