Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials carried out in a public context. The burning of books represents an element of censorship and proceeds from a cultural, religious, or political opposition to the materials in question. In some cases, the destroyed works are irreplaceable and their burning constitutes a severe loss to cultural heritage. Examples include the burning of books and burying of scholars under China's Qin Dynasty, the burning of the Library of Alexandria, the obliteration of the Library of Baghdad, the destruction of Aztec codices by Itzcoatl, the burning of Maya codices on the order of bishop Diego de Landa. In other cases, such as the Nazi book burnings, other copies of the destroyed books survive, but the instance of book burning becomes emblematic of a harsh and oppressive regime, seeking to censor or silence an aspect of a nation's culture. Book burning can be an act of contempt for the book's contents or author, the act is intended to draw wider public attention to this opinion.
Examples include the burning of Wilhelm Reich's books by the FDA and the 2010 Qur'an-burning controversy. Art destruction is related to book burning, both because it might have similar cultural, religious, or political connotations, because in various historical cases books and artworks were destroyed at the same time. In modern times, other forms of media, such as phonograph records, video tapes, CDs have been burned, shredded, or crushed; when the burning is widespread and systematic, destruction of books and media can become a significant component of cultural genocide. The burning of books has a long history as a tool wielded by authorities both secular and religious, in efforts to suppress dissenting or heretical views that are perceived as posing a threat to the prevailing order. According to the Tanakh, in the 7th century BCE King Jehoiakim of Judah burned part of a scroll Baruch ben Neriah had written at prophet Jeremiah's dictation. Qin Shi Huang, first emperor of Qin Dynasty, ordered a Burning of books and burying of scholars in 213 BCE and burial alive of 460 Confucian scholars in 210 BCE in order to stay in the throne.
Some of these books were written in Shang Xiang, a superior school founded in 2208 BCE. The event caused the loss of many philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought; the official philosophy of government survived. In New Testament's Acts of the Apostles, it is claimed. After men in Ephesus failed to perform the same feat many gave up their "curious arts" and burned the books because they didn't work, and many that believed and confessed and shewed their deeds. Many of them which used curious arts, brought their books together, burned them before all men: and they counted the price of them, found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. After the First Council of Nicea, Roman emperor Constantine the Great issued an edict against nontrinitarian Arians which included a prescription for systematic book-burning: "In addition, if any writing composed by Arius should be found, it should be handed over to the flames, so that not only will the wickedness of his teaching be obliterated, but nothing will be left to remind anyone of him.
And I hereby make a public order, that if someone should be discovered to have hidden a writing composed by Arius, not to have brought it forward and destroyed it by fire, his penalty shall be death. As soon as he is discovered in this offense, he shall be submitted for capital punishment....." According to Elaine Pagels, "In AD 367, the zealous bishop of Alexandria... issued an Easter letter in which he demanded that Egyptian monks destroy all such unacceptable writings, except for those he listed as'acceptable' even'canonical'—a list that constitutes the present'New Testament'". Heretical texts do not turn up as palimpsests, scraped clean and overwritten, as do many texts of Classical antiquity. According to author Rebecca Knuth, multitudes of early Christian texts have been as "destroyed" as if they had been publicly burnt; the stories surrounding the loss of the great Library of Alexandria include: Emperor Aurelian's sack of Alexandria in 272 CE, which badly damaged the section of the city which housed part of the library.
The religious riots aimed against pagan temples and their rituals in 391 CE, sanctioned by decree of Emperor Theodosius I and led by Coptic Pope Theophilus."Much of its downfall was gradual bureaucratic, by comparison to our cultural imaginings, somewhat petty." Activity by Cyril of Alexandria brought fire to all the writings of Nestorius shortly after 435.'The writings of Nestorius were very numerous', they were not part of the Nestorian or Oriental theological curriculum until the mid-sixth century, unlike those of his teacher Theodore of Mopsuestia, those of Diodorus of Tarsus then they were not key texts, so few survive intact, cf. Baum and Dietmar W. Winkler. 2003. The Church of the East: A Concise History. London: Routledge. According to the Chronicle of Fredegar, King of the Visigoths and first Catholic king of Spain, following his con
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, affiliated with Columbia University. It is directed by Jennifer Crewe and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, social work, religion and international studies. Founded in 1893, Columbia University Press is notable for publishing reference works, such as The Columbia Encyclopedia, The Columbia Granger's Index to Poetry and The Columbia Gazetteer of the World and for publishing music. First among American university presses to publish in electronic formats, in 1998 the Press founded an online-only site, Columbia International Affairs Online and Columbia Earthscape. In 2011, Columbia University Press bought UK publisher Wallflower Press. Official website Columbia Earthscape Columbia International Affairs Online Columbia Granger's World of Poetry Columbia Gazetteer of the World
Hayashi Gahō known as Hayashi Shunsai, was a Japanese Neo-Confucian scholar and administrator in the system of higher education maintained by the Tokugawa bakufu during the Edo period. He was a member of the Hayashi clan of Confucian scholars. Following in the footsteps of his father, Hayashi Razan, Gahō would devote a lifetime to expressing and disseminating the official neo-Confucian doctrine of the Tokugawa shogunate. Like his distinguished father, Gahō's teaching and scholarly written work emphasized Neo-Confucianist virtues and order. Gahō became the unofficial rector of what would become Edo’s Confucian Academy, the Shōhei-kō; this institution stood at the apex of the country-wide educational and training system, created and maintained by the Tokugawa shogunate. Gahō's hereditary title was Daigaku-no-kami, which, in the context of the Tokugawa shogunate hierarchy translates as "head of the state university. In the elevated context his father engendered, Gahō worked on editing a chronicle of Japanese emperors compiled in conformance with his father's principles.
Nihon Ōdai Ichiran grew into a seven-volume text, completed in 1650. Gahō himself was accepted as a noteworthy scholar in that period. Contemporary readers must have found some degree of usefulness in this summary drawn from historical records; the narrative of Nihon Ōdai Ichiran stops around 1600, most in deference to the sensibilities of the Tokugawa regime. Gahō's text did not continue up through his present day. Gahō modestly observed that "in a book intended for the shogun's eyes, it is incumbent upon one to be circumspect." This book was published in the mid-17th century and it was reissued in 1803, "perhaps because it was a necessary reference work for officials."Gahō would become his father's successor as advisor to the shogun. He was, in his lifetime, the Tokugawa shogunate's chief scholar. After Razan's death, Gahō finished work his father had begun, including a number of other works designed to help readers learn from Japan's history. In 1665, Gahō published an anthology of historical poems.
In 1670, the Hayashi family's scholarly reputation was burnished when Gahō published the 310 volumes of The Comprehensive History of Japan. Together with his brother, Hayashi Dokkōsai, Gahō compiled and posthumously published selections from their father's body of writings: Hayashi Razan bunshū, reissued in 1918 Razan Sensei Isshū, reissued in 1921Gahō's son, Hayashi Hōkō, would inherit the position as head of the Shōhei-kō or Yushima Seidō, as well as the honorific Daigaku-no kami. In January 1858, it would be the hereditary Daigaku-no-kami descendant of Hayashi Razan and Hayashi Gahō who would head the bakufu delegation which sought advice from the emperor in deciding how to deal with newly assertive foreign powers; this would have been the first time the Emperor's counsel was sought since the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate. The most identified consequence of this transitional overture would be the increased numbers of messengers which were streaming back and forth between Tokyo and Kyoto during the next decade.
There is no small irony in the fact that this 19th-century scholar/bureaucrat would find himself at a crucial nexus of managing political change—moving arguably "by the book" through uncharted waters with well-settled theories as the only guide. Kan'ei shoka keizu-den, a genealogy of warrior families. Honchō tsugan, a history of Japan. Kokushi jitsuroki. Nihon Ōdai ichiran. Kan'ei keizu. Hayashi clan Brownlee, John S. Japanese historians and the national myths, 1600–1945: The Age of the Gods and Emperor Jimmu. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0644-3 Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 4-13-027031-1 Brownlee, John S.. Political Thought in Japanese Historical Writing: From Kojiki to Tokushi Yoron. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-997-9 Keene, Donald.. Travelers of a Hundred Ages: The Japanese as Revealed through 1,000 Years of Diaries. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11437-0 Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. B.. Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. Screech, Timon.. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1720-X -- Tokyo's Shōhei-kō today
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who attend on a monarch, or another central figure. Hence the word court may be applied to the coterie of a senior member of the nobility. Royal courts may have their seat in a designated place, several specific places, or be a mobile, itinerant court. In the largest courts, the royal households, many thousands of individuals comprised the court; these courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue, nobility, those with court appointments and may include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern and Eastern courts included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia, concubines were a more visible part of the court. Lower ranking servants and bodyguards were not properly called courtiers, though they might be included as part of the court or royal household in the broadest definition.
Entertainers and others may have been counted as part of the court. A royal household is the highest-ranking example of patronage. A regent or viceroy may hold court during the minority or absence of the hereditary ruler, an elected head of state may develop a court-like entourage of unofficial, personally-chosen advisors and "companions"; the French word compagnon and its English derivation "companion" connote a "sharer of the bread" at table, a court is an extension of the great individual's household. Wherever members of the household and bureaucrats of the administration overlap in personnel, it is reasonable to speak of a "court", for example in Achaemenid Persia, Ming China, Norman Sicily, the Papacy before 1870, the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A group of individuals dependent on the patronage of a great man, classically in ancient Rome, forms part of the system of "clientage", discussed under vassal. Individual rulers differed in tastes and interests, as well as in political skills and in constitutional situations.
Accordingly, some founded elaborate courts based on new palaces, only to have their successors retreat to remote castles or to practical administrative centers. Personal retreats might arise far away from official court centres. Etiquette and hierarchy flourish in structured court settings, may leave conservative traces over generations. Most courts featured a strict order of precedence involving royal and noble ranks, orders of chivalry, nobility; some courts featured court uniforms. One of the major markers of a court is ceremony. Most monarchal courts included ceremonies concerning the investiture or coronation of the monarch and audiences with the monarch; some courts had ceremonies around the sleeping of the monarch, called a levée. Orders of chivalry as honorific orders became an important part of court culture starting in the 15th century, they were the right of the monarch, as the fount of honour, to grant. The earliest developed courts were in the Akkadian Empire, in Ancient Egypt, in Asia in China during the Shang dynasty, but we find evidence of courts as described in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and in Asia in the Zhou Dynasty.
Two of the earliest titles referring to the concept of a courtier were the ša rēsi and mazzāz pāni of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. In Ancient Egypt we find a title translated as high great overseer of the house; the royal courts influenced by the court of the Neo-Assyrian Empire such as those of the Median Empire and the Achaemenid Empire would have identifiable developed courts with court appointments and other features associated with courts. The imperial court of the Achaemenid Empire at Persepolis and Pasargadae is the earliest identifiable complex court with all of the definitive features of a royal court such as a household, court appointments and court ceremony. Though Alexander the Great had an entourage and the rudimentary elements of a court it was not until after he conquered Persia that he took many of the more complex Achaemenid court customs back to the Kingdom of Macedonia to develop a royal court which would influence the courts of Hellenistic Greece and the Roman Empire; the Sasanian Empire adopting and developing the earlier court culture and customs of the Achaemenid Empire would influence again the development of the complex court and court customs of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire.
The imperial court of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople would contain at least a thousand courtiers. The court's systems became prevalent in other courts such as those in the Balkan states, the Ottoman Empire, Russia. Byzantinism is a term, coined for this spread of the Byzantine system in the 19th century; the courts of Chinese Emperors were among the most complex of all. The Han Dynasty, Western Jin Dynasty, Tang Dynasty occupied the large palace complex at Weiyang Palace located near Chang'an, the Manchu dynasty occupied the whole Forbidden City and other parts of Beijing, the present capital city of China. However, by the Sui Dynasty the functions of the royal household and the imperial government were divided. During the Heian period, Japanese Emperors and their families developed an exquisitely refined court that played an important role in their culture. After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, a true court culture can be recognized in the entourage of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great and in the court of Charlemagne.
In the Roman East, a brilliant court continued to surround the Byzantine emperors. In
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility. The term originates from the Latin word tōnsūra and referred to a specific practice in medieval Catholicism, abandoned by papal order in 1972. Tonsure can refer to the secular practice of shaving all or part of the scalp to show support or sympathy, or to designate mourning. Current usage more refers to cutting or shaving for monks, devotees, or mystics of any religion as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. Tonsure is still a traditional practice in Catholicism by specific religious orders, it is commonly used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for newly baptized members and is used for Buddhist novices and monks. It exists as a traditional practice in Islam after completion of the Hajj and is practiced by a number of Hindu religious orders. Tonsure is the part of three rites of passages in the life of the individual in Hinduism; the first is called Chudakarana known as choulam, chudakarma, or mundana, marks the child's first haircut the shaving of the head.
The mother dresses up, sometimes in her wedding sari, with the father present, the baby's head is shaved and nails trimmed and dressed in new clothes. Sometimes, a tuft of hair is left to cover the soft spot near the top of the baby's head. Both boys and girls go through this ceremony, sometimes near a temple or a river, but it is not mandatory in Hinduism; the significance of Chudakarana rite of passage is the baby's cyclical step to hygiene and cleanliness. The ritual is done about the first birthday, but some texts recommend that it be completed before the third or the seventh year. Sometimes, this ritual is combined with the rite of passage of Upanayana, initiation to formal schooling; the second rite of passage in Hinduism that sometimes involves tonsure is at the Upanayana, the sanskara marking a child's entry into school. Another rite of passage where tonsure is practiced by Hindus is after the death and completing the last rites of an immediate family member, father, brother, spouse or child.
This ritual is regionally found in India among male mourners, who shave their heads as a sign of bereavement. Until a few decades ago, many Hindu communities the upper castes, forced widows to undergo the ritual of tonsure and shun good clothes and ornaments, in order to make them unattractive to men. According to Jamanadas, tonsure was a Buddhist custom and was adopted by Hinduism; however and others trace the practice to Sanskrit texts dated to have been composed before the birth of Buddha, which mention tonsure as a rite of passage. In Buddhism, tonsure is a part of the rite of pabbajja and a part of becoming a monk or nun; this involves shaving the face. This tonsure is renewed as as required to keep the head cleanly shaven; the purification process of the metzora involved the ritual shaving on the metzorah's entire body except for the afflicted locations. And as the term tonsure may be used as a broad description for such hair styling of devotees as a ritual symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem, Orthodox Jewish males do not shave the corners of their beards or scalps with straight blades, as described in Leviticus 19:27.
Some religious groups of Jews do not shave the child's head. After he celebrates his third year, the parents take the baby to Mount Meron to a celebration of cutting the hair except the corners of the scalps. Tonsure was not known in antiquity. Tradition states that it originated with the disciples of Jesus, who observed the Torah command not to shave the hair around the sides of one's head. There were three forms of tonsure known in the 7th and 8th centuries: The Oriental, which claimed the authority of Saint Paul the Apostle and consisted of shaving the whole head; this was observed in the Eastern churches, including the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. Hence Theodore of Tarsus, who had acquired his learning in Byzantine Asia Minor and bore this tonsure, had to allow his hair to grow for four months before he could be tonsured after the Roman fashion, ordained Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Vitalian in 668; the Celtic, the exact shape of, unclear from the sources, but in some way involved shaving the head from ear to ear.
The shape may have been semicircular, arcing forward from a line between the ears, but another popular suggestion, less borne out in the sources, proposes that the entire forehead was shaved back to the ears. More a triangular shape, with one point at the front of the head going back to a line between the ears, has been suggested; the Celtic tonsure was worn in Ireland and Great Britain and was connected to the distinct set of practices known as Celtic Christianity. It was opposed by the Roman tradition, but many adherents to the Celtic tradition continued to maintain the old way well into the 8th and 9th centuries; some sources have suggested links between this tonsure and that worn by druids in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Roman: this consisted of shaving only the top of the head, so as to allow the hair to grow in the form of a crown; this is claimed to have originated with Saint Peter, is the practice of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. St. Germanus I, Patriarch of Constantinople from 715 to 730, writes "The double crown inscribed on the head of the priest through tonsure represents the precious head of the chief-apostle
Jinnō Shōtōki is a Japanese historical book written by Kitabatake Chikafusa. The work sought both to clarify the genesis and potential consequences of a contemporary crisis in Japanese politics, to dispel or at least ameliorate the prevailing disorder; the text begins with these statements as prologue: Great Japan is the divine land. The heavenly progenitor founded it, the sun goddess bequeathed it to her descendants to rule eternally. Only in our country is this true; this is. Chikafusa had been a careful student of the book Nihon Shoki, this background is reflected in the narrative structure of his Jinnō Shōtōki, he was well acquainted with Watarai Ieyuki, a prominent Shinto priest at the Ise Shrine. Watarai's life of study had added to clarifying the theory of Ise Shintoism, this point-of-view is reflected in the tone of Jinnō Shōtōki; the work as a whole was written in the years 1338–1341 at Oda fortress in Hitachi Province, Japan amended in 1343 at Seki fortress. It is believed that the major portions of the text were drafted in the autumn of 1339, around the time Emperor Go-Daigo died and his successor Go-Murakami was enthroned.
Current scholars accepts that the original text is missing and that all extant versions of the text thus are manuscript versions which differ from the original. A sense of immediacy seems to inform the writing, this may be due to the narrative having a specific, more narrowly focused purpose—to instruct the young Emperor Go-Murakami. A curious sentence on the last page of the work, "This book is directed to some child", has been interpreted as a dedication to either Go-Murakami or Yuki Chikatomo. In Jinnō Shōtōki, the reign of each emperor from the mythological period to the enthronement of Go-Murakami is described, together with personal observations by Chikafusa based on his own political and ethical beliefs; the chronicles thus serve as a context for Chikafusa to expound his views about appropriate conduct for Japanese sovereigns, thereby attempt to justify the legitimacy of the Southern Court. The book encouraged the faction supporting the Southern Court during the Nanboku-chō period. Chikafusa's work was all the more important because of the relative weakness of the Southern Court in its extended military campaign against the Northern Court armies.
The book was early recognized as a compelling and subtle analysis of the history of Japan and its emperors. From the beginning, it was read not only by adherents of the Southern Court, but by supporters of the Northern Court. However, its criticism of Ashikaga Takauji was not well received in Northern Court circles, that section of the original text was omitted in manuscript copies which circulated outside the ambit of the Southern Court. Chikafusa argued that possessing the Imperial Regalia of Japan is an absolute and indispensable condition for being recognized as a Japanese monarch. Chikafusa contended that much about the Japanese form of government was demonstrably ideal, that it is both appropriate and beneficial for the emperor and court nobles to rule and for the samurai and others to be led by them. After the Northern and Southern courts were reunited, a curious, self-styled "sequel" to Jinnō Shōtōki was circulated; the book, written by Ozuki Harutomi, was created under the influence of the Ashikaga shogunate for the purpose of justifying the legitimacy of the Northern Court.
Tokugawa Mitsukuni, the Edo-period daimyō of the Mito Domain, valued Chikafusa's work a view which he expressed in the Japanese chronicle Dai Nihonshi: "History of Great Japan". Mitsukuni's patronage ensured that the perspectives and ideology of Jinnō Shōtōki were propounded at the Mito Academy; these pre-Meiji influences contributed to the development of the Kō Koku Shi Kan, a view of history in which Japan is regarded as a divine nation governed by emperors in a single family line from its beginning. These concepts became more important in the national ideology under Japanese militarism during World War II. Today, Jinnō Shōtōki stands on its own historical merits, it has taken on added value over the course of the centuries. Chikafusa's work manages to inspire. Alternately, the work's value may have accrued because a gifted and mature mind "made its way onto the level of secular historical explanation". Historiographical Institute of the University of Tokyo International Research Center for Japanese Studies Japanese Historical Text Initiative Historiography of Japan Brownlee, John S.
Japanese historians and the national myths, 1600-1945: The Age of the Gods and Emperor Jimmu. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0644-3 Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 4-13-027031-1 Brownlee, John S.. Political Thought in Japanese Historical Writing: From Kojiki to Tokushi Yoron. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-997-9 Varley, H. Paul, ed.. Jinnō Shōtōki. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231049405Original textSee JHTI for search text apparatus. 武笠, 三, ed.. 神皇正統記, 讀史餘論, 山陽史論. 有朋堂書店. 大町, 芳衛, ed.. 神皇正統記評釈(Jinnō Shōtōki hy
Emperor Tenji known as Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Tenji's reign spanned the years from 661 through 672, he was the son of Emperor Jomei, but was preceded as ruler by his mother Empress Saimei. Prior to his accession, he was known as Prince Naka-no-Ōe; as prince, Naka no Ōe played a crucial role in ending the near-total control the Soga clan had over the imperial family. In 644, seeing the Soga continue to gain power, he conspired with Nakatomi no Kamatari and Soga no Kurayamada no Ishikawa no Maro to assassinate Soga no Iruka in what has come to be known as the Isshi Incident. Although the assassination did not go as planned, Iruka was killed, his father and predecessor, Soga no Emishi, committed suicide soon after. Following the Isshi Incident, Iruka's adherents dispersed without a fight, Naka no Ōe was named heir apparent, he married the daughter of his ally Soga no Kurayamada, thus ensuring that a significant portion of the Soga clan's power was on his side.
Naka no Ōe reigned as Emperor Tenji from 661 to 672. 661: In the 3rd year of Saimei's reign, the empress designated her son as her heir. Shortly after, she died, Emperor Tenji could be said to have acceded to the throne. 662: Tenji is said to have compiled the first Japanese legal code known to modern historians. The Ōmi Code, consisting of 22 volumes, was promulgated in the last year of Tenji's reign; this legal codification is no longer extant, but it is said to have been refined in what is known as the Asuka Kiyomihara ritsu-ryō of 689. 668: An account in Nihon Shoki becomes the first mention of petrochemical oil in Japan. In the 7th year of Tenji's reign, flammable water was presented as an offering to Emperor Tenji from Echigo Province; this presentation coincided with the emperor's ceremonial confirmation as emperor. He had postponed formalities during the period that the mausoleum of his mother was being constructed. Up until this time, although he had been de facto monarch, he had retained the title of Crown Prince.
Tenji was active in improving the military institutions, established during the Taika reforms. Following his death in 672, there ensued a succession dispute between his fourteen children. In the end, he was succeeded by his son, Prince Ōtomo known as Emperor Kōbun by Tenji's brother Prince Ōama known as Emperor Tenmu. One hundred years after Tenji's death, the throne passed to his grandson Emperor Kōnin. Post-Meiji chronology In the 10th year of Tenji, in the 11th month: Emperor Tenji, in the 10th year of his reign, designated his son as his heir. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kōbun is said to have acceded to the throne. If this understanding were valid it would follow:In the 1st year of Kōbun: Emperor Kōbun, in the 1st year of his reign, died. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Tenmu could be said to have acceded to the throne. Pre-Meiji chronology Prior to the 19th century, Ōtomo was understood to have been a mere interloper, a pretender, an anomaly; the actual site of Tenji's grave is known. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Kyoto.
The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Tenji's mausoleum. It is formally named Yamashina no misasagi; the Man ` yōshū includes poems attributed to empresses. The poem was long considered to be about two male hills in a quarrel over a female hill, but scholars now consider that Kagu and Miminashi might be female hills in love with the same male hill, Unebi; this still-unresolved enigma in poetic form is said to have been composed by Emperor Tenji while he was still Crown Prince during the reign of Empress Saimei: One of his poems was chosen by Fujiwara no Teika as the first in the popular Hyakunin Isshu anthology: After his death, his wife, Empress Yamato wrote a song of longing about her husband. The top court officials during Emperor Tenji's reign included: Daijō-daijin: Ōtomo no Ōji, 671–672. Naishin: Fujiwara no Kamatari, 645–669. Prince Ōtomo was the favorite son of Emperor Tenji; the years of Tenji's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701.
See Japanese era name – "Non-nengo periods" See Tenji period. In this context, Brown and