Hamilton is a city in and the county seat of Butler County, United States, in the state's southwestern corner, located 20 miles north of Cincinnati. The population was 62,447 at the 2010 census; the city is part of the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Hamilton has three designated National Historic Districts: Dayton Lane, German Village, Rossville; the city has a council-manager form of government. Its mayor is Patrick Moeller and the city manager is Joshua Smith. Most of the city is in the Hamilton City School District; the industrial city is seeking to revitalize through the arts. Its initiative has attracted many sculpture installations to the city, which founded the Pyramid Hill Sculpture Park. Hamilton, started as Fort Hamilton, constructed in Sept.-Oct. 1791 by General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory; the fort was the first of several built north from Fort Washington into Indian territory. The fort was built to serve as a supply station for the troops of general Arthur St. Clair during his campaign in the Northwest Indian War.
It was used by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne. The fort was located 28 miles upstream from the mouth of the Great Miami River where the river is shallow during normal flow and forded by men and wagons on its gravelly bottom. In 1792 the fort was enlarged with a stable area by General Wayne; the fort was abandoned in 1796 after the signing of the Treaty of Greenville. A settlement grew up around the fort and was platted as Fairfield in 1794. By 1800, Hamilton was becoming an regional trading town; the town was platted, government was seated, the town named by 1803. Hamilton was first incorporated by act of the Ohio General Assembly in 1810, but lost its status in 1815 for failure to hold elections, it was reincorporated in 1827 with Rossville, the community across the Great Miami River in St. Clair Township; the two places severed their connection in 1831 only to be rejoined in 1854. Designated the county seat, this became a city in 1857. On 14 March 1867, Hamilton withdrew from the townships of Fairfield and St. Clair to form a "paper township", but the city government is dominant.
On the afternoon of 17 September 1859, Abraham Lincoln arrived at the Hamilton Station. He gave a campaign speech in support of his fellow Republican, William Dennison, running for Ohio governor. Lincoln's speech concentrated on popular sovereignty, he began: "This beautiful and far-famed Miami Valley is the garden spot of the world." It was during this campaign that the unknown Lincoln was first mentioned as a possible presidential contender. By the mid-19th century, Hamilton had developed as a significant manufacturing city, its early products were machines and equipment used to process the region’s farm produce, such as steam engines, hay cutters and threshers. Other production included machine tools, house hardware, saws for mills, paper making machinery, guns, beer, woolen goods, myriad and diverse output made from metal and cloth. By the early 20th century, the town was a heavy-manufacturing center for vaults and safes, machine tools, cans for vegetables, paper making machinery, locomotives and switches for railroads, steam engines, diesel engines, foundry products, printing presses, automobile parts.
During the two world wars, its factories manufactured war materiel, Liberty ship engines, gun lathes. Manufacturers used coke to feed furnaces, its by-product, fueled street lights. The Great Miami River valley, in which Hamilton was located, had become an industrial giant; the county courthouse, constructed between 1885 and 1889, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places because of its monumental architecture. The city has three historic districts: German Village and Rossville. Like Cincinnati, Hamilton attracted many German and Italian immigrants from the mid-19th century on, whose influence was expressed in culture and architecture. Hamilton had a Jewish community, it had been founded by German Jews in the 1880s, when nearby Cincinnati was a center of Reform Judaism in the United States. At the time around 250 Jewish families lived in Hamilton. In the 1920s, many Chicago gangsters established second homes in Hamilton; this gave Hamilton the nickname "Little Chicago". Some of these men appeared to have invested in what became an active district of gambling and prostitution.
During World War II, the military declared the entire city off-limits to its enlisted personnel because of its numerous gambling and prostitution establishments. Madame Freeze's and the long row of prostitution houses along Wood Street were notorious among soldiers. Factories in Hamilton converted their operations to support the war effort, manufacturing military supplies, such as tank turrets, Liberty ship and submarine engines, machined and stamped metal parts. With the 1950s came the construction of the new interstate highway I-75, part of a nationwide system and one which bypassed the city. A decision made to reduce traffic through the city resulted in cutting it off from the newest transportation network, businesses were drawn to areas outside with access to the highway; until 1999, when the Butler County Veterans Highway was built, Hamilton was the second-largest city in the United States without direct interstate access. On 30 March 1975, Easter Sunday, James Ruppert murdered 11 family members in his mother's hous
Jonathan Dayton was an American politician from the U. S. state of New Jersey. He was the youngest person to sign the United States Constitution and a member of the U. S. House of Representatives, serving as its third Speaker, in the U. S. Senate. Dayton was arrested in 1807 for treason in connection with Aaron Burr's conspiracy, he was never tried. Dayton was born in New Jersey, he was the son of Elias Dayton, a merchant, prominent in local politics and had served as a militia officer in the French and Indian War and his wife the former Hannah Rolfe. He graduated from the local academy, run by Tapping Reeve and Francis Barber, where he was classmates with Alexander Hamilton, he attended the College of New Jersey. He left college in 1775 to fight in the Revolution, received an honorary degree in 1776. Dayton was 15 at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War in 1775 and served under his father in the 3rd New Jersey Regiment as an ensign. On January 1, 1777, he was served as paymaster, he saw service under Washington, fighting in the battles of Brandywine Germantown.
He remained with Washington at Valley Forge and helped push the British from their position in New Jersey into the safety of New York City. In October 1780, Dayton and an uncle were captured by Loyalists, who held them captive for the winter before releasing them in the following year. Dayton again served under his father in the New Jersey Brigade. On March 30, 1780, at age 19, he was promoted to the rank of captain and transferred to the 2nd New Jersey Regiment, where he took part in the Battle of Yorktown; the Revolutionary War pension records indicate that he served as Aide-de-Camp to General Sullivan on his expedition against the Indians from May 1 – November 30, 1779. On July 19, 1799, Dayton was offered a commission as Major General in the Provisional United States Army, but declined. After the war, Dayton studied law and created a practice, dividing his time between land speculation and politics. After serving as a New Jersey delegate to the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention, he became a prominent Federalist legislator.
He was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly in 1786–1787, again in 1790, served in the New Jersey Legislative Council in 1789. Dayton was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1789, but he did not take his seat until he was chosen again in 1791, he served as speaker for the Fourth and Fifth Congresses. Like most Federalists, he supported the fiscal policies of Alexander Hamilton, he helped organize the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion, he supported the Louisiana Purchase and opposed the repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801. Wealthy from his heavy investments in Ohio, where the city of Dayton would be named after him, Dayton lent money to Aaron Burr, becoming involved by association in the alleged conspiracy in which Burr was accused of intending to conquer parts of what is now the Southwestern United States. Dayton was exonerated, but his association with Burr ended his political career. Dayton had two daughters. Susan's Revolutionary War Pension Application W.6994 states that the marriage occurred on March 28, 1779.
A supporting letter, written by Aaron Ogden, a captain in the New Jersey Brigade, states that he "was present at the marriage of the said Jonathan Dayton and Susan his wife. After resuming his political career in New Jersey, Dayton died on October 1824, in his hometown, he was interred in an unmarked grave, now under the St. John's Episcopal Church in Elizabeth, which replaced an original church in 1860. Shortly before Dayton's death, Lafayette visited him, as reported in an obituary in the Columbian Centinel on October 20, 1824: "In New-Jersey, Hon. JONATHAN DAYTON Speaker of the House of Representatives of Congress, a Hero of the Revolution; when the Nation's Guest passed New-Jersey, he passed the night with General Dayton, such were the exertions of this aged and distinguished federalist, to honor the Guest, gratify the wishes of his fellow citizens to see, that he sunk under them. The city of Dayton, was named after Jonathan Dayton. While he never set foot in the area, he was a signatory to the Constitution and, at the time the city of Dayton was established in 1796, he owned 250,000 acres in the Great Miami River basin.
The Jonathan Dayton High School in Springfield Township, Union County, New Jersey, the Dayton neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey, Dayton Street in Madison and Dayton, New Jersey, are named in his honor. United States Congress. "Jonathan Dayton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Jonathan Dayton at The Political Graveyard Jonathan Dayton at Find a Grave
Greene County, Ohio
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 161,573, its county seat is Xenia. The county was established on March 24, 1803 and named for General Nathanael Greene, an officer in the Revolutionary War. Greene County is part of OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 416 square miles, of which 414 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Clark County Madison County Fayette County Clinton County Warren County Montgomery County Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park As of the census of 2010, there were 161,573 people, 61,825 households, 39,160 families residing in the county; the population density was 356 people per square mile. There were 58,224 housing units at an average density of 140 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.4% White, 7.2% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races.
1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 55,312 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 13.70% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,656, the median income for a family was $57,954. Males had a median income of $42,338 versus $28,457 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,057.
About 5.20% of families and 8.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.70% of those under age 18 and 6.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 161,573 people, 62,770 households, 41,696 families residing in the county; the population density was 390.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 68,241 housing units at an average density of 164.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.4% white, 7.2% black or African American, 2.9% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.4% were German, 15.7% were American, 13.0% were Irish, 10.9% were English. Of the 62,770 households, 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age was 37.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $56,679 and the median income for a family was $70,817. Males had a median income of $53,614 versus $37,056 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,328. About 7.8% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. Auditor: David Graham Coroner: Kevin L. Sharrett, M. D. Engineer: Robert N. Geyer Prosecutor: Stephen K. Haller Recorder: Eric C. Sears Sheriff: Gene Fischer Treasurer: Kraig A. Hagler Common Pleas Judge: Hon. Stephen A. Wolaver Common Pleas Judge: Hon. Michael A. Buckwalter Domestic Relations Judge: Hon. Stephen L. Hurley Juvenile Court Judge: Hon. Adolfo A. Tornichio Probate Court Judge: Hon. Thomas M. O'Diam County Commissioners: Tom Koogler, Alan Anderson, Bob Glaser The following colleges and universities are located in Greene County: Wright State University, Fairborn Central State University, Wilberforce Clark State Community College - Greene Center, Beavercreek Antioch College, Yellow Springs Wilberforce University, Wilberforce Cedarville University, Cedarville Beavercreek City School District Beavercreek High School, Beavercreek Cedar Cliff Local School District Cedarville High School, Cedarville Fairborn City School District Fairborn High School, Fairborn Greeneview Local School District Greeneview High School, Jamestown Sugarcreek Local School District Bellbrook High School, Bellbrook Xenia Community City School District Xenia High School, Xenia Yellow Springs Exempted Village School District Yellow Springs High School, Yellow Springs Greene County Career Center, Xenia Legacy Christian Academy St. Brigid School Beavercreek Bellbrook Centerville Dayton Fairborn Kettering Xenia Bowersville Cedarville Clifton Jamestown Spring Valley Yellow Springs https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Shawnee Hills Wilberforce Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Byron Ferry Gladstone Goes Station Grape Grove New Germany New Jasper Oldtown Paintersville Roxanna Stringtown Trebein Washington Mills National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Ohio Greene County Website
Ohio Company of Associates
The Ohio Company of Associates known as the Ohio Company, was a land company whose members are today credited with becoming the first non-Native American group to settle in the present-day state of Ohio. In 1788 they established Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent settlement of the new United States in the newly organized Northwest Territory; the company was formed on March 1, 1786, by Rufus Putnam, Benjamin Tupper, Samuel Holden Parsons and Manasseh Cutler in Boston, Massachusetts. They had met at The Bunch-of-Grapes tavern, located on King Street, to discuss the settlement of the territory around the Ohio River. On March 8, 1787, Parsons and Cutler were chosen as directors, Winthrop Sargent was elected secretary. On August 30, 1787, James Mitchell Varnum was elected as a director, Richard Platt as treasurer. Directors included Griffin Greene upon the death of Varnum, Robert Oliver upon the death of Parsons. Cutler was sent to New York to negotiate with the Congress of the Confederation to help the company secure a claim on a portion of the land.
While there, Cutler aligned himself with William Duer, secretary of the U. S. Treasury Board. Duer and his associates formed a group of New York speculators who were determined to see settlement of the area west of the Appalachians. At this time, Congress needed revenue; the prospect of sales of land helped settle controversy and secure the incorporation in the Northwest Ordinance of the paragraphs that prohibited slavery, provided for land for public education and for the support of the ministry. After the creation of the Northwest Territory, Cutler suggested that the governor of the territory be General Arthur St. Clair, serving as the President of Congress. Once the President had appointed St. Clair to his new position and Major Winthrop Sargent, the secretary of the Ohio Company, signed two new contracts with him on October 27, 1787; the first was for the Ohio Company to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, from a point near the site of present-day Marietta, to a point nearly opposite present-day Huntington, West Virginia, for a payment of $1 million in government securities worth about 12¢ specie to the dollar.
The contract provided that one section of land in every township be devoted to the maintenance of public schools, another section be set apart for religious uses, two entire townships be reserved for a university. The second contract was an option to buy all the land between the Ohio and the Scioto rivers and the western boundary line of the Ohio Company's tract, extending north of the tenth survey township from the Ohio, this tract being preempted by Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent for themselves and others for the Scioto Company. Cutler's original intent was to buy only about 1,500,000 acres for the Ohio Company, but on the July 27, Congress authorized a grant of about 5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000. On the same day and Sargent for themselves and associates transferred to William Duer Secretary of the Treasury Board, his associates one equal moiety of the Scioto tract of land mentioned in the second contract. Both parties were to be interested in the sale of the land, were to share any profit or loss.
But, the Scioto Company interest was speculative, their contract lapsed before they purchased any land. In contrast, the Ohio Company had a genuine plan of settlement; the company made its first installment of $500,000, but was unable to raise the second $500,000. It settled for a purchase of 750,000 acres, plus the two townships for College Lands and the reserved School Lands and Ministerial Lands sections in each township, for a total area of 913,833 acres, called the First Purchase; the lands were surveyed, but on the same plan of townships and sections as the adjacent Seven Ranges under the procedure of the Land Ordinance of 1785. In 1788, General Rufus Putnam laid out the plans for Marietta, the first permanent settlement in the present state of Ohio; the Ohio Company sent pioneers from New England to the Northwest Territory. Their first purchase was in Washington, Gallia and Athens counties. Difficulties with Native Americans during the Northwest Indian War, including the Big Bottom Massacre, led Congress in 1792 to donate 100,000 acres on the north edge of the first purchase as a buffer against incursion.
The Donation Tract incorporated much of present-day Morgan counties. Many associates of the company held army bounty warrants, which they could exchange for federal land, totaling 142,900 acres. In 1792, the Ohio Company purchased another 214,285 acres in Morgan, Hocking and Athens counties, using these bounties, with the 1/3 discount for bad lands, as in the first purchase; the Second Purchase had no sections set aside for schools or ministry. The Second Purchase is known as the Purchase on the Muskingum. In 1796, the Ohio Company ceased to be a genuine land company. Hildreth, Samuel Prescott - pioneer historian Historic regions of the United States Ohio Company Land Office Ohio Lands Hildreth, S. P.. Biographical and Historical Memoirs of the Early Pioneer Settlers of Ohio, H. W. Derby and Co. Cincinnati, Ohio. Hildreth, S. P.. Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory. H. W. Derby and Co. Hulbert, Archer Butler.
The Records of the Original Proceedings of the Ohio Company, Volume I. Marietta Historical Comm
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Spring Grove Cemetery
Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum is a nonprofit garden cemetery and arboretum located at 4521 Spring Grove Avenue, Ohio. It is the second largest cemetery in the United States and is recognized as a US National Historic Landmark; the cemetery dates from 1844, when members of the Cincinnati Horticultural Society formed a cemetery association. They took their inspiration from contemporary rural cemeteries such as Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the numerous springs and groves suggested the name "Spring Grove". On December 1, 1844 Salmon P. Chase and others prepared the Articles of Incorporation; the cemetery was designed by Howard Daniels and formally chartered on January 21, 1845. The first burial took place on September 1, 1845. In 1855, Adolph Strauch, a renowned landscape architect, was hired to beautify the grounds, his sense and layout of the "garden cemetery" made of lakes and shrubs, is what visitors today still see. He created a more open landscape by setting limits on private enclosures and monument heights.
The results of the redesign earned Strauch praise in the U. S. and abroad, including from Frederick Law Olmsted and the French landscape architect Edouard André. On March 29, 2007, the cemetery was designated a National Historic Landmark; the Spring Grove Cemetery Chapel is listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places. On October 23, 2013, cemetery staff removed a large and disturbing SpongeBob SquarePants headstone from the grave of U. S. Army Corporal another for her still-living sister a day after her funeral; the family believed. In February 2014, both parties agreed to replace the statues with granite slabs hiding them from passersby. Spring Grove encompasses 733 acres of which 400 acres are landscaped and maintained, its grounds include 12 ponds, many fine tombstones and memorials, various examples of Gothic Revival architecture. As of 2005, its National Champion trees were Halesia diptera. See Category:Burials at Spring Grove Cemetery. Jacob Ammen, Civil War general Nicholas Longworth Anderson, Civil War colonel Joshua Hall Bates, Civil War general George K. Brady, United States Army officer.
Commander of the Department of Alaska Emma Lucy Braun, botanist Charles Elwood Brown, Civil War Brevet Brigadier General and U. S. Representative Sidney Burbank, Civil War colonel Jacob Burnet, US Senator Samuel Fenton Cary, prohibitionist Kate Chase, daughter of Salmon Chase and Washington, D. C. Civil War socialite Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the United States Henry M. Cist, Civil War brevet brigadier general Levi Coffin, Quaker abolitionist Arthur F. Devereux, Brevet Brigadier General during the Civil War. S. Senator, American Civil War Captain Manning Force, Civil War Brevet Brigadier General, Medal of Honor recipient James Gamble, co-founder of Procter & Gamble Company Kenner Garrard, Civil War general Heinie Groh, Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame third baseman Theodore Sommers Henderson, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church Andrew Hickenlooper, Civil War general Joseph Hooker, Civil War general and commander of the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville Waite Hoyt, professional baseball player.