The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Expulsions and exoduses of Jews
In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions and have fled from areas after experiencing ostracism and threats of various kinds by various local authorities seeking refuge in other countries. The Land of Israel was always regarded by Jews as the Jewish homeland. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel adopted the 1950 Law of Return restoring Israel as the Jewish homeland and making it the place of refuge for Jewish refugees at the time and into the future; this law was intended to encourage Jews to return to their homeland in Israel. The following is a list of Jewish expulsions and events that prompted major streams of Jewish refugees. 733 BCE Samaria. King Tiglath-Pileser III deports Jews.722 BCE King Sargon II deports Jews. The Assyrians led by Shalmaneser conquered the Kingdom of Israel and deports the population to Khorasan. Ten of twelve Tribes of Israel are considered lost.597 BCE The Babylonian captivity. In 537 BCE the Persians, who conquered Babylon two years earlier, allow Jews to return and rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple.475 BCE Persia.
Haman plots to expell and kill all Jews.70 CE The defeat of the Great Jewish Revolt. Masses of Jews across the Roman Empire enslaved, while many others flee.119 Large Jewish communities of Cyprus and Alexandria obliterated after the Jewish defeat in Kitos War against Rome. This event caused a major demographic shift in the North Africa. According to Eusebius of Caesarea the outbreak of violence left Libya depopulated to such an extent that a few years new colonies had to be established there by the emperor Hadrian just to maintain the viability of continued settlement.135/6 The Romans suppressed the Bar Kokhba's revolt. Emperor Hadrian expelled hundreds of thousands Jews from Judea, wiped the name off maps, replaced it with Syria Palaestina, forbade Jews to set foot in Jerusalem.629 The entire Jewish population of Galilee massacred or expelled, following the Jewish rebellion against Byzantium.7th century Muhammad expelled Jewish tribes Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir from Medina, The Banu Qurayza tribe was slaughtered and the Jewish settlement of Khaybar was ransacked.
All three tribes had a peace treaty with Muhammad, but they broke the treaty and sided with the opposition. The Banu Qurayza, not only sided with the opposing leaders but they waged war against Muhammad.1095 – mid-13th century The waves of Crusades destroyed hundreds of Jewish communities in Europe and in the Middle East, including Jerusalem. Mid-12th century The invasion of Almohades brought to end the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Among other refugees was Maimonides, who fled to Morocco Egypt Eretz Israel.1276 Jews expelled from Upper Bavaria. 12th–14th centuries France. The practice of expelling the Jews accompanied by confiscation of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom, was used to enrich the crown: expulsions from Paris by Philip Augustus in 1182, from France by Louis IX in 1254, by Philip IV in 1306, by Charles IV in 1322, by Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.13th century The influential philosopher and logician Ramon Llull called for expulsion of all Jews who would refuse conversion to Christianity.
Some scholars regard Llull's as the first comprehensive articulation, in the Christian West, of an expulsionist policy regarding Jews.1288 Naples issues first expulsion of Jews in Southern Italy.1290 King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion for all Jews from England. The policy was reversed after 365 years in 1655 by Oliver Cromwell.1293 Destruction of most of the Jewish communities in the Kingdom of Naples.1392 Jews expelled from Bern, Switzerland. Although between 1408 and 1427 Jews were again residing in the city, the only Jews to appear in Bern subsequently were transients, chiefly physicians and cattle dealers.1442 Jews again expelled from Upper Bavaria.1478 Jews expelled from Passau.1491 Jews of Ravenna expelled, synagogues destroyed.1492 Ferdinand II and Isabella I issued the Alhambra decree, General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, from Sicily, from Portugal from Calabria Italy 1554. It is important to note that this event happened on Tisha B'Av, as with many other events in Jewish history.1495 Charles VIII of France occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain.1496 Jews expelled from Portugal1499 Jews expelled from Nuremberg.1510 Jews expelled from Naples.1519 Jews expelled from Regensburg.1551 All remaining Jews expelled from the duchy of Bavaria.
Jewish settlement in Bavaria ceased until toward the end of the 17th century, when a small community was founded in Sulzbach by refugees from Vienna. 1569 Pope Pius V expels the Jews from the papal states, with the exception of Ancona and Rome.1593 Pope Clement VIII expels the Jews living in all the papal states, except Rome and Ancona. Jews are invited to settle in Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany, where they are granted full religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to develop the region into a center of commerce.1597 Nine hundred Jews expelled from Milan.1614 Fettmilch Uprising: Jews are expelled from Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, following the plundering of the Judengasse.1654 The fall of the Dutch colony of Recife in Brazil to the Portuguese prompted the first group of Jews to flee to North America.1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession. After the war, Jews of Austrian origin were expelled from Bavaria, but some were able to acquire the right to reside in Munich.1744–1790s The reforms of Frederick II, Joseph II and Maria Theresa sent masses of impoverished German and Austrian Jews east.
See also: Schutzjude.1862 Tennessee, Kentucky Je
Vladivostok is a city and the administrative center of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city as of 2017 was 606,589, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census. Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres away, whilst Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres east across the Sea of Japan; the city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean. Vladivostok was first named in 1859 along with other features in the Peter the Great Gulf area by Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky; the name first applied to the bay but, following an expedition by Alexey Shefner in 1860, was applied to the new settlement. In Chinese, the place where the city is situated nowadays has been known since the Qing Dynasty as Haishenwai, from the Manchu Haišenwai or "small seaside village"; as the Manchu Qing Dynasty banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria, it was only visited by shēnzéi who illegally entered the area seeking ginseng or sea cucumbers.
From this comes the Chinese name for the city, Hǎishēnwǎi. In modern-day China, Vladivostok is known by the transliteration 符拉迪沃斯托克, although the historical Chinese name 海參崴 is still used in common parlance and outside mainland China to refer to the city. According to the provisions of the Chinese government, all maps published in China have to bracket the city's Chinese name; the modern-day Japanese name of the city is transliterated as Urajiosutoku. The city was written in Kanji as 浦塩斯徳 and shortened to Urajio ウラジオ. In Korean, the name is transliterated as Beulladiboseutokeu in South Korea, Ullajibosŭttokhŭ in North Korea and China; the aboriginals of the territory on which modern Vladivostok is located are the Udege minority, a sub-minority called the Taz which emerged through members of the indigenous Udege mixing with the nearby Chinese and Hezhe. The region had been part of many states, such as the Mohe, Balhae Kingdom, Liao Dynasty, Jīn Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty and various other Chinese dynasties, before Russia acquired the entire Maritime Province and the island of Sakhalin by the Treaty of Beijing.
Qing China, which had just lost the Opium War with Britain, was unable to defend the region. The Manchu emperors of China, the Qing Dynasty, banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria including the Vladivostok area —it was only visited by illegal gatherers of ginseng and sea cucumbers. On June 20, 1860, the military supply ship Manchur, under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Alexey K. Shefner, called at the Golden Horn Bay to found an outpost called Vladivostok. Warrant officer Nikolay Komarov with 28 soldiers and two non-commissioned officers under his command were brought from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur by ship to construct the first buildings of the future city; the Manza War in 1868 was the first attempt by Russia to expel Chinese from territory. Hostilities broke out around Vladivostok when the Russians tried to shut off gold mining operations and expel Chinese workers there; the Chinese resisted a Russian attempt to take Ashold Island and in response, two Russian military stations and three Russian towns were attacked by the Chinese whom the Russians failed to oust.
An elaborate system of fortifications was erected between the late 1890s. A telegraph line from Vladivostok to Shanghai and Nagasaki was opened in 1871; that same year a commercial port was relocated to Vladivostok from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Town status was granted on April 22, 1880. A coat of arms, representing the Siberian tiger, was adopted in March 1883; the first high school was opened in 1899. The city's economy was given a boost in 1916, with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which connected Vladivostok to Moscow and Europe. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks took control of Vladivostok and all the Trans-Siberian Railway. During the Russian Civil War they were overthrown by the White-allied Czechoslovak Legion, who declared the city to be an Allied protectorate. Vladivostok became the staging point for the Allies' Siberian intervention, a multi-national force including Japan, the United States, China; the intervention ended in the wake of the collapse of the White Army and regime in 1919.
In April 1920, the city came under the formal governance of the Far Eastern Republic, a Soviet-backed buffer state between the Soviets and Japan. Vladivostok became the capital of the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamurye Government, created after a White Army coup in the city in May 1921; the withdrawal of Japanese forces in October 1922 spelled the end of the enclave, with Ieronim Uborevich's Red Army taking the city on October 25, 1922. As the main naval base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, Vladivostok was closed to foreigners during the Soviet years; the city hosted the summit at which Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford conducted the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1974. At the time, the two countries decided quantitative limits on nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBM launchers. In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th APEC s
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century; the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to 36 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest. Worldwide, Siberia is well known for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C, as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, exile.
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land". Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, an ethnic group which spoke a Paleosiberian language; the Sirtya people were assimilated into the Siberian Tatars. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims; the Polish historian Chyliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north", but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian, he suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with Turkic origin, "su" and "bir". The region has paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or in permafrost. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago, – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the Denisovans. In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species. Siberia was inhabited by different groups of nomads such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians and the Uyghurs; the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century.
Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons."The growing power of Russia in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area; the Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara and Tobolsk were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator, in a map published in 1595, marks Sibier both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe, an indigenous Tungusic people, offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals; some suggest. By the mid-17th century, Russia had established areas of control; some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709.
Siberia was a destination for sending exiles. The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916, it linked Siberia more to the industrialising Russia of Nicholas II. Around seven million people moved to Siberia from European Russia between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. Siberia has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in central Siberia in the Tunguska Event. Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a comet. Though no crater has been found, the landscape in the area still bears the scars of this event. In the early decades of the Soviet Union (
Tel Aviv is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, is home to many foreign embassies, it is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East; the city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually. A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has 24-hour culture. Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students; the city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria.
It was at first called'Ahuzat Bayit', a name changed the following year to'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Ancient Hill of Spring". Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City before Tel Aviv became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles. Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, to where they lived.
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start, its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote: In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights; every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for millennia.
Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in 7,500 BC. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515, it had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv; the first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society; the society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff Tel Aviv's first mayor joined the Ahuzat Bayit society, his vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs. On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells; this gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120
Kobe is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture. It is located on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, on the north shore of Osaka Bay and about 30 km west of Osaka. With a population around 1.5 million, the city is part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kyoto. The earliest written records regarding the region come from the Nihon Shoki, which describes the founding of the Ikuta Shrine by Empress Jingū in AD 201. For most of its history, the area was never a single political entity during the Tokugawa period, when the port was controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate. Kobe did not exist in its current form until its founding in 1889, its name comes from kanbe. Kobe became one of Japan's designated cities in 1956. Kobe was one of the cities to open for trade with the West following the 1853 end of the policy of seclusion and has since been known as a cosmopolitan and nuclear-free zone port city. While the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake diminished much of Kobe's prominence as a port city, it remains Japan's fourth-busiest container port.
Companies headquartered in Kobe include ASICS, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kobe Steel, as well as over 100 international corporations with Asian or Japanese headquarters in the city, such as Eli Lilly and Company, Procter & Gamble, Boehringer Ingelheim, Nestlé. The city is the point of origin and namesake of Kobe beef, as well as the site of one of Japan's most famous hot spring resorts, Arima Onsen. Media related to History of Kobe at Wikimedia Commons Tools found in western Kobe demonstrate the area was populated at least from the Jōmon period; the natural geography of the area of Wada Cape in Hyōgo-ku, led to the development of a port, which would remain the economic center of the city. Some of the earliest written documents mentioning the region include the Nihon Shoki, which describes the founding of the Ikuta Shrine by Empress Jingū in AD 201. During the Nara and Heian periods, the port was known by the name Ōwada Anchorage and was one of the ports from which imperial embassies to China were dispatched.
The city was the capital of Japan in 1180, when Taira no Kiyomori moved his grandson Emperor Antoku to Fukuhara in present-day Hyōgo-ku. The Emperor returned to Kyoto after about five months. Shortly thereafter in 1184, the Taira fortress in Hyōgo-ku and the nearby Ikuta Shrine became the sites of the Genpei War battle of Ichi-no-Tani between the Taira and Minamoto clans; the Minamoto prevailed. As the port grew during the Kamakura period, it became an important hub for trade with China and other countries. In the 13th century, the city came to be known by the name Hyōgo Port. During this time, Hyōgo Port, along with northern Osaka, composed the province of Settsu. During the Edo period, the eastern parts of present-day Kobe came under the jurisdiction of the Amagasaki Domain and the western parts under that of the Akashi Domain, while the center was controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate, it was not until the abolition of the han system in 1871 and the establishment of the current prefecture system that the area became politically distinct.
Hyōgo Port was opened to foreign trade by the Shogunal government at the same time as Osaka on January 1, 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. The region has since been identified with the West and many foreign residences from the period remain in Kobe's Kitano area. Kobe, as it is known today, was founded on April 1, 1889, was designated on September 1, 1956 by government ordinance; the history of the city is tied to that of the Ikuta Shrine, the name "Kobe" derives from kamube, an archaic name for those who supported the shrine. During World War II, Kobe was bombed in the Doolittle Raid on April 18, 1942, along with Tokyo and a few other cities, it was bombed again with incendiary bombs by B-29 bombers on March 17, 1945, causing the death of 8,841 residents and destroying 21% of Kobe's urban area. This incident inspired the well-known Studio Ghibli film Grave of the Fireflies and the book by Akiyuki Nosaka on which the film was based. Following continuous pressure from citizens, on March 18, 1975, the Kobe City Council passed an ordinance banning vessels carrying nuclear weapons from Kobe Port.
This prevented any U. S. warships from entering the port, policy being not to disclose whether any warship is carrying nuclear weapons. This nonproliferation policy has been termed the "Kobe formula". On January 17, 1995, a magnitude 6.9 earthquake occurred at 5:46 am JST near the city. About 6,434 people in the city were killed, 212,443 were made homeless, large parts of the port facilities and other parts of the city were destroyed; the earthquake destroyed portions of the Hanshin Expressway, an elevated freeway that toppled over. In Japan, the earthquake is known as the Great Hanshin earthquake. To commemorate Kobe's recovery from the 1995 quake, the city holds an event every December called the Luminarie, where the city center is decorated with illuminated metal archways; the Port of Kobe was Japan's busiest port and one of Asia's top ports until the Great Hanshin earthquake. Kobe has since dropped to fourth in 49th-busiest container port worldwide. Wedged between the coast and the mountains, the city of Kobe is narrow.
To the east is the city of Ashiya, while the city of Akashi lies to its west. Other adjacent cities include Takarazuka and Nishinomiya to the
History of the Jews in China
Jews and Judaism in China are predominantly composed of Sephardi Jews and their descendants. Other Jewish ethnic divisions are represented, including Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews and a number of converts; the Jewish Chinese community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, it encompasses the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance. Though a small minority, Chinese Jews have had an open presence in the country since the arrival of the first Jewish immigrants during the 8th century CE. Isolated communities of Jews developed through the Tang and Song Dynasties all the way through the Qing Dynasty, most notably the Kaifeng Jews. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Jewish merchants from around the world began to trade in Chinese ports in the commercial centres of Hong Kong, for a time a British colony. In the first half of the 20th century, thousands of Jewish refugees escaping from the 1917 Russian Revolution arrived in China. By the time of the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, only a few Chinese Jews were known to have maintained the practice of their religion and culture though the Kaifeng synagogue survived for around seven centuries until 1860.
China's Jewish communities have been ethnically diverse ranging from the Jews of Kaifeng and other places during the history of Imperial China, who, it is reported, came to be more or less assimilated into the majority Han Chinese populace due to widespread intermarriage. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, some international Jewish groups have helped Chinese Jews rediscover their Jewish heritage and reconnect with their Jewish roots. China’s first contact with the Jewish people came as a result of the development of the Silk Road, an ancient trade route linking China with the Middle East and Europe, created during the Han Dynasty in 206 BCE and incorporated existing trade routes that were established 200 years earlier by the Persian Achaemenid Empire; the first wave of Jews to China traveled from West Asia over the Silk Road and by sea via India during the Tang dynasty. They consisted of Babylonian and Persian Jews who traveled along the Silk Road and received the Tang Emperor’s blessing to reside in Kaifeng.
They formed a distinct Kaifeng Jewish Community during the Song Dynasty where many became prominent government officials, doctors and businessmen. They assimilated into Chinese culture, learned the language, began to intermarry with the Han populace. Other Western scholars speculate that the first wave of Jewish settlement in China may have arrived earlier during the Later Han dynasty, which coincides with the Roman persecution of Judean Jews after the Roman destroyed the Temple at Jerusalem in 70 CE; the presence of a community of Jewish immigrants in China is consistent with the history of the Jewish people during the first and second millennia CE, which saw them disperse and settle throughout the Eurasian landmass, with an large concentration of Jews settling throughout Central Asia. By the 9th century, the Persian geographer ibn Khordadbeh noted the travels of Jewish merchants called Radhanites, whose trade took them to China via the Silk Road through Central Asia and India, he mentioned the presence of Jewish merchants in a number of Chinese cities, the important economic role they played transporting merchandise as well as transmitting scientific and technological expertise by land and sea all the way from Spain and France via the Middle East to China.
The medieval Italian explorer Jacob of Ancona, the supposed author of a book of travels, was a scholarly Jewish merchant who wrote in vernacular Italian, reached China in 1271, although some authors question its veracity. During the period of China's opening to the West and British quasi-colonialism, the first group to settle in China were Jews who arrived in China under British protection following the First Opium War. Many of these Jews were of Sephardic Indian or Iraqi origin, due to significant British colonialism in these regions; the second community came in the first decades of the 20th century when many Jews arrived in Hong Kong and Shanghai during those cities' periods of economic expansion. Many more Jews arrived as refugees from the Russian Revolution of 1917. A surge of Jews and Jewish families was to arrive in the late 1930s and 1940s, for the purpose of seeking refuge from the Holocaust in Europe and were predominantly of European origin. Shanghai was notable for its volume of Jewish refugees, most of whom left after the war, the rest relocating prior to or after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
Over the centuries, the Kaifeng community came to be indistinguishable from the Han Chinese population and is not recognized by the Chinese government as a separate ethnic minority. This is as a result of having maintained already-Jewish and adopted many Han Chinese customs including patrilineal descent and extensive intermarriage with the local Han population. Since their religious practices are considered to be functionally extinct, they are not eligible for expedited immigration to Israel under the Law of Return unless they explicitly convert. Today, many descendants of the Jews have assimilated into the majority Han Chinese populace; some of them, as well as international Jewish communities are beginning to search for these descendants to help them revive their interest in their Jewish roots. This is important in modern China because belon