The Rockefeller Museum the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandatory Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s. The museum is under the management of the Israel Museum and houses the head office of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Prior to the establishment of the Rockefeller Museum, the British Mandate Department of Antiquities and British School of Archaeology were housed in an old building in Jerusalem with a small exhibition hall; the only other archaeological museum at the time was the Franciscan Biblical Museum, built in 1902. In 1906, the Jewish National Fund began to negotiate the purchase of Karm el-Sheikh, a tract of land facing the northeastern corner of the Old City walls, to house the Bezalel School of Art and Crafts; the founder of the school, Boris Schatz envisaged a museum and university that would overlook the Temple Mount. In 1919, town planner Patrick Geddes proposed the establishment of an antiquities museum at this site.
To further the project, the Mandate authorities proposed a special tourism tax in 1924. Visiting Palestine in 1925, during the days of the British Mandate, James Henry Breasted and director of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, recognized the need for an archaeological museum in Jerusalem to house important regional finds. Encouraged by Lord Plumer, the British High Commissioner, Breasted approached American philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. who agreed to donate two million dollars toward the project. He had offered to build an archeological museum in Cairo, but he was turned down due to pressure from the British government, anxious to keep America from establishing a foothold in the region; the museum was designed by Austen Harrison, chief architect of the Mandatory Department of Public Works, who drew up blueprints for a white limestone building integrating eastern and western architectural elements. The cornerstone of the new museum was laid on June 19, 1930, but construction was delayed due to the discovery of tombs dating to the fifth century B.
C. at the building site. The museum features a stone bas-relief of the meeting of Asia and Africa above the main entrance together with ten stone reliefs illustrating different cultures and a gargoyle fountain in the inner courtyard carved in 1934 by the British sculptor Eric Gill. Gill produced stone carved signage throughout the museum in English and Arabic; the museum opened to the public on January 13, 1938. It was called the Palestine Archaeological Museum, but was known as the Rockefeller Museum; until the final days of the Mandate period, the museum was administered by the British Palestine Government. On 1 April 1948 it was closed for the public. On 20 April 1948, the High Commissioner appointed a council of international trustees to administer the museum; the council consisted of twelve members: two representing the High Commissioner, one from the British Academy, one from the British Museum, one from the French National Academy, one from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, two from the Antiquities Departments of the Egyptian, Lebanese, Iraqi or Transjordanian governments.
The board run the museum until 1966. In the 1950s controversies came up about objects removed by the two sides to Amman and the Israeli side respectively. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the museum became a secondary headquarters of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities, headed by Gerald Lankester Harding until 1956. In 1966, the museum was nationalized by King Hussein during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank. Seven months when the 1967 Six-Day War broke out, the museum was captured by an Israeli paratroop brigade, its hexagonal tower was used as a lookout. Fierce fighting took place here between Israeli and Jordanian forces, culminating in an Israeli victory; the Museum was officially renamed as the Rockefeller Museum. Since 1967, the museum has been jointly managed by the Israel Museum and the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums. Inside what was to have been the rear courtyard of the museum stood one of the oldest pine trees in the country. According to Arab legend, on the site of this pine tree, Ezra the Scribe sat and wrote the Torah for Israel.
The stump may still be seen behind the museum. The museum's first curator was John H. Iliffe, who arranged the artifacts in chronological order, from two million years ago to 1700 AD. Among the museum's prized possessions are 8th-century wooden panels from the al-Aqsa Mosque and 12th-century marble lintels from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Most of the collection consists of finds from the 1930s. On display are artifacts unearthed in Jerusalem, Ashkelon, Lachish and Jericho. One of the Lachish letters is on permanent display at the museum, as are the statuary and stucco decorations from the Umayyad Hisham's Palace; some of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran between 1947 and 1956, consisting of Jewish texts and commentaries, were housed in the Rockefeller Museum. In 1967, following the Israeli capture of East Jerusalem, for preservation, scrolls were relocated to the Shrine of the Book, a specially designed building on the grounds of the Israel Museum, with the ownership of these scrolls having been contested since.
The Copper Scroll was taken to the Jordan Archaeological Museum in Amman. Memoirs
Amir Drori was an Israeli general and the first director general of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Amir Drori was born in Tel Aviv in 1937 and graduated from the IDF's Junior Command Preparatory School in Haifa, he was drafted into the Israel Defense Forces in 1955. During the 1956 Suez Crisis Drori led a demolition team and participated in fighting in Rafah and the Sinai, he was awarded the Medal of Courage for his part in the Israeli raid on the Syrian village of Tawafiq in 1960. During the 1967 Six-Day War Drori served as deputy commander of Golani's 51st Battalion and took part in fighting on the Golan Heights. During the subsequent War of Attrition he commanded Golani's 13th Battlation, participating in fighting on the Golan Heights, Beit She'an Valley, the Jordan Valley and along the Suez Canal. Between 1970 and 1972 he served as the chief operations officer of Israel's Southern Command, under Ariel Sharon. In 1972 Drori was given command of the Golani Brigade, which he was to lead through the intensive fighting of the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
The brigade participated in the efforts to halt the Syrians on the Golan Heights, as well as in the battles for Mount Hermon and the Israeli push into Syria. He was wounded during the Third Battle of Mount Hermon, in which his troops recaptured the Israeli post held by Syrian commandos, but returned to lead the brigade during the fighting preceding the final disengagement agreements of May 1974. In 1976 Drori was appointed to lead the IDF's 36th Armored Division. A year he received the rank of Aluf and was appointed head of the Operations Directorate's operations department, he went on to command the IDF's training department before given command of Israel's Northern Command in 1981. He played a significant role in the 1982 Lebanon War, leading Israeli forces to the gates of Beirut through fighting with both the Syrian Army and the Palestinian Liberation Organization, his conduct during the Sabra and Shatila massacre was investigated by the Kahan Commission which saw no reason to make any recommendations against him.
Drori served at Northern Command for another year before leaving in December 1983. He spent the next year studying in the US. Drori returned to Israel in 1984 and was assigned command of IDF ground forces went on to head the IDF's Operations Directorate, in October 1986 became the Deputy Chief of the General Staff, he retired from the IDF in 1988 following his failure to secure the post of Chief of the General Staff. Between 1961 and 1964 Drori had studied Archaeology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, participating in several digs, including that of Yigael Yadin at Masada. Upon his retirement from the IDF he was appointed head of the Israeli Ministry of Education's Department of Antiquities. Under his guidance and leadership the department was expanded and restructured, in 1990 becoming the Israel Antiquities Authority with Drori as its first director general. Drori's tenure with the IAA was plagued by clashes with Haredi elements which considered archaeological exploration of possible burial sites as an affront to Judaism.
Haredi political parties campaigned for his dismissal, going as far as to threaten abandoning the governing coalition unless they were given control of tomb excavations. He received death threats and was reputed to have been the target of a Pulsa diNura, a kabbalistic ceremony intended to bring about the death of an individual. Despite weathering these challenges, Drori quit his post in 2000 after having secured its extension. Amir Drori died on March 2005, after suffering a heart attack during a hiking trip in the Negev; the IAA excavations at the Roman theatre of Tiberias have been named in his honour. The Beautiful Israeli by Caroline Glick
Moshe Safdie, CC, FAIA is an Israeli-Canadian architect, urban designer, educator and author. He is most identified with Habitat 67. Safdie was born in Mandatory Palestine, to a Syrian Jewish family, his family moved to Montreal, Canada, in 1954. In 1959, Safdie married a Polish-born Israeli; the couple had a daughter and a son. His son Oren Safdie is a playwright who has written several plays about architecture including Private Jokes, Public Places, his daughter Taal is an architect in a partner of the firm Safdie Rabines Architects. In 1961, Safdie graduated from McGill University with a degree in architecture. In 1981, Safdie married Michal Ronnen, a Jerusalem-born photographer, with whom he has two daughters and Yasmin. Carmelle Safdie is an artist, Yasmin Safdie is a social worker. Safdie is the uncle of Dov Charney and former CEO of American Apparel. After apprenticing with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia, Safdie returned to Montreal to oversee the master plan for Expo 67. In 1964, he established his own firm to undertake an adaptation of his McGill thesis.
Habitat 67, which pioneered the design and implementation of three-dimensional, prefabricated units for living, was a central feature of Expo 67 and an important development in architectural history. He was awarded the 1967 Construction Man of the Year Award from the Engineering News Record and the Massey Medal for Architecture in Canada for Habitat 67. In 1970, Safdie opened a branch office in Jerusalem. Among the projects he has designed in Jerusalem are Yad Vashem and the Alrov Mamilla Quarter, which includes the Mamilla Mall, David's Village luxury condominiums, the 5-star Mamilla Hotel. In 1978, after teaching at McGill, Ben Gurion, Yale universities, Safdie moved his main office to Boston and became director of the Urban Design Program at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design, until 1984. From 1984 to 1989, he was Urban Design at Harvard. Since the early 1990s, Safdie, a citizen of Canada and the United States, has focused on his architectural practice, Safdie Architects, based in Somerville, MA, has branches in Toronto and Singapore.
Safdie has designed six of Canada's principal public institutions—including the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Vancouver Library Square—as well as many other notable projects around the world, including the Salt Lake City Main Public Library. Moshe Safdie's works are known for their dramatic curves, arrays of geometric patterns, use of windows, key placement of open and green spaces, his writings and designs stress the need to create meaningful and inclusive spaces that enhance community, with special attention to the essence of a particular locale and culture. He is a self-described modernist. Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects Companion of the Order of Canada Gold Medal, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Richard Neutra Award for Professional Excellence Mt. Scopus Award for Humanitarianism, Jerusalem Wolf Prize in Arts, 2019 In November 2011, Punjab Chief Minister honoured Safdie at the inauguration ceremony of the Khalsa Heritage Museum, he said. Safdie said he wanted the museum to look 300 years old and he thought he had succeeded in this objective.
1967 Habitat 67 at Expo 67 World's Fair, Quebec, Canada 1980 Robina Gold Coast City, Australia 1981 Coldspring New Town, Maryland, USA 1987 Musée de la Civilisation, Quebec City, Canada 1988 The National Gallery of Canada, Ontario, Canada 1988 Hebrew Union College, Israel 1989 City plan for Modi'in, Israel 1989 The Esplanade condominium complex in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 1991 The Jean-Noël Desmarais Pavilion of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Quebec, Canada 1992 The Class of 1959 Chapel, Harvard Business School, Massachusetts, USA 1993 Mamilla Centre and David's Village, Israel 1994 Former Ottawa City Hall, Ontario, Canada 1995 Vancouver Library Square, British Columbia, Canada 1995 The Centre in Vancouver for the Performing Arts, British Columbia, Canada 2000 The Exploration Place Science Museum in Wichita, Kansas, USA 2002 The campus of Hebrew College in Newton, Massachusetts, USA 2003 Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, USA 2003 Main Branch of the Salt Lake City Public Library, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 2003 Eleanor Roosevelt College campus, UC San Diego, USA 2003 Pantages Tower, Ontario, Canada 2003 Corrour Lodge, Inverness-shire, Scotland 2004 Airside building of Terminal 3, Ben Gurion International Airport, Tel Aviv, Israel 2005 Yad Vashem Holocaust History Museum, Israel.
C. USA 2009 Asian University for Women, Bangladesh 2009 Mamilla Mall, Israel 2010 Yitzhak Rabin Center, Tel Aviv, Israel 201
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
A curator is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution is a content specialist charged with an institution's collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material. A traditional curator's concern involves tangible objects of some sort — artwork, historic items, or scientific collections. More new kinds of curators have started to emerge: curators of digital data objects and biocurators. In smaller organizations, a curator may have sole responsibility for acquisitions and for collections care; the curator makes decisions regarding what objects to select, oversees their potential and documentation, conducts research based on the collection and its history, provides proper packaging of art for transportation, shares research with the public and community through exhibitions and publications. In small, volunteer-based museums such as those of local historical societies, a curator may be the only paid staff-member. In larger institutions, the curator's primary function is that of a subject specialist, with the expectation that he or she will conduct original research on objects and guide the organization in its collecting.
Such institutions can have multiple curators, each assigned to a specific collecting area and operating under the direction of a head curator. In such organizations, the physical care of the collection may be overseen by museum collections-managers or by museum conservators, with documentation and administrative matters handled by a museum registrar. In the United Kingdom, the term "curator" applies to government employees who monitor the quality of contract archaeological work under Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning and manage the cultural resource of a region. In the museum setting, a curator in the United Kingdom may be called a "keeper". In Scotland, the term "curator" is used to mean the guardian of a child, known as curator ad litem. In the US, curators have multifaceted tasks dependent on its mission, but in recent years the role of the curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums. As US museums have become more digitized, curators find themselves constructing narratives in both the material and digital worlds.
Historian Elaine Gurian has called for museums in which "visitors could comfortably search for answers to their own questions regardless of the importance placed on such questions by others". This would change the role of curator from teacher to "facilitator and assistor". In this sense, the role of curator in the United States is precarious, as digital and interactive exhibits allow members of the public to become their own curators, to choose their own information. Citizens are able to educate themselves on the specific subject they are interested in, rather than spending time listening to information they have no desire to learn. More advances in new technologies have led to a further widening of the role of curator; this has been a focus in major art institutions internationally and has become an object of academic study and research. In contemporary art, the title "curator" identifies a person who selects and interprets works of art. In addition to selecting works, the curator is responsible for writing labels, catalog essays, other content supporting exhibitions.
Such curators may be permanent staff members, "guest curators" from an affiliated organization or university, or "freelance curators" working on a consultancy basis. The late-20th century saw an explosion of artists organizing exhibitions; the artist-curator has a long tradition of influence, notably featuring Sir Joshua Reynolds, inaugural president of the Royal Academy of Arts, founded in 1768. In some US cultural organizations, the term "curator" may designate the head of any given division; this has led to the proliferation of titles such as "Curator of Education" and "Curator of Exhibitions". The term "literary curator" has been used to describe persons who work in the field of poetry, such as former 92nd Street Y poetry-director Karl Kirchwey; this trend has been mirrored in the United Kingdom in such institutions as Ikon, Birmingham, UK and Baltic, Gateshead, UK. In Australia and New Zealand, the term applies to a person who prepares a sports ground for use; this job is equivalent to that of groundsman in some other cricketing nations.
In France, the term curator is translated as conservateur. There are two kinds of curators: heritage curators with five specialities, librarian curators; these curators are selected by competitive examination and attend the INP. The "conservateurs du patrimoine" are civil servants or work in the public service. Curators hold a high academic degree in their subject a Doctor of Philosophy or a master's degree in subjects such as history, history of art, archaeology, anthropology, or classics. Curators are expected to have contributed to their academic field, for example, by delivering public talks, publishing articles, or presenting at specialist academic conferences, it is important that curators have knowledge of the current collecting market for their area of expertise, are aware of current ethical practices and laws that may impact their organisation's collecting. The increa