Wynne Edwin Baxter
Wynne Edwin Baxter FRMS, FGS LL. B was an English lawyer, translator and botanist, but is best known as the Coroner who conducted the inquests on most of the victims of the Whitechapel Murders of 1888 to 1891 including three of the victims of Jack the Ripper in 1888, as well as on Joseph Merrick, the "Elephant Man". Baxter was the eldest of three sons of John Baxter, a Lewes printer and publisher, printer of Baxter's Bible, he attended Lewes Old Grammar School, was educated by the Rev. Frost in Brighton, he studied Law and was admitted as a solicitor in 1867. Maintaining a link with printing, the family business, he was Vice-President of the Provincial Newspaper Society between 1871 and 1877, he was appointed Junior Headborough for Lewes in 1868, Under-Sheriff of London and Middlesex from 1876 to 1879 and 1885 to 1886, Junior High Constable in 1878, the last Senior High Constable in 1880. In 1881 Baxter became the first Mayor of Lewes, he acted as solicitor to Lewes Co-operative Benefit Building Society from 1870 until his death in 1920.
He went on to become a member of the Law Society, the Law Association, the Solicitor's Benevolent Association. Baxter moved from Lewes to London in 1875, starting a solicitor's practice and an advertising agency at the same premises in Cannon Street, he maintained a legal practice at Lewes, which would be run by his son, Reginald'Reggie' Truscott Baxter. As the Coroner for Sussex from 1880 to 1887, Wynne Baxter conducted the inquest of the Brighton'railway murderer' Percy Lefroy Mapleton, hanged in 1881, as well as that of his victim, Isaac Frederick Gold. By 1885 Baxter held the City of London and Borough of Southwark. In December 1886 he won a bitterly fought contest to be elected the Coroner for the County of Middlesex. In July 1887 he held the inquest of Miriam Angel, poisoned by Israel Lipski at 16, Batty Street; the name'Lipski' was to become well known in Whitechapel in the next year, as was that of Baxter himself. Baxter played a key judicial role during the Whitechapel Murders of 1888 to 1891, conducting the inquests into the deaths of Annie Millwood, Emma Elizabeth Smith, Polly Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Rose Mylett, Alice McKenzie, the'Pinchin Street Torso' and Frances Coles.
The inquest for Mary Ann'Polly' Nichols was conducted by Baxter on 1 September 1888 at the Working Lads' Institute in Whitechapel Road, was attended by Detective Inspectors Frederick Abberline and Helson and Sergeants Godley and Enright on behalf of the Criminal Investigation Department. Resumed on 3 and 17 September, Baxter heard testimony from numerous witnesses and gave examples of his blunt questioning style, such as this example reported in The Daily Telegraph of 4 September: Baxter, to Henry Tomkins, horse slaughterer: Are there any women about there? Tomkins: Oh! I know nothing about them, I don't like'em. Baxter: I did not ask you whether you like them. Baxter's own theory was that the murderer was attempting to obtain certain female organs for sale to doctors along with a medical periodical. Having heard medical evidence from Police Surgeon Dr George Bagster Phillips during the inquest into Annie Chapman's murder, Baxter said: "The body had not been dissected, but the injuries had been made by someone who had considerable anatomical skill and knowledge.
There were no meaningless cuts. The organ had been taken by one who knew where to find it, what difficulties he would have to contend against, how he should use his knife so as to abstract the organ without injury to it.... The conclusion that the desire was to possess the missing abdominal organ seemed overwhelming." This theory was disproved soon. Appointed a Life Governor of the London Hospital in 1889, on 15 April 1890 he conducted the inquest into the death of the hospital's most famous resident, Joseph Carey Merrick, the'Elephant Man', who had died on 11 April 1890. Wynne Edwin Baxter was the last High Constable of Lewes, became the town's first Mayor in 1881; the painting of Baxter as the first mayor of Lewes, which hangs in the Assembly Room of Lewes Town Hall, is an interesting one. He is shown with the mayoral chain, the mace and the chair. However, these items had to be made and he only had them for the last week of his mayoralty, he was Clerk to the Lewes Provision Market, Governor of the Lewes Exhibition Fund, a member of the Committee of the Lewes National Schools, a Director of the Lewes Victoria Hospital.
Between November 1914 and April 1916, during the First World War, Baxter conducted inquests into the deaths of eleven German spies, including Karl Lody, captured in Great Britain and tried and executed at the Tower of London. On 13 June 1917 the Germans launched the first daylight air raid over London. 17 Gotha G biplanes were flown from Belgium. 162 people were killed and a further 426 were injured during the raid, being the highest death toll from a single air raid on Britain during that War. On 15 June 1917 Baxter presided over the inquests of 20 of the victims at Poplar. Baxter was a noted plant collector, a Fellow of the Geological Society of London and a Fellow and Treasurer of the Royal Microscopical Society, he was fluent in French, and, in the 1890s, translated a number of scientific books from that language into English. Baxter was an antiquarian, having in his library 3,000 volumes concerning P
Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper was an unidentified serial killer believed to have been active in the impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. In both the criminal case files and contemporary journalistic accounts, the killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer and Leather Apron. Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations; the removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer; the name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by someone claiming to be the murderer, disseminated in the media. The letter is believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story and increase their newspapers' circulation.
The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. The public came to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper" because of the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, because of media treatment of the events. Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper, the legend solidified. A police investigation into a series of eleven brutal killings in Whitechapel up to 1891 was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of 1888. Five victims—Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly—are known as the "canonical five" and their murders between 31 August and 9 November 1888 are considered the most to be linked; the murders were never solved, the legends surrounding them became a combination of genuine historical research and pseudohistory. The term "ripperology" was coined to describe the analysis of the Ripper cases.
There are now over one hundred hypotheses about the Ripper's identity, the murders have inspired many works of fiction. In the mid-19th century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants who swelled the populations of the major cities, including the East End of London. From 1882, Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area; the parish of Whitechapel in London's East End became overcrowded. Work and housing conditions worsened, a significant economic underclass developed. Robbery and alcohol dependency were commonplace, the endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution. In October 1888, London's Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1,200 women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel; the economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889, frequent demonstrations led to police intervention and public unrest, such as that of 13 November 1887. Anti-semitism, nativism, social disturbance, severe deprivation influenced public perceptions that Whitechapel was a notorious den of immorality.
In 1888, such perceptions were strengthened when the series of vicious and grotesque murders attributed to "Jack the Ripper" received unprecedented coverage in the media. The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were killed by the same person. Eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, were included in a London Metropolitan Police Service investigation and were known collectively in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". Opinions vary as to whether these murders should be linked to the same culprit, but five of the eleven Whitechapel murders, known as the "canonical five", are believed to be the work of Jack the Ripper. Most experts point to deep throat slashes and genital-area mutilation, removal of internal organs, progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of the Ripper's modus operandi; the first two cases in the Whitechapel murders file, those of Emma Elizabeth Smith and Martha Tabram, are not included in the canonical five.
Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April 1888. A blunt object was inserted into her vagina, she died the following day at London Hospital. She said that she had been attacked by three men, one of whom was a teenager; the attack was linked to the murders by the press, but most authors attribute it to gang violence unrelated to the Ripper case. Tabram was killed on 7 August 1888; the savagery of the murder, the lack of obvious motive, the closeness of the location and date to those of the Ripper murders led police to link them. The attack differs from the canonical murders in that Tabram was stabbed rather than slashed at the throat and abdomen, many experts do not connect it with the murders because of the difference in the wound pattern; the canonical five Ripper victims are Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly. Nichols' body was discovered at about 3:40 a.m. on Friday 31 August 1888 in Buck's Row, Whitechapel.
The throat was severed by two cuts, the lower part of the abdomen was ripped open by a deep, jagged wound. Several other incisions on the abdomen were caused by the same knife. Chapman's
Thomas Bond (surgeon)
Thomas Bond FRCS, MB BS, was an English surgeon considered by some to be the first offender profiler, best known for his association with the notorious Jack the Ripper murders of 1888. Born in Somerset, Bond was a student to his maternal uncle, Dr McCann of Southampton, before training at King's College and King's College Hospital in London where he won the Gold Medal of the University of London for his Bachelor of Surgery examination. In 1864 Bond was appointed MRCS, graduated MB BS in 1865, in 1866 FRCS. In 1866 he joined the Prussian Military Service in which he attended the sick during a cholera epidemic. During the Austro-Prussian War he carried a despatch from the Prussian Army through the Austrian lines to the Italian lines. Returning to London, Bond set up practice in Westminster, was appointed Surgeon to the Metropolitan Police's A Division in 1867, he won a post at the Westminster Hospital in 1873 after several failed elections, he spent his entire career at that hospital, firstly as an assistant surgeon and, from 1895, as a Full Surgeon.
As surgeon to the Metropolitan Police's'A Division' he dealt with many important cases, including those of the Battersea Mystery, Mary Jane Kelly, Kate Webster, Percy Lefroy Mapleton and the "Thames Torso Murders" investigations of 1887–1889. Bond examined the bodies of Rose Mylett and Alice Mackenzie and submitted reports on both. Bond was described as being among the best of medical witnesses. Bond was an early offender profiler, attempted to profile the personality of Jack the Ripper in 1888. Bond was railway surgeon or consulting railway surgeon to the Great Western Railway and the Great Eastern Railway. On 25 October 1888, Robert Anderson wrote to Bond asking him to examine material connected with the Jack the Ripper investigation. In his letter Anderson enclosed copies of the evidence given at the inquests into the murders of Polly Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes, asked Bond to deliver his "opinion on the matter."Bond examined the papers for two weeks and replied to Anderson on 10 November 1888.
Mary Jane Kelly had been killed the morning before in Dorset Street, Bond had spent much of that day performing her autopsy. Bond's report said: "I beg to report that I have read the notes of the 4 Whitechapel Murders viz:1. Buck's Row. 2. Hanbury Street. 3. Berner's Street. 4. Mitre Square. I have made a Post Mortem Examination of the mutilated remains of a woman found yesterday in a small room in Dorset Street -1. All five murders were no doubt committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right. In the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.2. All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut.3. In the four murders of which I have seen the notes only, I cannot form a definite opinion as to the time that had elapsed between the murder and the discovering of the body.
In one case, that of Berner's Street, the discovery appears to have been made after the deed - In Buck's Row, Hanbury Street, Mitre Square three or four hours only could have elapsed. In the Dorset Street case the body was lying on the bed at the time of my visit, 2 o'clock, quite naked and mutilated as in the annexed report -Rigor Mortis had set in, but increased during the progress of the examination. From this it is difficult to say with any degree of certainty the exact time that had elapsed since death as the period varies from 6 to 12 hours before rigidity sets in; the body was comparatively cold at 2 o'clock and the remains of a taken meal were found in the stomach and scattered about over the intestines. It is, pretty certain that the woman must have been dead about 12 hours and the digested food would indicate: that death took place about 3 or 4 hours after the food was taken, so one or two o'clock in the morning would be the probable time of the murder.4. In all the cases there appears to be no evidence of struggling and the attacks were so sudden and made in such a position that the women could neither resist nor cry out.
In the Dorset Street case the corner of the sheet to the right of the woman's head was much cut and saturated with blood, indicating that the face may have been covered with the sheet at the time of the attack.5. In the four first cases the murderer must have attacked from the right side of the victim. In the Dorset Street case, he must have attacked from in front or from the left, as there would be no room for him between the wall and the part of the bed on which the woman was lying. Again, the blood had flowed down on the right side of the woman and spurted on to the wall.6. The murderer would not be splashed or deluged with blood, but his hands' and arms must have been covered and parts of his clothing must have been smeared with blood.7. The mutilations in each case excepting the Berner's Street one were all of the same character and shewed that in all the murders, the object was mutilation.8. In each case the mutilation was inflicted by a person who had no scientific nor anatomical knowledge.
In my opinion he does not possess the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer or any person accustomed to cut up dead animals.9. The instrument must have been a strong knife at least six inches long sharp, pointed at the top and about an inch in width, it may have been a butcher's knife or a surgeon's knife. I think it was no doubt a straight kni
Jack the Ripper suspects
A series of murders that took place in the East End of London from August to November 1888 was blamed on an unidentified assailant, nicknamed Jack the Ripper. Since that time, the identity of the killer or killers has been debated, over 100 Jack the Ripper suspects have been named. Though many theories have been advanced, experts find none persuasive, some are hardly taken at all. Due to the passage of time since the murders took place, with everyone alive at the time now dead, the killer will never be identified despite the killer’s identity continuing to be a hot topic of discussion. Metropolitan Police Service files show that their investigation into the serial killings encompassed 11 separate murders between 1888 and 1891, known in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". Five of these—the murders of Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly—are agreed to be the work of a single killer, known as "Jack the Ripper", they occurred between August and November 1888 within a few streets of each other, are collectively called the "canonical five".
The six other murders—those of Emma Elizabeth Smith, Martha Tabram, Rose Mylett, Alice McKenzie, Frances Coles, an unidentified woman—have been linked with Jack the Ripper to varying degrees. The swiftness of the attacks, the manner of the mutilations performed on some of the bodies, which included disembowelment and removal of organs, led to speculation that the murderer had the skills of a physician or butcher. However, others disagreed and thought the wounds too crude to be professional; the alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the enquiry. Over 2,000 people were interviewed, "upwards of 300" people were investigated, 80 people were detained. During the course of their investigations of the murders, police regarded several men as strong suspects, though none was formally charged. Montague John Druitt was a Dorset-born barrister who worked to supplement his income as an assistant schoolmaster in Blackheath, until his dismissal shortly before his suicide by drowning in 1888.
His decomposed body was found floating in the Thames near Chiswick on 31 December 1888. Some modern authors suggest that Druitt may have been dismissed because he was a homosexual and that this could have driven him to suicide. However, both his mother and his grandmother suffered mental health problems, it is possible that he was dismissed because of an underlying hereditary psychiatric illness, his death shortly after the last canonical murder led Assistant Chief Constable Sir Melville Macnaghten to name him as a suspect in a memorandum of 23 February 1894. However, Macnaghten incorrectly described the 31-year-old barrister as a 41-year-old doctor. On 1 September, the day after the first canonical murder, Druitt was in Dorset playing cricket, most experts now believe that the killer was local to Whitechapel, whereas Druitt lived miles away on the other side of the Thames in Kent. Inspector Frederick Abberline appeared to dismiss Druitt as a serious suspect on the basis that the only evidence against him was the coincidental timing of his suicide shortly after the last canonical murder.
Seweryn Antonowicz Kłosowski was born in Congress Poland, but emigrated to the United Kingdom sometime between 1887 and 1888, shortly before the start of the Whitechapel murders. Between 1893 and 1894 he assumed the name of Chapman, he successively poisoned three of his wives and became known as "the borough poisoner". He was hanged for his crimes in 1903. At the time of the Ripper murders, he lived in Whitechapel, where he had been working as a barber under the name Ludwig Schloski. According to H. L. Adam, who wrote a book on the poisonings in 1930, Chapman was Inspector Frederick Abberline's favoured suspect, the Pall Mall Gazette reported that Abberline suspected Chapman after his conviction. However, others disagree that Chapman is a culprit, as he murdered his three wives with poison, it is uncommon for a serial killer to make such a drastic change in modus operandi. Aaron Kosminski was a Polish Jew, admitted to Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum in 1891. "Kosminski" was named as a suspect by Sir Melville Macnaghten in his 1894 memorandum and by former Chief Inspector Donald Swanson in handwritten comments in the margin of his copy of Assistant Commissioner Sir Robert Anderson's memoirs.
Anderson wrote that a Polish Jew had been identified as the Ripper but that no prosecution was possible because the witness was Jewish and refused to testify against a fellow Jew. Some authors are sceptical of this. In his memorandum, Macnaghten stated that no one was identified as the Ripper, which directly contradicts Anderson's recollection. In 1987, author Martin Fido searched asylum records for any inmates called Kosminski, found only one: Aaron Kosminski. Kosminski lived in Whitechapel, his insanity took the form of auditory hallucinations, a paranoid fear of being fed by other people, a refusal to wash or bathe, "self-abuse". In his book, The Cases That Haunt Us, former FBI profiler John Douglas states that a paranoid individual such as Kosminski would have boasted of the murders while incarcerated had he been the killer, but there is no record that he did so. In 2014, DNA analysis tenuously linked Kosminski with a shawl said to have belonged to victim Ca
Frederick George Abberline was a Chief Inspector for the London Metropolitan Police and a prominent police figure in the investigation into the Jack the Ripper serial killer murders of 1888. Frederick Abberline was the youngest son of Edward Abberline, a saddlemaker, sheriff's officer and clerk of the market, minor local government positions. Edward Abberline died in 1849, his widow opened a small shop and brought up her four children, Harriett and Frederick, alone. Frederick was a clockmaker until he left home to go to London, where he enlisted in the Metropolitan Police on 5 January 1863, being appointed to N Division with the Warrant Number 43519. PC Abberline so impressed his superiors that they promoted him to Sergeant two years on 19 August 1865. On his promotion he moved to Y Division. Throughout 1867 he investigated Fenian activities as a plain clothes officer, he was promoted to Inspector on 10 March 1873, three days on 13 March transferred to H Division in Whitechapel. On 8 April 1878 Abberline was appointed Local Inspector in charge of H Division's CID.
On 26 February 1887 Abberline transferred to A Division, moved to CO Division at Scotland Yard on 19 November 1887, being promoted to Inspector First-Class on 9 February 1888 and to Chief Inspector on 22 December 1890. Following the murder of Mary Ann Nichols on 31 August 1888, Abberline was seconded back to Whitechapel due to his extensive experience in the area, he was placed in charge of the various detectives investigating the Ripper murders. Chief Inspector Walter Dew a detective constable in Whitechapel's H Division in 1888, knew Abberline and, while describing him as sounding and looking like a bank manager stated that his knowledge of the area made him one of the most important members of the Whitechapel murder investigation team. Among the many suspects in the case, Abberline's primary suspect was Severin Antoniovich Klosowski, aka George Chapman. Among other theories he had about the murders was his theory that the murders could have been perpetrated by a female killer. Abberline was subsequently involved in the investigation of the Cleveland Street scandal in 1889.
Chief Inspector Abberline retired from the police on 8 February 1892, having received 84 commendations and awards, worked as a private enquiry agent, including three seasons at Monte Carlo, before taking over the European Agency of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency of United States, for whom he worked for 12 years. Abberline was married twice: once in March 1868 to 25-year-old Martha Mackness, the daughter of a labourer, from Elton, Northamptonshire. On 17 December 1876, over a decade before the Ripper murders, Abberline married 32-year-old Emma Beament, the daughter of a merchant, from Hoxton New Town, Shoreditch. Although they had no children, there is no credible evidence that the couple were unhappy, the marriage lasted until Frederick’s death over 50 years later. On his retirement from the Pinkerton Detective Agency in 1904 Abberline retired to Bournemouth. Abberline died on December 10, 1929, aged 86 at his home, "Estcourt", 195 Holdenhurst Road, Bournemouth, just under three months before his wife Emma, was buried in Bournemouth at Wimborne Road Cemetery.
In 2007, following a campaign for Abberline's unmarked grave to be recognised, with the approval of his surviving relatives, a black granite headstone and donated by a local stonemason, was erected on the grave where Abberline and Emma are buried. A blue plaque commemorating Abberline was unveiled at 195 Holdenhurst Road on 29 September 2001. Several fictional retellings of the events surrounding the Jack the Ripper murders have cast Abberline in a lead role; the suggestion is but erroneously made for the sake of drama that Abberline was unmarried and formed an attachment to one of the women connected to the events. The two most popular film depictions have cast him as an addict, for which there is no known historical basis. Abberline was played by Michael Caine in the 1988 television miniseries Jack the Ripper. In this, the character was an aging alcoholic whose quest to solve the murders gives him the strength to give up drinking. A fictionalized Abberline was featured as the protagonist of Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell's graphic novel From Hell, was subsequently portrayed by Johnny Depp in the liberal film adaptation of that work.
The graphic novel paints him as a sulky but sympathetic policeman, different from his peers only in his moralism and being overweight, takes pains to include little-known details of his life such as his involvement with the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. The film's version of Abberline was portrayed as an intelligent young detective, ahead of his time in his deductive techniques, he is portrayed as being clairvoyant, allowing the filmmakers to ascribe to Abberline the contributions of spiritualist and psychic Robert James Lees, thus combining the two into one character and simplifying the graphic novel's narrative. Although Abberline is addicted to opium and drinks absinthe, he is a decent man who goes on a crusade against powerful governmental and upper-class figures to stop the grotesque murders of Jack the Ripper. In the film, Abberline dies of an overdose in his late 30s. Abberline was played by Gordon Christie in the 1973 television miniseries Jack the Ripper. In "The Ripper", an episode of the television series The Collector, Abberline was played by Robert Wisden.
Abberline appears as a character in the anime series
Catherine "Kate" Eddowes was one of the victims in the Whitechapel murders. She was the second person killed in the early hours of Sunday 30 September 1888, a night which had seen the murder of Elizabeth Stride less than an hour earlier; these two murders are referred to as the "double event" and have been attributed to an unidentified serial killer known as Jack the Ripper. Eddowes known as "Kate Conway" and "Kate Kelly" after her two successive common-law husbands, was born in Graisley Green, Wolverhampton on 14 April 1842, her parents, tinplate worker George Eddowes and his wife Catherine, had 11 other children. The family moved to London a year after her birth, but she returned to Wolverhampton to work as a tinplate stamper. On losing this job, she took up with ex-soldier Thomas Conway in Birmingham, she took to drinking and left her family in 1880. Here she took to casual sex work to pay the rent. To avoid contact with his former partner, Conway drew his army pension under the assumed name of Quinn, kept their sons' addresses secret from her.
At the time of her death she was described as being five feet tall, with dark auburn hair, hazel eyes, a tattoo that read "TC", for Tom Conway, in blue ink on her left forearm. Friends of Eddowes described her as "intelligent and scholarly, but possessed of a fierce temper" and "a jolly woman, always singing."In the summer of 1888, Eddowes and their friend Emily Birrell took casual work hop-picking in Kent. At harvest's end they returned to London and went through their pay. Eddowes and Kelly split their last sixpence between them, they met up the following morning, 29 September, in the early afternoon Eddowes told Kelly she would go to Bermondsey to try to get some money from her daughter, Annie Phillips, married to a gun-maker in Southwark. With money from pawning his boots, a bare-footed Kelly took a bed at the lodging-house just after 8:00 p.m. and according to the deputy keeper remained there all night. At 8:30 p.m. on Saturday, 29 September, Eddowes was found lying drunk in the road on Aldgate High Street by PC Louis Robinson.
She was taken into custody and to Bishopsgate police station, where she was detained, giving the name "Nothing", until she was sober enough to leave at 1 a.m. on the morning of 30 September. On her release, she gave her name and address as "Mary Ann Kelly of 6 Fashion Street"; when leaving the station, instead of turning right to take the shortest route to her home in Flower and Dean Street, she turned left towards Aldgate. She was last seen alive at 1:35 a.m. by three witnesses, Joseph Lawende, Joseph Hyam Levy and Harry Harris, who had just left a club on Duke Street. She was standing talking with a man at the entrance to Church Passage, which led south-west from Duke Street to Mitre Square along the south wall of the Great Synagogue of London. Only Lawende could furnish a description of the man, whom he described as a fair-moustached man wearing a navy jacket, peaked cloth cap, red scarf. Chief Inspector Donald Swanson intimated in his report that Lawende's identification of the woman as Eddowes was doubtful.
He wrote that Lawende had said that some clothing of the deceased's that he was shown resembled that of the woman he saw—"which was black..., the extent of his identity ". A patrolling policeman, PC James Harvey, walked down Church Passage from Duke Street shortly afterwards but his beat took him back down Church Passage to Duke Street, without entering the square. Eddowes was killed and mutilated in the square between 1:35 and 1:45 a.m. At 1:45 a.m. Eddowes' mutilated body was found in the south-west corner of Mitre Square by the square's beat policeman PC Edward Watkins. Watkins said that he entered the square at 1:44 a.m, having been there at 1:30 a.m. He called for assistance at a tea warehouse in the square, where night watchman George James Morris, an ex-policeman, had noticed nothing unusual. Neither had another watchman at 5 Mitre Square or an off-duty policeman at 3 Mitre Square. Police surgeon Dr. Frederick Gordon Brown, who arrived after 2:00 a.m. said of the scene: The body was on its back, the head turned to left shoulder.
The arms by the side of the body as if they had fallen there. Both palms upwards, the fingers bent. A thimble was lying off the finger on the right side; the clothes drawn up above the abdomen. The thighs were naked. Left leg extended in a line with the body; the abdomen was exposed. Right leg bent at the thigh and knee; the bonnet was at the back of the head—great disfigurement of the face. The throat cut. Across below the throat was a neckerchief.... The intestines were drawn out to a large extent and placed over the right shoulder—they were smeared over with some feculent matter. A piece of about two feet was quite detached from the body and placed between the body and the left arm by design; the lobe and auricle of the right ear were cut obliquely through. There was a quantity of clotted blood on the pavement on the left side of the neck round the shoulder and upper part of the arm, fluid blood-coloured serum which had flowed under the neck to the right shoulder, the pavement sloping in that direction.
Body was quite warm. No death stiffening had taken place, she must have been dead most within the half hour. We looked
George Bagster Phillips
Dr George Bagster Phillips MBBS, MRCS Eng, L. M. LSA, from 1865, the Police Surgeon for the Metropolitan Police's'H' Division, which covered London's Whitechapel district, he came to prominence during the murders of Jack the Ripper when he conducted or attended autopsies on the bodies of four of the victims, namely Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes and Mary Jane Kelly. He was called by the police to the murder scenes of three of them: Chapman and Kelly. Detective Chief Inspector Walter Dew, a detective constable in the Whitechapel CID throughout the Ripper investigation, who knew Phillips well, remembered him as being in his fifties in 1888. "He was a character," Dew wrote, " An elderly man, he was ultra old-fashioned both in his personal appearance and his dress. He used to look for all the world, his manners were charming: he was immensely popular both with the police and the public, he was skilled"Phillips lived at 2 Spital Square in Whitechapel. The son of Sarah and Henry Phillips, George Bagster Phillips was appointed a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1861.
Phillips is first mentioned in the British national press in The Times of 24 May 1866, when he attended on James Ashe, cut with a knife and wounded by his brother-in-law, Patrick O'Donnell, a 20-year-old journeyman tailor. In 1870, Phillips was called to the Stepney police station concerning a case of child abuse, when he was asked to examine a 7-year-old girl and the man charged with her sexual assault, he diagnosed both as suffering from gonorrhea and found that the young girl had a vaginal rupture, which Phillips said was an indication of "violence of some kind". In 1880 Phillips married Eliza Toms in Kensington in London; the Times referred to Phillips again on 6 March 1882 when Mary Ann Macarthy, aged 17 and living in a common lodging-house in Spitalfields, was charged on remand with feloniously cutting and wounding Henry Connor, by stabbing him with a knife. Again, Phillips dressed the wounds of the injured party. Phillips was called by the police to 29 Hanbury Street at 6.20 a.m. on Saturday 8 September 1888 and arrived there at 6.20.
He immediately examined the body of Annie Chapman where it lay in the back yard. He stated that "the body was cold, except that there was a certain remaining heat, under the intestines, in the body." He added that "stiffness of the limbs was not marked, but it was commencing." At the post mortem, conducted at 2.00 p.m. that afternoon, he noted that "the stomach contained a little food." From this information he estimated Chapman's time of death at some time before 4.30 a.m. However, eyewitnesses claimed that the yard was empty at that time, at the inquest Coroner Wynne Baxter, who had no medical background, chose the witness testimony over the doctors' opinions and argued that the time of death was 5.30 a.m. After examining Chapman's body he concluded that her reported recent ill health was due to tuberculosis. Phillips concluded that she had been sober at the time of death and had not consumed alcohol for at least some hours before it; the Lancet quoted Phillips on the surgical proficiency of Chapman's killer.'Obviously', Phillips wrote,'the work was that of an expert- or one, at least, who had such knowledge of anatomical or pathological examinations as to be enabled to secure the pelvic organs with one sweep of the knife'.
His original opinion, given at 6.20 a.m. and backed up by 22 years as a police surgeon, was that Chapman had been dead "for two hours more." When a witness said that he had not seen Chapman's body in the yard when he went there at 4.45 - when by Phillips' original estimate she would have been dead for over half an hour - the doctor qualified this by saying that with the coldness of the morning and the amount of blood that she had lost, the victim might have appeared to have been dead for longer than she was. This gave credence to the dubious evidence of Mrs Elizabeth Long, who claimed to have seen Chapman alive at 5.30. Chapman was found about 20 minutes after the alleged sighting and Phillips estimated that it would have taken much longer than that to have inflicted all the injuries that he found on her body. Phillips was called to Dutfield's Yard in Berner Street at 1.20 a.m. on Sunday, 30 September 1888, to examine the body of Elizabeth Stride. At her inquest, held on 3 October 1888, he reported: "The body was lying on the near side, with the face turned toward the wall, the head up the yard and the feet toward the street.
The left arm was extended and there was a packet of cachous in the left hand. The right arm was over the belly, the back of the hand and wrist had on it clotted blood; the legs were drawn up with the feet close to the wall. The body and face were warm and the hand cold; the legs were quite warm. Deceased had a silk handkerchief round her neck, it appeared to be torn. I have since ascertained; this corresponded with the right angle of the jaw. The throat was gashed and there was an abrasion of the skin about one and a half inches in diameter stained with blood, under her right arm. At three o'clock p.m. on Monday at St. George's Mortuary, Dr. Blackwell and I made a post mortem examination. Rigor mortis was still marked. There was mud on the left side of the face and it was matted in the head; the body was nourished. Over both shoulders the right, under the collarbone and in front of the chest there was a bluish discoloration, which I have watched and have seen on two occasions since. There was a clear-cut incision on the neck.
It was six inches in length and commenced two and a half inches in a strai