United States Secretary of Commerce
The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate and serves in the President's Cabinet; the Secretary is concerned with promoting American industries. Until 1913 there was one Secretary of Commerce and Labor, uniting this department with the Department of Labor, now headed by a separate Secretary of Labor; the current Commerce Secretary is Wilbur Ross, nominated by President Donald Trump and approved by the Senate on February 28, 2017. Parties No party Democratic Republican Status Source: Department of Commerce: Secretaries As of April 2019, there are ten living former Secretaries of Commerce, the oldest being Frederick B. Dent; the most recent Secretary of Commerce to die was Peter Peterson, on March 20, 2018. The most serving Secretary to die was Ron Brown, who died in office on April 3, 1996; the line of succession for the Secretary of Commerce is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Commerce General Counsel of the Department of Commerce Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Under Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Commerce and Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Administration Boulder Laboratories Site Manager, National Institute of Standards and Technology Official website
Hollingsworth v. Perry
Hollingsworth v. Perry were a series of United States federal court cases that legalized same-sex marriage in the State of California; the case began in 2009 in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California, which found that banning same-sex marriage violates equal protection under the law; this decision overturned ballot initiative Proposition 8. After the State of California refused to defend Proposition 8, the official sponsors of Proposition 8 intervened and appealed to the Supreme Court; the case was litigated during the governorships of both Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jerry Brown, was thus known as Perry v. Schwarzenegger and Perry v. Brown, respectively; as Hollingsworth v. Perry, it reached the United States Supreme Court, which held that, in line with prior precedent, the official sponsors of a ballot initiative measure did not have Article III standing to appeal an adverse federal court ruling when the state refused to do so; the effect of the ruling was that same-sex marriage in California resumed under the district court trial decision from 2010.
Other findings from the trial decision, including Justice Walker's findings of fact, remain controlling precedent for future relevant cases. The case was docketed with the Supreme Court at 570 U. S. 693. In May 2008, the California Supreme Court held in the case In re Marriage Cases that state statutes limiting marriage to opposite-sex applicants violated the California Constitution; the following month, same-sex couples were able to marry in California. In November 2008, California's electorate adopted Proposition 8, a constitutional amendment that restored the opposite-sex limitation on marriage. Following the adoption of Proposition 8, several lawsuits were filed that challenged the validity of the amendment under various state constitutional provisions. On May 26, 2009, the California Supreme Court held, in Strauss v. Horton, that Proposition 8 was a lawful enactment, but that same-sex marriages contracted before its passage remained valid; the National Center for Lesbian Rights, Lambda Legal and American Civil Liberties Union had obtained the right to same-sex marriage in California in In re Marriage Cases and defended it in Strauss v. Horton."
Three days before the Strauss decision, the American Foundation for Equal Rights filed suit in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California to challenge the validity of Proposition 8 on behalf of two same-sex couples; the couples' legal team was led by David Boies and former U. S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson, who had opposed each other in Bush v. Gore, the case that decided the 2000 presidential election, they were listed on the 2010 Time 100 for "their nonpartisan and strong legal approach to challenging Proposition 8."Lambda Legal and the American Civil Liberties Union opposed the filing because they felt a federal challenge at this time might do more harm than good. Olson and AFER defended the timing of the lawsuit. Following a pre-trial hearing on July 2, 2009, the three legal groups moved to intervene in the lawsuit, as did the City of San Francisco in a separate filing; the plaintiffs opposed allowing the City to intervene. On August 19, Judge Walker denied the legal groups' motions to intervene but granted the City's, albeit in a limited capacity.
Despite the other groups' failed attempt to intervene in the lawsuit, they offered support to the legal team litigating the case, with James Esseks of the ACLU saying: "e are interested in doing whatever we can to make sure their case is as successful as possible". In May 2009, the Alameda County Clerk-Registrar, Patrick O'Connell, denied Kristin Perry and Sandra Stier a marriage license because they are a same-sex couple. For the same reason, Dean Logan, the Los Angeles County Clerk, denied Paul Katami and Jeffrey Zarrillo a marriage license; the couples sued the two county clerks and several state officials: Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, Attorney General Jerry Brown, two officials in the Department of Public Health. Several groups sought to intervene as plaintiffs, including the groups who had prosecuted the In re Marriage Cases and Strauss v. Horton actions. San Francisco filed a motion to intervene in the case; the City cited its work in the earlier cases that had provided "extensive evidence and proposed findings on strict scrutiny factors and factual rebuttals to long claimed justifications for marriage discrimination".
City Attorney Dennis Herrera said that his office is "singularly well-prepared" to help "put anti-gay discrimination on trial based on the facts". Walker permitted only San Francisco to intervene, as it could speak to the impact of Proposition 8 on local governments, he ordered the attorney general to assist San Francisco in analyzing Proposition 8's impact. Walker stated that necessary speed and swiftness "on an issue of this magnitude and importance" were required and that the intervention of additional groups would only complicate and stall the case. Attorney General Jerry Brown chose not to defend the lawsuit, saying that Proposition 8 violates the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and should be struck down. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declined to participate in the defense but said it was appropriate for the courts to hear the case and "resolve the merits of this action expeditiously" because it "presents important constitutional questions that require and warrant judicial determination."
On November 2, 2010, Brown was elected governor and Kamala Harris was elected attorney general. Both ran on platforms promising not to defend the proposition, the state continued to decline defending Propositi
Carlos Miguel Gutierrez is an American former CEO and former United States Secretary of Commerce. He is a Co-Chair of Albright Stonebridge Group, a strategic advisory firm,Gutierrez is a former Chairman of the Board and CEO of the Kellogg Company, he served as the 35th U. S. Secretary of Commerce from 2005 to 2009. Gutierrez is of Spanish descent, he was born in Havana, the son of a pineapple plantation owner. As a successful businessman, his father was deemed an enemy of the state by Fidel Castro's regime. Faced with the expropriation of their property following the Cuban Revolution, Gutierrez's family fled for the United States in 1960, when he was six years old, settling in Miami; when it became apparent they would not be returning to Cuba, Gutierrez's father accepted a position with the H. J. Heinz Company in Mexico and started his own business. Gutierrez learned his first words of English from the bellhop at the hotel where they stayed and, some years he and his family acquired United States citizenship.
Gutierrez studied business administration at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education campus in Querétaro but never received a degree, making him the most recent U. S. Cabinet member without a college degree. Gutierrez joined Kellogg's in Mexico in 1975, at the age of 22, as a sales representative and management trainee. One of his early assignments was driving a delivery-truck route around local stores. Gutierrez rose through the management ranks. In January 1990 he was promoted to corporate vice president of product development at the company's headquarters in Battle Creek, in July of that year, he became executive vice president of Kellogg USA. In January 1999, he was elected to the company's board of directors. In April he was appointed CEO, becoming the only Latino CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Gutierrez was the youngest CEO in the company’s nearly 100-year history. In 1999, Kellogg faced a global stagnation in cereal sales. Gutierrez's strategy, known as "Volume to Value," was to increase sales by focusing resources on higher-margin products.
Higher-margin products targeted specific markets and included products such as Special K, Nutri-Grain bars. Extra income would fund advertising, R&D, which would encourage further high-margin sales growth. "Volume is a means to an end--not an end," he said. "What counts is dollars."In September 2004, Fortune Magazine dubbed Gutierrez as "The Man Who Fixed Kellogg", attributed his success to "taking the slick salesmanship, financial discipline, marketing savvy that he learned in his youth and blending it with disarming charisma, steely resolve, an utter lack of pretension that you wouldn't expect in one so nattily dressed." The magazine added that, "He makes golf shirts look debonair." On November 29, 2004, Gutierrez was chosen by President George W. Bush to become Secretary of Commerce, succeeding Donald Evans. On the same day, Kellogg's board of directors accepted Gutierrez's resignation as chairman of the board and CEO, to be effective upon his confirmation by the Senate and swearing-in. On January 24, 2005, Gutierrez was confirmed unanimously by the U.
S. Senate; as Secretary of Commerce, Gutierrez served as co-chair of the U. S. Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba. Secretary Gutierrez was involved in U. S.-Cuba policy alongside Co-Chair Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. Gutierrez was one of the President’s point men working with Congress to pass comprehensive immigration legislation, an issue he sees as one of the greatest domestic social issues of our time, he believes a successful immigration solution must focus first on securing our borders, but must address immigrants' contribution to our economy and the importance of American unity. Gutierrez played a key role in the passage of CAFTA-DR, a landmark trade agreement that expanded opportunities for U. S. exports throughout Latin America. Gutierrez was instrumental in promoting the Colombia Free Trade Agreement. In 2006 Gutierrez called for Congress to “work with us and pass the pending Free Trade Agreements with Colombia and Panama, so we can have fair, two-way trade with our allies and friends.”
He led the first-ever domestic trade mission to the Gulf region in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. In December 2007, Ken Silverstein, the Washington editor of Harper's Magazine, reported that Gutierrez had Adnan Oktar's Atlas of Creation, a book that advocates Islamic creationism and blames Charles Darwin for modern terrorism, including the 9/11 attacks, for display on a stand at the entrance to his U. S. government office. Gutierrez's office did not respond when asked whether the book had been purchased or mailed unsolicited to his office. Gutierrez was the founder and Chairman of Global Political Strategies, an international strategic consulting service and a division of APCO Worldwide, a Washington-based global communications firm. In February 2009, Gutierrez was named a Scholar at the University of Miami’s Institute For Cuban And Cuban American Studies. In April 2009, he joined the university's board of trustees, he is Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Meridian International Center, as well as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Bipartisan Debt Reduction Task Force.
On February 21, 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that Gutierrez remained unemployed, along with a significant majority of George W. Bush's 3,000 political appointees who were seeking full-time employment. According to the article, 25% to 30% of those officials had found new jobs, a statistic notably lower than when Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton left the White Hou
International Trade Administration
For a list of other uses see ITA The International Trade Administration is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes United States exports of nonagricultural U. S. services and goods. The ITA's stated goals are to Provide practical information to help Americans select markets and products. Ensure that Americans have access to international markets as required by the U. S. trade agreements. Safeguard Americans from unfair competition from dumped and subsidized imports. ITA consists of three sub-units; these are: Industry and Analysis, Global Markets, Enforcement and Compliance. Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Global Markets and Director General of the U. S. Commercial Service Office of Strategic Planning Deputy Director General of the U. S. Commercial Service Office of Foreign Service and Human Capital Office of Budget Business Information Technology Office Office of Administrative Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Global Markets Global Knowledge Center SelectUSA Office of Domestic Operations Office of China Office of Europe, the Middle East, Africa Office of Asia Office of the Western Hemisphere Advocacy Center Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Analysis Office of Manufacturing Office of Transportation and Machinery Office of Energy and Environment Office of Health & Information Technology Office of Services Office of Finance & Insurance Industries Office of Digital Services Industries Office of Supply Chain, Professional, & Business Services Office of Trade Policy and Analysis Office of Trade & Economic Analysis Office of Trade Negotiations & Analysis Office of Standards & Investment Policy Office of Intellectual Property Rights Office of Textiles, Consumer Goods, Materials Office of Consumer Goods Office of Textiles & Apparel Office of Materials Industries National Travel and Tourism Office Office of Travel and Tourism Industries Office of Advisory Committees and Industry Outreach Office of Trade Programs and Strategic Partnerships Office of Planning and Management Trade Agreement Secretariat Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Enforcement and Compliance Office of Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties Operations Office of Policy and NegotiationsThe U.
S. Commercial Service, through its Strategic Corporate Partnership program, has Public Private Partnership agreements with 17 private organizations, including several banks and regulatory organizations and shipping organizations, event organizers, trade risk service companies and the publisher of Commercial News USA, the official export promotion magazine of the U. S. Department of Commerce, The ecommerce partner is the Federation of International Trade Associations under which the USCS contributes market research and other reports on GlobalTrade.net. The ITA was created on January 2, 1980 and is headed by the Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, the principal adviser to the Secretary of Commerce on American imports and exports; the Under Secretary is the head of the International Trade Administration within the Commerce Department. The Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate; the last presidential appointee was Gilbert B.
Kaplan, nominated by President Trump for the position of Under Secretary for International Trade on April 11, 2017, confirmed by the Senate on March 13, 2018. The Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade is the principal officer of the United States Department of Commerce charged with promoting American exports and assisting general international trade; as the Administrator of the International Trade Administration, the Under Secretary sits on the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, serves as a member of the Tourism Policy Council and the National Intellectual Property Council. The Under Secretary participates in the development of United States trade policy and resolves market access and compliance issues, administers American trade laws, undertakes a range of trade promotion and trade advocacy efforts. With the rank of Under Secretary, the USC is a Level III position within the Executive Schedule. Since January 2014, the annual rate of pay for Level III appointees is $167,000.
Officials reporting to the USC include: Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Global Markets and Director General of the U. S. & Foreign Commercial Service Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Enforcement and Compliance Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Analysis Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Bureau of Industry and Security Doha Round Generalized System of Preferences Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations International Trade Commission Office of the United States Trade Representative United States Commercial Service United States Trade Representative World Trade Organization International Trade Administration website International Trade Administration in the Federal Register Records of the Office of Export Supply 1949-1959 Records of the Export Control Investigations Staff 1948-1962
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a public research university in College Station, United States. Since 1948, it has been the founding member of the Texas A&M University System; the Texas A&M system endowment is among the 10 largest endowments in the nation. As of 2017, Texas A&M's student body is the largest in Texas and the second largest in the United States. Texas A&M's designation as a land and space grant institution–the only university in Texas to hold all three designations–reflects a range of research with ongoing projects funded by organizations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research. In 2001, Texas A&M was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities; the school's students, alumni—over 450,000 strong—and sports teams are known as Aggies. The Texas A&M Aggies athletes compete in 18 varsity sports as a member of the Southeastern Conference; the first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876, as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas under the provisions of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts.
The college taught no classes in agriculture, instead concentrating on classical studies, languages and applied mathematics. After four years, students could attain degrees in scientific agriculture and mechanical engineering, language and literature. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder in the 1960s, A. M. C. Desegregated, became coeducational, dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963; the letters "A&M," A. M. C. Short for "Agricultural and Mechanical College," are retained as a link to the university's tradition; the main campus is one of the largest in the United States, spanning 5,200 acres, is home to the George Bush Presidential Library. About one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has more than 1,000 recognized student organizations. Many students observe the traditions, which govern daily life, as well as special occasions, including sports events.
Working with various A&M-related agencies, the school has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes; as a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of six American public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets who study alongside civilian undergraduate students. The U. S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of A. M. C. in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life". In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education, the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas known as Texas A.
M. C. Brazos County donated 2,416 acres near Bryan, for the school's campus. A detailed listing and backgrounds of all of the University's presidents can be found on the Brazos County Texas Genealogical Association's site Enrollment began on October 2, 1876. Six students enrolled on the first day, classes began on October 4, 1876, with six faculty members. During the first semester, enrollment increased to 48 students, by the end of the spring 1877 semester, 106 students had enrolled. Admission was limited to white males, all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training. Although traditional Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets "campusologies" indicate 40 students began classes on October 4, 1876, the exact number of students enrolled on that day is unknown. Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas. Although envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.
M. C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System. In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A. M. C. In 1891, Texas A. M. C. was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, well-respected Confederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A. M. C. "to learn to be like Ross". During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring. After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school. In 2017, the status of this statue was in doubt after other schools removed statues of former Confederate officers. In contrast, the Texas A&M Chancellor and President announced the Sul Ross statue would remain as Ross's statue's place of honor was not based upon his service in the Confederate Army.
Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester. At the same time, A. M. C. began expanding its academic pursuits with the establishment o
Master of Public Administration
The Master of Public Administration is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of governance. The MPA program is a professional degree and a graduate degree for the public sector and it prepares individuals to serve as managers and policy analysts in the executive arm of local, state/provincial, federal/national government, in non-governmental organization and nonprofit sectors. Instruction includes the roles and principles of public administration. Through its history, the MPA degree has become more interdisciplinary by drawing from fields such as economics, law, political science, regional planning in order to equip MPA graduates with skills and knowledge covering a broad range of topics and disciplines relevant to the public sector. A core curriculum of a typical MPA program includes courses on microeconomics, public finance, research methods, policy analysis, managerial accounting, public management, geographic information systems, program evaluation.
MPA students may focus their studies on public sector fields such as urban planning, emergency management, health care, economic development, community development, non-profit management, environmental policy, cultural policy, criminal justice. MPA graduates serve in some important positions within the public sector including Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong, former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, former CIA Director David Petraeus, former president of Liberia Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, former president of Mexico Felipe Calderón, Foreign Minister of Serbia Vuk Jeremić, Chairman of the World Toilet Organization Jack Sim, former New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly, former Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius, former Treasurer of Australia Wayne Swan. Other notable MPA graduates include pilot Chesley Sullenberger. A Master of Public Administration can be acquired at various institutions. See List of schools offering MPA degrees. Master of Public Affairs Master of Public Policy Master of Nonprofit Organizations Public policy schools Master of Business Administration Doctor of Public Administration Network of Schools of Public Policy and Administration - Accrediting body for MPA and MPP programs in the U.
S. Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management American Society for Public Administration - Professional society for public administration practitioners and educator]