Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards long and 65 yards wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area. In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or to either sport depending on context; the two sports have shared origins and are related but have some key differences. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, over time, the game known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League, the sport's top professional league, Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union; the CFL is the most only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game.
Canadian football is played at the bantam, high school, junior and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, Quebec Junior Football League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football for the Vanier Cup, senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer; the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear; the first written account of a game played was on October 1862, on the Montreal Cricket Grounds.
It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards 3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, devised rules based on rugby football; the game gained a following, with the Hamilton Football Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill; the first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union founded June 12, 1880, which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.
Both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union were formed, the Interprovincial and Western Interprovincial Football Union. The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891; the original forerunners to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football Council. In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL; the Burnside rules resembling American football that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks; the rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country.
The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first. Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, touchdowns, five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes; the primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not. The Canadian field width was one rule, not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums; the Grey Cup was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada. An amateur competition, it became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s; the Ontario Rugby Football Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy
The Carolina Panthers are a professional American football team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Panthers compete in the National Football League, as a member club of the league's National Football Conference South division; the team is headquartered in Bank of America Stadium in uptown Charlotte. They are one of the few NFL teams to own the stadium they play in, registered as Panthers Stadium, LLC; the Panthers are supported throughout the Carolinas. The team hosts its annual training camp at Wofford College in South Carolina; the head coach is Ron Rivera. The Panthers were announced as the league's 29th franchise in 1993, began play in 1995 under original owner and founder Jerry Richardson; the Panthers played well in their first two years, finishing 7–9 in 1995 and 12–4 the following year, winning the NFC West before losing to the eventual Super Bowl champion Green Bay Packers in the NFC Championship Game. They did not have another winning season until 2003, when they won the NFC Championship Game and reached Super Bowl XXXVIII, losing 32–29 to the New England Patriots.
After recording playoff appearances in 2005 and 2008, the team failed to record another playoff appearance until 2013, the first of three consecutive NFC South titles. After losing in the divisional round to the San Francisco 49ers in 2013 and the Seattle Seahawks in 2014, the Panthers returned to the Super Bowl in 2015, but lost to the Denver Broncos; the Panthers have reached the playoffs seven times, advancing to four NFC Championship Games and two Super Bowls. They have won one in the NFC West and five in the NFC South; the Carolina Panthers are registered as Panther Football, LLC. and are controlled by David Tepper, whose purchase of the team from founder Jerry Richardson was unanimously approved by league owners on May 22, 2018. The club is worth US$2.3 billion, according to Forbes. On December 15, 1987, entrepreneur Jerry Richardson announced his bid for an NFL expansion franchise in the Carolinas. A North Carolina native, Richardson was a former wide receiver on the Baltimore Colts who had used his 1959 league championship bonus to co-found the Hardee's restaurant chain becoming president and CEO of TW Services.
Richardson drew his inspiration to pursue an NFL franchise from George Shinn, who had made a successful bid for an expansion National Basketball Association team in Charlotte, the Charlotte Hornets. Richardson founded Richardson Sports, a partnership consisting of himself, his family, a number of businessmen from North and South Carolina were recruited to be limited partners. Richardson looked at four potential locations for a stadium choosing uptown Charlotte. To highlight the demand for professional football in the Carolinas, Richardson Sports held preseason games around the area from 1989 to 1991; the first two games were held at Carter–Finley Stadium in Raleigh, North Carolina, Kenan Memorial Stadium in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, while the third and final game was held at Williams-Brice Stadium in Columbia, South Carolina. The matchups were between existing NFL teams. In 1991, the group formally filed an application for the open expansion spot, on October 26, 1993, the 28 NFL owners unanimously named the Carolina Panthers as the 29th member of the NFL.
The Panthers first competed in the 1995 NFL season. The Panthers were put in the NFC West to increase the size of that division to five teams. Former Pittsburgh Steelers defensive coordinator Dom Capers was named the first head coach; the team finished its inaugural season 7–9, the best performance from a first-year expansion team. They performed better in their second season, finishing with a 12–4 record and winning the NFC West division, as well as securing a first-round bye; the Panthers beat the defending Super Bowl champions Dallas Cowboys in the divisional round before losing the NFC Championship Game to the eventual Super Bowl champions, the Green Bay Packers. The team managed only a 7–9 finish in 1997 and slipped to 4–12 in 1998, leading to Capers' dismissal as head coach; the Panthers hired former San Francisco 49ers head coach George Seifert to replace Capers, he led the team to an 8–8 record in 1999. The team finished 7–9 in 2000 and fell to 1–15 in 2001, winning their first game but losing their last 15.
This performance tied the NFL record for most losses in a single season and it broke the record held by the winless 1976 Buccaneers for most consecutive losses in a single season, leading the Panthers to fire Seifert. After the NFL's expansion to 32 teams in 2002, the Panthers were relocated from the NFC West to the newly created NFC South division; the Panthers' rivalries with the Falcons and Saints were maintained, they would be joined by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. New York Giants defensive coordinator John Fox was hired to replace Seifert and led the team to a 7–9 finish in 2002. Although the team's defense gave up few yards, ranking the second-best in the NFL in yards conceded, they were hindered by an offense that ranked as the second-worst in the league in yards gained; the Panthers improved to 11–5 in the 2003 regular season, winning the NFC South and making it to Super Bowl XXXVIII before losing to the New England Patriots, 32–29, in what was immedia
2003 NFL Draft
The 2003 NFL draft was the procedure by which National Football League teams selected amateur college football players. The draft is known as the "NFL Annual Player Selection Meeting" and has been conducted annually since 1936; the draft was held April 26–27, 2003 at the Theatre at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York. The league held a supplemental draft after the regular draft and before the regular season; the draft was broadcast on ESPN and ESPN2 beginning at noon on Saturday, April 26 and beginning at 11:00 am on Sunday, April 27. The draft consisted of seven rounds, with teams selecting in the reverse order of the finish the previous season. There were 32 compensatory picks distributed among 15 teams, with five teams each receiving four additional selections. In addition, the Houston Texans, who started play as an expansion franchise the previous season, were granted a supplemental selection in the middle of each of the draft's final five rounds, plus the final selection in the final two rounds.
There was little drama when the draft began with the Cincinnati Bengals selecting Carson Palmer, as Palmer had agreed to contract terms with the Bengals the previous day. He became the first Heisman Trophy winner selected first overall in the draft since Vinny Testaverde in 1987; the event ended nearly 30 hours with Ryan Hoag being chosen by the Oakland Raiders with the final pick and thus gaining the distinction of "Mr. Irrelevant"; the draft took an odd turn with the Minnesota Vikings' pick in the first round. The Vikings were attempting to consummate a trade when their fifteen-minute time allowance elapsed; the Jaguars who selected next were quick to pounce, turning in their card to select QB Byron Leftwich after the Vikings' time elapsed. The Panthers took advantage of the gaffe, selecting OT Jordan Gross before the Vikings recovered and selected DT Kevin Williams; the mistake may have worked in the Vikings' favor as Williams went on to be a mainstay in their team, missing only four games in his first 10 seasons in the NFL and making six Pro Bowls.
The colleges with the most players selected in the draft were Florida and Tennessee which each had eight players chosen. Meanwhile, Penn State and Miami each had four players selected in the first round. Eleven defensive linemen were selected in round one, eclipsing the previous record of nine, set in 2001. Ten underclassmen were taken in the first round, including three of the first four overall selections; the first round lasted nearly five hours. The Buffalo Bills selection of Miami's Willis McGahee as the first running back off the board was notable because he was recovering from a career-threatening injury he suffered in the Fiesta Bowl which it was believed could have caused him to miss the upcoming season; the 262 players chosen in the draft were in the following positions: In the explanations below, denotes trades that took place during the draft, while indicates trades completed pre-draft. Round one Round two Round three Round four Round five Round six Round seven Notes For each player selected in the Supplemental Draft, the team forfeited its pick in that round in the draft of the following season.
General references"2003 NFL Draft". NFL. Archived from the original on November 17, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006. "ESPN.com: NFL Draft 2003". ESPN. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. "FFToday.com Draft Tracker". FFToday.com. Retrieved April 14, 2011. "2003 NFL Draft Pick Transactions". ProSportsTransactions.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. "2003 NFL Draft: Six Years Later". FootballOutsiders.com. Retrieved June 6, 2011. Trade references Specific references
2003 NFL season
The 2003 NFL season was the 84th regular season of the National Football League. Regular-season play was held from September 4, 2003, to December 28, 2003. Due to damage caused by the Cedar Fire, Qualcomm Stadium was used as an emergency shelter, thus the Miami Dolphins–San Diego Chargers regular-season match on October 27 was instead played at Sun Devil Stadium, the home field of the Arizona Cardinals; the playoffs began on January 3, 2004. The NFL title was won by the New England Patriots when they defeated the Carolina Panthers, 32–29, in Super Bowl XXXVIII at Reliant Stadium in Houston, Texas, on February 1; this was the last season until the 2016 NFL season where neither of the previous Super Bowl participants made the playoffs. If an onside kick inside the final five minutes of the game does not go 10 yards, goes out of bounds, or is touched illegally, the receiving team will have the option of accepting the penalty and getting the ball immediately; the kicking team was penalized, but had another chance to kick again from five yards back.
League officials encouraged networks to cut to a commercial break if an instant replay challenge review was initiated. Networks were not permitted to utilize those game stoppages for their prescribed commercial periods. Dick Hantak and Bob McElwee retired in the 2003 off-season. Hantak joined the league as a back judge in 1978, was assigned Super Bowl XVII in that position, he was promoted to referee in 1986, working Super Bowl XXVII. McElwee joined the NFL in 1976 as a line judge, became a referee in 1980, he was the referee for three Super Bowls: XXII, XXVIII, XXXIV. Walt Anderson and Pete Morelli were promoted to referee to replace McElwee. Cincinnati Bengals – Marvin Lewis. Dallas Cowboys – Bill Parcells. Detroit Lions – Steve Mariucci. Jacksonville Jaguars – Jack Del Rio. San Francisco 49ers – Dennis Erickson. Philadelphia Eagles – New stadium: Lincoln Financial Field. New Orleans Saints – New AstroPlay home turf by mid-season Atlanta Falcons – New FieldTurf surface Green Bay Packers – New remodeled Lambeau Field Chicago Bears – New remodelled Soldier Field.
Buffalo Bills – New AstroPlay home turf Atlanta Falcons – New logo, new uniforms Detroit Lions – New uniforms, added black trim on logo and numbers Philadelphia Eagles – Added silver trim to numbers on uniforms. Introduce new home alternative uniforms. Black uniforms with white numbers with midnight green shadow in numbers. San Diego Chargers – White pants with road uniforms. New England Patriots – Added third alternative uniforms. Silver uniforms. Miami Dolphins – Added third alternate uniforms. Orange uniforms. Houston Texans – Added third alternate uniforms. Red Uniforms. Cleveland Browns – Added new alternate orange pants last worn in the Kardiac Kids era of coach Sam Rutigliano. Tennessee Titans – Added third alternate uniforms, powder blue Indianapolis finished ahead of Tennessee in the AFC South based on better head-to-head record. Denver clinched the AFC 6 seed instead of Miami based on better conference record. Buffalo finished ahead of N. Y. Jets in the AFC East based on better division record.
Jacksonville finished ahead of Houston in the AFC South based on better division record. Oakland finished ahead of San Diego in the AFC West based on better conference record. Philadelphia clinched the NFC 1 seed instead of St. Louis based on better conference record. Seattle clinched the NFC 5 seed instead of Dallas based on strength of victory. Within each conference, the four division winners and the two wild card teams qualified for the playoffs; the four division winners are seeded 1 through 4 based on their overall won-lost-tied record, the wild card teams are seeded 5 and 6. The NFL does not use a fixed bracket playoff system, there are no restrictions regarding teams from the same division matching up in any round. In the first round, dubbed the wild-card playoffs or wild-card weekend, the third-seeded division winner hosts the sixth seed wild card, the fourth seed hosts the fifth; the 1 and 2 seeds from each conference receive a bye in the first round. In the second round, the divisional playoffs, the number 1 seed hosts the worst surviving seed from the first round, while the number 2 seed will play the other team.
The two surviving teams from each conference's divisional playoff games meet in the respective AFC and NFC Conference Championship games, hosted by the higher seed. Although the Super Bowl, the fourth and final round of the playoffs, is played at a neutral site, the designated home team is based on an annual rotation by conference. * Indicates overtime victory ** Indicates double overtime victory The following teams and players set all-time NFL records during the season: The 2003 NFL Draft was held from April 26 to 27, 2003 at New York City's Theater at Madison Square Garden. With the first pick, the Cincinnati Bengals selected quarterback Carson Palmer from the University of Southern California. NFL Record and Fact Book NFL History 2001– Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League Football Outsiders 2003 Team Efficiency Ratings Pro Football Reference.com – 2003
The Vanier Cup is the championship of Canadian university football. It is organized by U Sports football and is played between the winners of the Uteck Bowl and the Mitchell Bowl, it is named after Georges Vanier, the former Governor General of Canada and was first awarded in 1965 to the winner of an invitational event contested between two teams that were selected by a panel. In 1967, the trophy was declared the official "CIAU National Football Championship" and a playoff system was instituted. From its creation until 1982, it was known as the Canadian College Bowl; the game occurs in late November, although it is played in December. The Laval Rouge et Or have won the most Vanier Cups, while the Western Ontario Mustangs have the most appearances. Seventeen teams have won the Vanier Cup, while three others have played for the championship but never won. There are seven active teams; the 54th Vanier Cup was played on November 2018 at Stade Telus in Quebec City. The Laval Rouge et Or defeated the Western Ontario Mustangs 34–20 to win their tenth championship.
The Vanier Cup was created in 1965 as the championship trophy of the Canadian College Bowl. For the first two years of competition, the Canadian College Bowl was an invitational event, with a national panel selecting two teams to play, similar to other U. S. collegiate bowl games. In 1967, the Canadian College Bowl was declared the national football championship of the Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union Canadian Interuniversity Sport and now U Sports, with a playoff system determining the two participants; the Vanier Cup was played in Toronto, from its inception in 1965 through 2003. However, after the CIS opened the game to host conference bids in 2001, the possibility arose to have games held outside Toronto; as of 2016, 41 of the 52 Vanier Cups have been played in Toronto, five in Québec City, four in Hamilton, one in Saskatoon, one in Vancouver and one in Montréal. No games have been staged in the Atlantic region. Four times, the game has been played in the same city and during the same weekend as the Grey Cup: 1973, 2007 and 2012 in Toronto and in 2011 in Vancouver at BC Place Stadium.
The Vanier Cup is played between the winners of the Mitchell Bowl. The Uteck and Mitchell Bowls, in turn, are contested by the Loney Bowl, Hardy Cup, Dunsmore Cup, Yates Cup champions; the Vanier Cup's most valuable player is awarded the Ted Morris Memorial Trophy. It was first awarded at the first championship in 1965 and named in honour of Teddy Morris, who died the same year. Morris, a Hall of Fame former Toronto Argonauts player and coach, was an organizer of the first bowl and champion for developing Canadian players; the Bruce Coulter Award was first awarded in 1992 and is dependent on what position the winner of the Ted Morris Trophy played. If the winner is from the offence the Bruce Coulter Award winner will be the most outstanding defensive player or vice versa, it was named after Bruce Coulter, long-time Head Coach at Bishop's University and former offensive and defensive player with the Montreal Alouettes in the 1950s. Coulter was inducted as a builder in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1997.
The Vanier Cup final game is broadcast nationally. From 1965 though 1976 it was broadcast on CBC Television, from 1977 through 1988 it was broadcast on the CTV Television Network. In 1989 the game went on Cable TV with TSN taking the game through 2007. In 2008 was on the cable network The Score, before returning to TSN from 2009 to 2012. In 2013, the game was broadcast on Sportsnet 360. In November 2010, the rights to the Vanier Cup were purchased by sports marketing company MRX; the 2011 game was held in Vancouver, on the same weekend as the 99th Grey Cup and for the first time it was integrated into the Grey Cup Festival as a festival event. In 2012, the 48th Vanier Cup, played between Laval and McMaster at Rogers Centre in Toronto became both the most attended and most watched Vanier Cup ever. Held the same weekend and in the same city as the 100th Grey Cup, the game was attended by 37,098; the previous record was set in 1989 at the 25th Vanier Cup, when 32,847 watched the game between Western and Saskatchewan, played at SkyDome.
The game, broadcast on TSN and RDS was watched by 910,000. In February 2013, the CIS terminated the option years on their agreement with MRX opting for an open bid process for the hosting of the game. Laval University, in Quebec City, was the only bidder for the game and won the right to host the 49th Vanier Cup. In May, CIS terminated its agreement with TSN, entered into a six-year deal with Sportsnet to broadcast its championships, including the Vanier Cup; the switch in venues, the decoupling of the Vanier Cup from Grey Cup week, the change in broadcaster, led to a precipitous drop in attendance and viewership. A total of 301,000 viewers watched Laval defeat the Calgary Dinos 25-14 Saturday, November 23, a decline of 64 per cent from the previous year. A standing room crowd of 18,543 were on hand at the Telus Stadium, a decline of 50 per cent from the previous year in Toronto. Key Number of times that team has won the Vanier Cup. Note: All Ted Morris Trophy and Bruce Coulter Award winners played for the winning team, unless otherwise noted.
^ A. Bob McGregor, Ted Morris Trophy winner in 1971, played for the runner-up team.^ B. In the 1972 game, the Vanier Cup Committee and Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union officials decided to crown co-winners from the same school.^ C. Rob Schrauth, Bruce Coulter Award winner in 1993, played for the runner-up team.^ D. Brent Schneider, Ted Mo
University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba is a public research university in Manitoba, Canada. Its main campus is located in the Fort Garry neighbourhood of southern Winnipeg with other campuses throughout the city. Founded in 1877, it is Western Canada's first university; the university maintains a reputation as a top research-intensive post-secondary educational institution and conducts more research annually than any other university in the region. It is the largest university both by total student enrollment and campus area in the province of Manitoba, the 17th-largest in all of Canada; the campus boasts dozens of faculties including the first medical school in Western Canada, hundreds of degree programs. It is a member of the U15 and of Universities Canada while its global affiliations include the International Association of Universities and the Association of Commonwealth Universities, its increased global outreach has resulted in one of the most internationally diverse student bodies in Canada, while its competitive academic and research programs have ranked among the top in the Canadian Prairies.
The Manitoba Bisons represent the team in athletics as a member of Canada West. As of 2018, there have been 98 Rhodes Scholars from the University of Manitoba, more than from any other university in Western Canada; the University of Manitoba has three main locations: the Bannatyne Campus, the Fort Garry Campus and the William Norrie Centre. The downtown Bannatyne campus of the university comprises a complex of ten buildings west of the Health Sciences Centre between McDermot Ave and William Ave in Central Winnipeg; this complex houses the dental instructional units of the university. The Faculty of Dentistry, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Medical Rehabilitation, the School of Dental Hygiene are the major health sciences units on this campus; the Faculty of Pharmacy joined the Bannatyne campus with the opening of the 95,000 sq ft Apotex Centre on October 16, 2008. The Brodie Center is known as the "flagship" which connects all three faculties as well as the Neil John MacLean Health Sciences Library and the Joe Doupe Fitness Centre.
It is at 727 McDermot Avenue. The main Fort Garry campus comprises over 60 teaching and research buildings of the University and sits on 274 hectares of land. In addition, Smartpark is the location of seven buildings leased to research and development organizations involving university-industry partnerships; the address is 66 Chancellors Circle. The William Norrie Centre on Selkirk Avenue is the campus for social work education for inner-city residents; the university operates agricultural research stations near Carman, Manitoba. The Ian N. Morrison Research Farm near Carman is a 406 acres facility 70 km from Winnipeg, while the Glenlea facility is 1,000 acres and is 20 km from Winnipeg; the University of Manitoba provides services to urban and rural Indigenous people. The University of Manitoba's Department of Native Studies is the oldest such unit in Western Canada. Many of the Indigenous Access programs include summer courses that bring new Indigenous students to campus before the start of the school year for campus orientation sessions.
Indigenous Elders are present on campus at University of Manitoba to provide social supports in Migizii Agamik, the Indigenous Centre on campus. Tutoring services are available within the University of Manitoba's Medicine and Social Work ACCESS Programs; the university connects with First Nations communities to talk to potential students at a much younger age through Curry Biz Camp, which fosters entrepreneurship among young First Nations and Métis students. The University of Manitoba is a non-denominational university, founded by Alexander Morris, that received a charter on February 28, 1877, it opened on June 20, 1877 to confer degrees on students graduating from its three founding colleges: St. Boniface College, St John's College and Manitoba College; the University of Manitoba granted its first degrees in 1880. The University was the first to be established in western Canada; the university has added a number of colleges to its associative body. In 1882 the Manitoba Medical College, founded by some physicians and surgeons, became a part of the University.
Architect Charles Henry Wheeler designed the Bacteriological Research Building, part of the Manitoba Medical College. Architect George Creeford Browne designed the Science Building, 1899–1900. Other colleges followed: Methodist Church's Wesley College in 1888 Manitoba College of Pharmacy in 1902 Manitoba Agriculture College in 1906 St. Paul's College in 1931 Brandon College in 1938 St. Andrew's College in 1946In 1901 the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba changed the University Act so the university could do its own teaching, in 1905 a building in downtown Winnipeg became its first teaching facility with a staff of six science professors; the governance was modeled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership.
In the early part of the 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of spe
2013 NFL season
The 2013 NFL season was the 94th season in the history of the National Football League. The season saw the Seattle Seahawks capture the first championship in the franchise's 38 years in the league with a lopsided 43-8 victory over the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XLVIII, the league's championship game; the Super Bowl was played at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey on Sunday, February 2, 2014. It was the first Super Bowl hosted by New Jersey and the first to be held outdoors in a cold weather environment; the Seahawks held the lead the rest of the way. Broncos quarterback Peyton Manning was named the regular season's Most Valuable Player by the voters of the Associated Press for a record fifth time after compiling passing stats which included regular season records for passing yards and passing touchdowns. Manning was named the Offensive Player of the Year for the second time in his career. Carolina Panthers linebacker Luke Kuechly earned Defensive Player of the Year honors. Scoring reached historic levels throughout the league in 2013.
As a whole the league set records for total points scored, points scored per game and the number of both touchdowns and field goals scored. The Broncos set a new standard for team scoring in the regular season with 606 points. In addition to the Broncos, ten other teams each scored over 400 points, the greatest number of teams to surpass that benchmark in a single year; the regular season got underway on Thursday, September 5, 2013, with the Broncos hosting the defending Super Bowl XLVII champion Baltimore Ravens in the annual kickoff game. The game presaged the Broncos' historic offensive production with a strong performance by Peyton Manning in which he tied a league record in throwing seven touchdown passes and led the Broncos to a 49–27 win; the game was the start of a disappointing season for the Ravens in which they would finish out of the playoffs with an 8–8 record, thus ensuring that there would be no repeat Super Bowl winner for a tied record ninth straight season. The regular season wrapped up on Sunday night, December 29.
The playoffs began with the wild card round which took place the first weekend of January 2014. The league's propensity for scoring did not abate in the post-season, as exemplified by the Indianapolis Colts' wild come-from-behind 45–44 victory over the Kansas City Chiefs in the playoffs' opening game; the Conference Championship games featured the top seeded teams in each conference, the Seahawks in the NFC and the Broncos in the American Football Conference, hosting the San Francisco 49ers and New England Patriots respectively. Both home teams prevailed to set up just the second Super Bowl matchup of #1 seeds in the past 20 seasons; the 2013 league year began at 4 pm EST on March 12, which marked the start of the league's free agency period. The per-team salary cap was set at US$123,000,000. For the first time the league instituted a negotiating period prior to the start of free agency during which time agents representing prospective unrestricted free agent players were allowed to have contact with team representatives with the purpose of determining a player's market value and to begin contract negotiations.
This period, referred to by some as the "legal tampering" period, began at midnight on March 9. A total of 524 players were eligible for some form of free agency. Among the high-profile players who changed teams via free agency were wide receivers Mike Wallace, Greg Jennings and Wes Welker. Eight players were assigned the non-exclusive franchise tag by their teams, which ensured that the team would receive compensation were the player to sign a contract with another team; these players were Brandon Albert, Jairus Byrd, Ryan Clady, Michael Johnson, Pat McAfee, Henry Melton, Anthony Spencer and Randy Starks. None of these players changed teams; the following trades are notable as they involved Pro Bowl-caliber players and/or draft picks in the first three rounds: OffseasonFebruary 27 – The Chiefs acquired quarterback Alex Smith from the 49ers for the Chiefs' second-round pick in the 2013 draft, 34th overall and a conditional pick in the 2014 draft. Smith had been the first overall selection of the 2005 NFL Draft, but had been supplanted as the 49ers starting quarterback in mid-2012 by Colin Kaepernick.
March 11 – Wide receiver Percy Harvin was traded by the Vikings to the Seahawks for the Seahawks' 2013 first-round and seventh-round selections as well as the Seahawks' third-round pick in 2014. Harvin is an All-Pro and former Offensive Rookie of the Year, but he has suffered a series of injuries throughout his career and had become disgruntled with the Vikings to the point that he asked the team to trade him; the Seahawks subsequently signed Harvin to a 6-year, $67 million contract extension which includes $25.5 million in guaranteed money. March 11 – The 49ers acquired wide receiver Anquan Boldin from the Ravens for a sixth-round selection in the 2013 draft. Boldin, a three-time Pro Bowler and former Offensive Rookie of the Year, had refused to accept a pay cut that the Ravens had requested. April 21 – Cornerback Darrelle Revis was traded by the Jets to the Buccane