Thermal power station
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power. In most of the places in the world the turbine is steam-driven. Water turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; the greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different heat sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy. Certain thermal power stations are designed to produce heat energy for industrial purposes, or district heating, or desalination of water, in addition to generating electrical power. All coal, nuclear, solar thermal electric, waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power stations are thermal. Natural gas is combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers; the waste heat from a gas turbine, in the form of hot exhaust gas, can be used to raise steam, by passing this gas through a heat recovery steam generator the steam is used to drive a steam turbine in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency.
Power stations burning coal, fuel oil, or natural gas are called fossil fuel power stations. Some biomass-fueled thermal power stations have appeared also. Non-nuclear thermal power stations fossil-fueled plants, which do not use cogeneration are sometimes referred to as conventional power stations. Commercial electric utility power stations are constructed on a large scale and designed for continuous operation. All Electric power stations use three-phase electrical generators to produce alternating current electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Large companies or institutions may have their own power stations to supply heating or electricity to their facilities if steam is created anyway for other purposes. Steam-driven power stations have been used to drive most ships in most of the 20th century until recently. Steam power stations are now only used in large nuclear naval ships. Shipboard power stations directly couple the turbine to the ship's propellers through gearboxes. Power stations in such ships provide steam to smaller turbines driving electric generators to supply electricity.
Nuclear marine propulsion is, with few exceptions. There have been many turbo-electric ships in which a steam-driven turbine drives an electric generator which powers an electric motor for propulsion. Cogeneration plants called combined heat and power facilities, produce both electric power and heat for process heat or space heating, such as steam and hot water; the developed reciprocating steam engine has been used to produce mechanical power since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt. When the first commercially developed central electrical power stations were established in 1882 at Pearl Street Station in New York and Holborn Viaduct power station in London, reciprocating steam engines were used; the development of the steam turbine in 1884 provided larger and more efficient machine designs for central generating stations. By 1892 the turbine was considered a better alternative to reciprocating engines. After about 1905, turbines replaced reciprocating engines in large central power stations.
The largest reciprocating engine-generator sets built were completed in 1901 for the Manhattan Elevated Railway. Each of seventeen units was rated 6000 kilowatts; the energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered salable energy produced as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is 33% to 48%. As with all heat engines, their efficiency is limited, governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Other types of power stations are subject to different efficiency limitations, most hydropower stations in the United States are about 90 percent efficient in converting the energy of falling water into electricity while the efficiency of a wind turbine is limited by Betz's law, to about 59.3%. The energy of a thermal power station not utilized in power production must leave the plant in the form of heat to the environment; this waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers. If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called cogeneration.
An important class of thermal power station are associated with desalination facilities. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. Sub-critical fossil fuel power stations can achieve 36–40% efficiency. Supercritical designs have efficiencies in the low to mid 40% range, with new "ultra critical" designs using pressures of 4400 psi and multiple stage reheat reaching about 48% efficiency. Above the critical point for water of 705 °F and 3212 psi, there is no phase transition from water to steam, but only a gradual decrease in density. Most of the nuclear power stations must operate below the temperatures and pressures that coal-fired plants do, in order to provide more conser
Tel Aviv is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, is home to many foreign embassies, it is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East; the city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually. A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has 24-hour culture. Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students; the city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria.
It was at first called'Ahuzat Bayit', a name changed the following year to'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Ancient Hill of Spring". Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City before Tel Aviv became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles. Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, to where they lived.
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start, its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote: In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights; every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for millennia.
Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in 7,500 BC. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515, it had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv; the first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society; the society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff Tel Aviv's first mayor joined the Ahuzat Bayit society, his vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs. On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells; this gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120
Reading Power Station
Reading Power Station is a natural gas fueled thermal power station supplying electrical power to the Tel Aviv District in central Israel. It is in the northwestern part of the city at the mouth of the Yarkon River; the northern bank of the river was fortified by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE. The ruins, known as Tell Qudadi, were identified as an archaeological site in 1934. In 1937-1938, prior to the construction of the station, a salvage dig was conducted at the site, it was financed by founder of the Palestine Electric Company. The dig uncovered the remains of two consecutive Neo-Assyrian fortresses, one of them dated to the late 8th century BCE; this was the site of the night crossing of the river by the British expeditionary corps during the late-1917 Battle of Jaffa. The station, built in 1938, was the country's first turbine, with a capacity of 12 MW, it was named for Rufus Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, Lord Chief Justice of England and Viceroy of India, who became chairman of the Palestine Electric Corporation in 1926.
The architect of the building, Ed Rosenhak, designed a three-story central tower situated between two identical wings, with a large entrance facing the city. The power station is made up of a number of power producing units. Two units called'Reading A' and two units called'Reading B', built in the 1950s, are capable of producing 50 megawatts each. Additional units, called'Reading C' and'Reading D' were added in the 1970s.'Reading A' was shut down in 1967, has since been converted into a public exhibition area.'Reading B' was closed down in 2004.'Reading C' was shut down in 1981, today contains a memorial for Yitzhak Rabin. At present only'Reading D' is with each unit capable of producing 214 megawatts. Environmental groups protested the contribution of the power station to air pollution in the Tel Aviv urban area and pollution of the Yarkon River. In early 2006, the station was shut down due to failure to comply with environmental regulations which required it to shift to natural gas instead of fuel oil as its main fuel source.
Since the station has reopened, is now powered by natural gas, which has reduced the amount of pollution emanating from the power plant. In 2009, a national government energy committee recommended upgrading the station's output to 750MW by adding a combined cycle turbine to the two thermal generating units, thus increasing the station's efficiency, while at the same time introducing a plan to reduce the station's footprint, allowing for more public access to areas around the facility; the Tel Aviv municipality however opposes this plan, demanding instead that the station be closed and relocated elsewhere in the country. The station features an impressive 1930s era architectural facade, restored to its original condition. A preservation project is under way to restore the main generating hall, Reading A, which dates from the 1950s. In 2011, a 60-dunam park was dedicated west of Reading with paved paths linking the site to Tel Aviv Port and the northern beach boardwalk. Reading Light Media related to Reading Power Station at Wikimedia Commons
Naharayim or Baqoura is a site in Jordan adjacent to the Israeli border, where the Yarmouk River flows into the Jordan River. The area includes the Island of Peace, a hydroelectric power-plant dating to 1932; the plant, established by Pinhas Rutenberg, produced much of the energy consumed in Mandatory Palestine until the 1948 Palestine war. The channels and dams built for the power-plant, together with the two rivers, formed a man-made island; the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty recognized the area to be under Jordanian sovereignty, but leased Israeli landowners freedom of entry. The 25-year renewable lease ends in 2019; the Jordanian government announced its intention to end the lease. Pinhas Rutenberg, a Russian-born Zionist and engineer immigrated to Palestine in 1919. After submitting a plan to the Zionist movement for the establishment of 13 hydroelectric power stations and securing financing for the plan, he was awarded a concession from the British Mandatory government to generate electricity, first from the Yarkon River near Tel Aviv, shortly thereafter, utilizing all the running water in western Palestine.
Naharayim is part of 6,000 dunams sold to the Palestine Electric Corporation run by Pinhas Rutenberg. The Naharayim site was chosen for the strong water flow and the possibility of regulating the flow through storage in the Sea of Galilee during the winter rainy season and release of the water reserves in the summer. Construction continued for five years, providing employment for 3,000 workers; the site was named Naharayim, Hebrew for "Two Rivers."Tel Or was a residential neighborhood built near the plant to house employees. Employees of the power station farmed thousands of dunams of land and sold some of the produce at a company workers’ supermarket in Haifa. In the days before Israeli independence, Naharayim was the proposed venue for two meetings between Golda Meir and King Abdullah, in an attempt by the Jewish leadership to head off Jordanian participation in the war. In violation a November 1947 agreement between Meir and Abdullah, the Arab Legion's 4th Battalion launched a mortar and artillery attack on the Naharayim police fort and Kibbutz Gesher on April 27-29, 1948.
The attack paved the way for the pan-Arab invasion of Mandatory Palestine. On the evening of April 27, the Legion began shelling the fort and kibbutz, stepping up the attack the following day. Many of the kibbutz buildings were destroyed. On the morning of April 29, a Legion officer demanded the evacuation of the fort, but was turned down. After protests to the British Mandate administration, the shelling was halted, Abdullah was reprimanded for "aggression against Palestine territory." In the wake of the attack 50 children of the kibbutz were evacuated, first to the Ravitz Hotel on the Carmel, to a 19th-century French monastery on the grounds of Rambam Hospital in the Bat Galim neighborhood of Haifa, where they lived for the next 22 months. An Iraqi brigade invaded at Naharayim on May 15, 1948, in an unsuccessful attempt to take the kibbutz and fort; the power plant was occupied and looted by the Iraqi forces. To prevent Iraqi tanks from attacking Jewish villages in the Jordan Valley, the sluice gates of the Degania dam were opened.
The rush of water, which deepened the river at this spot, was instrumental in blocking the Iraqi-Jordanian incursion. Although the 1949 Israel-Jordan armistice agreement did not explicitly mention this region, the map attached to the agreement showed the armistice line cutting off a corner of Jordan between the two rivers; when Israel sent military forces into this corner in August 1950, Jordan filed a complaint with the United Nations Security Council. According to Jordan, the map had been improperly altered from the original agreed by the parties, was inadequately signed, in any case the armistice agreement was never intended to alter the territory of Jordan. Israel responded that it was immaterial how the map came to be how it was, as only the final version was binding; the Security Council questioned Ralph Bunche, the UN mediator at the armistice negotiations at Rhodes.. He said that the parties had brought map overlaps to Rhodes from earlier informal negotiations and they were transferred manually onto a 1:250,000 map.
He could not explain why a part of Jordan had been cut off and was sure it had not been brought up in the formal meetings. However, his opinion was that although the region remained sovereign Jordanian territory it was on the Israeli side of the armistice line because the map was an integral part of the agreement which both parties had signed. Two kibbutzim, Ashdot Ya'akov Meuhad and Ashdot Ya'akov Ihud, worked some 820 dunams on an island, part of PEC land, occupied by Israel in 1950; the bulk of the 6,000 dunams, including the destroyed plant, remained in Jordanian hands and were placed under the Guardian of Enemy Property. In the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty, Jordanian sovereignty over the 820 dunam area was confirmed, but Israelis retained private land ownership and special provisions allow free Israeli travel and protect Israeli property rights; the remains of the power station are part of the Jordan River Peace Park south of the Island of Peace on the Israel-Jordan border. The project is spearheaded by the trilateral NGO EcoPeace Middle East, headquartered in Tel Aviv and Amman.
On March 13, 1997, the AMIT Fuerst Zionist religious junior high school from Beit Shemesh was on a class trip to the Jordan Valley, Island of Peace. Jordanian soldier Ahm
Energy in Israel
Most energy in Israel comes from hydrocarbon fuels. The country's total primary energy demand is higher than its total primary energy production, relying on imports to meet its energy needs. Total primary energy consumption was 26.2 Mtoe. Electricity consumption in Israel was 57,149 GWh in 2017, while production was 64,675 GWh, with net exports of 4.94 TWh. The installed generating capacity was about 16.25 GW in 2014 all from hydrocarbon fuel plants coal and gas fueled. Renewable energy accounted for a minor share of electricity production, with a small photovoltaic installed capacity. However, there are a total of over 1.3 million solar water heaters installed as a result of mandatory solar water heating regulations. Throughout Israel's history, securing the energy supply had been a major concern of Israeli policymakers. Today, Israel Electric Corporation, which traces its history to 1923, is the main electricity generator and distributor in Israel. Petroleum exploration began in 1947 on a surface feature in the Heletz area in the southern coastal plain.
The first discovery, Heletz-I, was completed in 1955, followed by the discovery and development of a few small wells in Kokhav, Brur and Zuk Tamrur in 1957. The combined Heletz-Brur-Kokhav field produced a total of 17.2 million barrels, a negligible amount compared with national consumption. Since the early 1950s, 480 oil and gas wells and offshore were drilled in Israel, most of which did not result in commercial success. In 1958–1961, several small gas fields were discovered in the southern Judean desert. From the Six-Day War until the Egyptian Separation Treaty in 1975, Israel produced large quantities of petroleum from the Abu Rodes oil field in Sinai. In 1951, the Arab states accused American oil interests in Saudi Arabia of selling oil to Central American governments who circumvented the Arab blockade against Israel by selling the oil back to the refinery in Haifa. Since Israel’s creation in 1948, it has been dependent on energy imports from other countries. Israel produced 7 billion cubic meters of natural gas in 2013, imported 720 million cubic meters in 2011.
Israel has imported natural gas through the Arish-Ashkelon pipeline from Egypt. Egypt is the second-largest natural gas producer in North Africa. In 2005 Egypt signed a 2.5 billion-dollar deal to supply Israel with 57 billion cubic feet of gas per year for fifteen years. Under this arrangement, Egypt supplies 40 percent of Israel's natural gas demand; the Israeli Electric Corporation controls more than 95% of the electricity sector in Israel, controls production and transmission of electricity. The IEC has a natural gas distribution law which regulates the distribution of natural gas in Israel to empower market competition; the discoveries of the Tamar gas field in 2009 and the Leviathan gas field in 2010 off the coast of Israel were important. The natural gas reserves in these two fields could make Israel energy secure for more than 50 years. In 2013 Israel began commercial production of natural gas from the Tamar field. Energy Minister Yuval Steinitz said "For many decades, the Arabs used the fact that they're supplying Europe with oil and natural gas in order to try to pressure Israel...
And now we will have something to balance and influence." In 2015, energy consumption in Israel was 6,562 kWh per capita. The Israel Electric Corporation is the main producer of electricity in Israel, with a production capacity of 11,900 megawatts. In 2016, IEC's share of the electricity market was 71%. Most electricity in Israel comes from hydrocarbon fuels from the following IEC power plants: The following power plants belong to independent power producers and, although connected to the IEC’s distribution grid, are not operated by the IEC: Renewable energy in Israel is produced in solar fields, such as Energix Renewable Energies' Neot Hovav and Ketura Sun and from biogas and wind power in the Golan Heights Wind Farm. Despite getting more than 300 days of sunshine per year, as of 2017, less than 3% of Israel‘s electricity comes from renewable sources. According to the Green Energy Association of Israel, the number of solar energy companies in the country has fallen from about 130 in 2010 to 60 in 2015.
The Association says that discoveries of large amounts of natural gas since 2009 have dimmed the government's interest in renewable energy. However, Israel maintains it will achieve its goal of 10% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although there is a functional heavy water nuclear reactor at Negev Nuclear Research Center, As of 2013 Israel has no nuclear power plants. However, in January 2007, Israeli Infrastructure Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer said his country should consider producing nuclear power for civilian purposes; as a result of the nuclear emergencies at Japan's Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said on March 17, 2011, "I don't think we're going to pursue civil nuclear energy in the coming years." Israel is one of the world leaders in the use of solar thermal energy per capita. As of the early 1990s, all new residential buildings were required by the government to install solar water-heating systems, Israel's National Infrastructure Ministry estimates that solar panels for water-heating satisfy 4% of the country's total energy demand.
Israel and Cyprus are the per-capita leaders in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90% of homes using them. The Ministry of National Infrastructures estimates solar water heating saves Israel 2 million barrels of oil a year. List of power stations in Israel
Orot Rabin is a coal-fired power station situated on the Mediterranean coast in Hadera, Israel. It is operated by the Israel Electric Corporation. Construction of the station began in 1973 and block 1 began operating in stages between 1981 and 1984. A second generation block came online in 1996. A coal port is attached directly to the station, its total generating capacity is 2,590MW of electricity using the six power generating units located at the site. The plant's overall design can accommodate two additional large generation units which could be built at a future date; the power station was named Maor David after David Shiffman, then-chairman of the IEC who died during its lengthy period of construction. However, after the completion of a major expansion of the station in the 1990s and the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, the station was renamed in his honor to Orot Rabin, Hebrew for "Rabin Lights"; as of 2016 the plant is Israel's largest power station with its 2,590 MW representing about 19% of the Israel Electric Corporation's total generation capacity.
The plant uses 320,000 tons of seawater every hour. It is possible to operate the station using fuel oil. In 2009, a large desalination plant was built adjacent to the power station. In the mid 2010s, a fourth flu stack coupled with a scrubber and additional pollution control devices were connected to generation block 2 of the station reducing the amount of particulate pollution emanating from the block. Flue-gas stack 3 of the power station is 300 metres tall, making it Israel's second-tallest structure after the towers of the Dimona Radar Facility, although stack 3 is no longer used since the construction of flu stack 4. In 2016 the Israeli Ministry of Energy announced that the IEC would be ordered to shut down the older block 1 of the station in the early the 2020s. Unlike block 2, as well as both generation blocks of the Rutenberg coal plant, a scrubber has not been fitted to Orot Rabin’s block 1 and as such block 1 produces about 25% of the total main particulates pollution generated by all sources in the entire state of Israel.
The block’s production capacity will be replaced by natural gas operated combined cycle power plants, at least one of, expected to be built in the space reserved for additional coal units in the northern part of the Orot Rabin site. Although shut down, units 1-4 will continue to be maintained so that they may be restarted in case of emergency. Orot Rabin has been accused of polluting the nearby Hadera Stream. Greenpeace claims that the station pollutes the sea water when coal is unloaded from ships and the sea water used for cooling the plant ends up in the Hadera River which harms wildlife. On the other hand, hot water gushing from the plant draws schools of hundreds of sandbar and dusky sharks every winter. Scientists are researching the rare phenomenon, unknown in the vicinity, it is speculated that the water, ten degrees warmer than the rest of the sea, may be the attraction. Economy of Israel Energy in Israel List of power stations in Israel
Nablus is a city in the northern West Bank 49 kilometers north of Jerusalem, with a population of 126,132. Located between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim, it is the capital of the Nablus Governorate and a Palestinian commercial and cultural center, containing the An-Najah National University, one of the largest Palestinian institutions of higher learning, the Palestinian stock-exchange. Today, the population is predominantly Muslim, with small Samaritan minorities; the city was named by the Roman Emperor Vespasian in 72 CE as Flavia Neapolis.. The Roman period was followed by the Byzantine period, where in the 5th and 6th centuries, conflict between the city's Christian and Samaritan inhabitants climaxed in a series of Samaritan revolts against Byzantine rule, before their violent quelling in 529 CE drastically dwindled that community's numbers in the city. In 636, in the early Muslim period, along with most of Palestine, came under the rule of the Islamic Arab Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab.
In 1099, the Crusaders took control of the city for less than a century, leaving its mixed Muslim and Samaritan population undisturbed. This was followed by the Mamluk periods. After Saladin's Ayyubid forces took control of the interior of Palestine in 1187, Islamic rule was reestablished, continued under the Mamluk and Ottoman empires to follow. Following its incorporation into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, Nablus was designated capital of the Jabal Nablus district. In 1657, after a series of upheavals, a number of Arab clans from the northern and eastern Levant were dispatched to the city to reassert Ottoman authority, loyalty from among these clans staved off challenges to the empire's authority by rival regional leaders, like Zahir al-Umar in the 18th century, Muhammad Ali—who ruled Nablus—in the 19th century; when Ottoman rule was reestablished in 1841, Nablus prospered as a center of trade. After the city was captured by British forces during World War I, Nablus was incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine in 1922.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the city was captured by Transjordan, became subsequently part of Jordan in 1952 together with the rest of the West Bank. Jordanian authority was held. Since 1995, the city has been governed by the Palestinian National Authority. Flavia Neapolis was named in 72 CE by the Roman emperor Vespasian and applied to an older Samaritan village, variously called Mabartha or Mamorpha. Located between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim, the new city lay 2 kilometers west of the Biblical city of Shechem, destroyed by the Romans that same year during the First Jewish-Roman War. Holy places at the site of the city's founding include Jacob's Well. Due to the city's strategic geographic position and the abundance of water from nearby springs, Neapolis prospered, accumulating extensive territory, including the former Judean toparchy of Acraba. Insofar as the hilly topography of the site would allow, the city was built on a Roman grid plan and settled with veterans who fought in the victorious legions and other foreign colonists.
In the 2nd century CE, Emperor Hadrian built a grand theater in Neapolis that could seat up to 7,000 people. Coins found in Nablus dating to this period depict Roman military emblems and gods and goddesses of the Greek pantheon such as Zeus, Artemis and Asklepios. Neapolis was pagan at this time. Justin Martyr, born in the city c. 100 CE, came into contact with Platonism, but not with Christians there. The city flourished until the civil war between Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger in 198–9 CE. Having sided with Niger, defeated, the city was temporarily stripped of its legal privileges by Severus, who designated these to Sebastia instead. In 244 CE, Philip the Arab transformed Flavius Neapolis into a Roman colony named Julia Neapolis, it retained this status until the rule of Trebonianus Gallus in 251 CE. The Encyclopaedia Judaica speculates that Christianity was dominant in the 2nd or 3rd century, with some sources positing a date of 480 CE, it is known for certain that a bishop from Nablus participated in the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.
The presence of Samaritans in the city is attested to in literary and epigraphic evidence dating to the 4th century CE. As yet, there is no evidence attesting to a Jewish presence in ancient Neapolis. Conflict among the Christian population of Neapolis emerged in 451. By this time, Neapolis was within the Palaestina Prima province under the rule of the Byzantine Empire; the tension was a result of Monophysite Christian attempts to prevent the return of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Juvenal, to his episcopal see. However, the conflict did not grow into civil strife; as tensions among the Christians of Neapolis decreased, tensions between the Christian community and the Samaritans grew dramatically. In 484, the city became the site of a deadly encounter between the two groups, provoked by rumors that the Christians intended to transfer the remains of Aaron's sons and grandsons Eleazar and Phinehas. Samaritans reacted by entering the cathedral of Neapolis, killing the Christians inside and severing the fingers of the bishop Terebinthus.
Terebinthus fled to Constantinople, requesting an army garrison to prevent further attacks. As a result of the revolt, the Byzantine emperor Zeno erected a church dedicated to Mary on Mount Gerizim, he forbade the Samaritans to travel t