Tabula rasa is the epistemological theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception. Proponents of tabula rasa disagree with the doctrine of innatism which holds that the mind is born in possession of certain knowledge. Proponents of the tabula rasa theory favour the "nurture" side of the nature versus nurture debate when it comes to aspects of one's personality and emotional behaviour and sapience. Tabula rasa is a Latin phrase translated as "clean slate" in English and originates from the Roman tabula used for notes, blanked by heating the wax and smoothing it; this equates to the English term "blank slate" which refers to the emptiness of a slate prior to it being written on with chalk. Both may be renewed by melting the wax of the tablet or by erasing the chalk on the slate. In Western philosophy, the concept of tabula rasa can be traced back to the writings of Aristotle who writes in his treatise "Περί Ψυχῆς" of the "unscribed tablet."
In one of the more well-known passages of this treatise he writes that: Haven't we disposed of the difficulty about interaction involving a common element, when we said that mind is in a sense whatever is thinkable, though it is nothing until it has thought? What it thinks must be in it just as characters may be said to be on a writing-tablet on which as yet nothing stands written: this is what happens with mind; this idea was further developed in Ancient Greek philosophy by the Stoic school. Stoic epistemology emphasizes that the mind starts blank, but acquires knowledge as the outside world is impressed upon it; the doxographer Aetius summarizes this view as "When a man is born, the Stoics say, he has the commanding part of his soul like a sheet of paper ready for writing upon." Diogenes Laërtius attributes a similar belief to the Stoic Zeno of Citium when he writes in Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers that: Perception, again, is an impression produced on the mind, its name being appropriately borrowed from impressions on wax made by a seal.
In the eleventh century, the theory of tabula rasa was developed more by the Persian philosopher Avicenna. He argued that the "...human intellect at birth resembled a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality, actualized through education and comes to know," and that knowledge is attained through "...empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts," which develops through a "...syllogistic method of reasoning. He further argued that the intellect itself "...possesses levels of development from the static/material intellect, that potentiality can acquire knowledge to the active intellect, the state of the human intellect at conjunction with the perfect source of knowledge."In the twelfth century, the Andalusian-Islamic philosopher and novelist, Ibn Tufail, known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West, demonstrated the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment through his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqzan, in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone.
The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In the thirteenth century, St. Thomas Aquinas brought the Aristotelian and Avicennian notions to the forefront of Christian thought; these notions contrasted with the held Platonic notions of the human mind as an entity that preexisted somewhere in the heavens, before being sent down to join a body here on Earth. St. Bonaventure was one of the fiercest intellectual opponents of Aquinas, offering some of the strongest arguments toward the Platonic idea of the mind; the writings of Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, Aquinas on the tabula rasa theory stood unprogressed and untested for several centuries. For example, the late medieval English jurist Sir John Fortescue, in his work In Praise of the Laws of England, takes for granted the notion of tabula rasa, stressing it as the basis of the need for the education of the young in general, of young princes specifically.
"Therefore, whilst you are young and your mind is as it were a clean slate, impress on it these things, lest in future it be impressed more pleasurably with images of lesser worth." The modern idea of the theory, however, is attributed to John Locke's expression of the idea in Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that at birth the mind is a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, that data is added and rules for processing are form
In entertainment, an origin story is an account or backstory revealing how a character or group of people become a protagonist or antagonist, it adds to the overall study of a narrative giving reasons for their intentions. In American comic books, it refers to how characters gained their superpowers and/or the circumstances under which they became superheroes or supervillains. In order to keep their characters current, comic book companies, as well as cartoon companies, game companies, children's show companies, toy companies rewrite the origins of their oldest characters; this goes from adding details that do not contradict earlier facts to a new origin which makes it seem that it is an altogether different character. A pourquoi story dubbed an "origin story", is used in mythology, referring to narratives of how a world began, how creatures and plants came into existence, why certain things in the cosmos have certain yet distinct qualities. In The Superhero Reader, edited by Charles Hatfield, Jeet Heer, Dr. Kent Worcester, the editors write in "Section One: Historical Considerations": "Almost all superheroes have an origin story: a bedrock account of the transformative events that set the protagonist apart from ordinary humanity.
If not a prerequisite for the superhero genre, the origin... is a prominent and popular trope that recurs so as to offer clues to the nature of this narrative tradition. To read stories about destroyed worlds, murdered parents, genetic mutations, mysterious power-giving wizards is to realize the degree to which the superhero genre is about transformation, about identity, about difference, about the tension between psychological rigidity and a flexible and fluid sense of human nature.... When surveying the superhero genre, preliminary questions turn to the problem of roots." The book has a wealth of pertinent bibliographies. English professors Dr. Alex Romagnoli and Dr. Gian S. Pagnucci, of Indiana University of Pennsylvania, discuss in their book Enter the Superheroes: American Values and the Canon of Superhero Literature "the nature of superhero origin stories and how the writing of these origin stories helps make superhero narratives a unique literary genre." For example, they write, "Superheroes get complicated when it comes to their histories, but one part of their stories remains forever constant and important.
More than'death' stories, event stories, attire changes, origin stories are the core of superheroes' existences. Origins not only reflect the sociohistorical contexts in which heroes were created, but they reflect a culture's understanding of what makes superheroes storytelling unique vehicles." Thereafter and Pagnucci go on to explain why the origin story is as important to the audience as to the generations of writers who continue heroic tales. Dr. Randy Duncan and Dr. Matthew J. Smith use the origin story of Spider-Man as an example of how a character can be created by the persistence of a writer who has definite preferences in creating a character's personality if the publisher resists. "It is difficult to discern, more told: Spider-Man's origin or the tales told around that origin. All reveal fascinating aspects of a teenage loner fatefully'bitten by a radioactive spider' to find himself with'the proportionate strength and agility of an arachnid'." Duncan and Smith explain how Stan Lee butted heads with publisher Martin Goodman, who worried about an "ick factor," but Lee prevailed.
"The entire Spider-Man concept resonates with the primary attributes of many genres and traditions," the authors say. "Like a heady puree of Shelley's Frankenstein, Bob Kane's Batman, Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis, Spider-Man's origin invokes gothic and crime fiction motifs like the ostracized genius, doomed loved ones, the misuse or misfiring of science, the gritty noir city, the driven vigilante, the fateful'return of the repressed'." The authors proceed to investigate these various issues of the origin story. Continuity Prequel Reboot Retcon
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be a physical object. Scholarly interest in creativity is found in a number of disciplines psychology, business studies, cognitive science, but education, engineering, theology, sociology and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, personality type and neurological processes, mental health, or artificial intelligence; the lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō "to create, make": its derivational suffixes come from Latin. The word "create" appeared in English as early as the 14th century, notably in Chaucer, to indicate divine creation. However, its modern meaning as an act of human creation did not emerge until after the Enlightenment. In a summary of scientific research into creativity, Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products", or, in Robert Sternberg's words, the production of "something original and worthwhile".
Authors have diverged in their precise definitions beyond these general commonalities: Peter Meusburger reckons that over a hundred different analyses can be found in the literature. As an illustration, one definition given by Dr. E. Paul Torrance described it as "a process of becoming sensitive to problems, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, so on. For example, Teresa Amabile and Pratt defines creativity as production of novel and useful ideas and innovation as implementation of creative ideas, while the OECD and Eurostat state that "Innovation is more than a new idea or an invention. An innovation requires implementation, either by being put into active use or by being made available for use by other parties, individuals or organisations." Theories of creativity have focused on a variety of aspects. The dominant factors are identified as "the four Ps" — process, product and place. A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking.
Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking, or those describing the staging of the creative process are theories of creative process. A focus on creative product appears in attempts to measure creativity and in creative ideas framed as successful memes; the psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it involves the ability to produce more. A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, expertise, exploratory behavior, so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources, the nature of gatekeepers. Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility. Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece, Ancient China, Ancient India, lacked the concept of creativity, seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation; the ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein", which only applied to poiesis and to the poietes who made it.
Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation. Asked in The Republic, "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?", he answers, "Certainly not, he imitates."It is argued that the notion of "creativity" originated in Western culture through Christianity, as a matter of divine inspiration. According to the historian Daniel J. Boorstin, "the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis." However, this is not creativity in the modern sense. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God. A concept similar to that of Christianity existed in Greek culture, for instance, Muses were seen as mediating inspiration from the Gods. Romans and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative "daemon" or "genius", linked to the sacred or the divine. However, none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity, the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance, it was during the Renaissance that creativity was first seen, not as a conduit for the divine, but from the abilities of "great men".
The rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West until the Renai
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major
To publish is to make content available to the general public. While specific use of the term may vary among countries, it is applied to text, images, or other audio-visual content, including paper; the word publication means the act of publishing, refers to any printed copies. "Publication" is a technical term in legal contexts and important in copyright legislation. An author of a work is the initial owner of the copyright on the work. One of the copyrights granted to the author of a work is the exclusive right to publish the work. In the United States, publication is defined as: the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; the offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of people for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display, constitutes publication. A public performance or display of a work does not of itself constitute publication. To perform or display a work "publicly" means – to perform or display it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of people outside a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered.
—17 USC 101The US Copyright Office provides further guidance in Circular 40, which states: "When the work is reproduced in multiple copies, such as in reproductions of a painting or castings of a statue, the work is published when the reproductions are publicly distributed or offered to a group for further distribution or public display". The right to publish a work is an exclusive right of copyright owner, violating this right is a copyright infringement, the copyright owner can demand that e.g. copies distributed against his will be confiscated and destroyed. Exceptions and limitations are written into copyright law, however; the definition of "publication" as "distribution of copies to the general public with the consent of the author" is supported by the Berne Convention, which makes mention of "copies" in article 3, where "published works" are defined. In the Universal Copyright Convention, "publication" is defined in article VI as "the reproduction in tangible form and the general distribution to the public of copies of a work from which it can be read or otherwise visually perceived."
Many countries around the world follow this definition, although some make some exceptions for particular kinds of works. In Germany, §6 of the Urheberrechtsgesetz additionally considers works of the visual arts "published" if they have been made permanently accessible by the general public. Australia and the UK do not have this exception and require the distribution of copies necessary for publication. In the case of sculptures, the copies must be three-dimensional. In biological classification, the publication of the description of a taxon has to comply with some rules; the definition of the "publication" is defined in nomenclature codes. Traditionally there were the following rules: The publication must be available; the date of publication is the date the published material became available. Electronic publication with some restrictions is permitted for publication of scientific names of fungi since 1 January 2013. There is an enormous variety of material types of publication, some of which are: Book: Pages attached together between two covers, to allow a person to read from or write in.
Bulletin: Information written in short on a flyer or inside another publication for public viewing. Bulletins are brief messages or announcements broadcast to a wide audience by way of TV, radio, or internet. Booklet: Leaflet of more than one sheet of paper attached in the style of a book. Broadside: A large single sheet of paper printed on one side, designed to be plastered onto walls. Produced from 16th - 19th cent. Became obsolete with the development of newspapers and cheap novels. Flyer or handbill: A small sheet of paper printed on one side, designed to be handed out free Leaflet: Single sheet of paper printed on both sides and folded. Journal: A book with blank pages inside, to allow you to write down any personal information. Another word for a newspaper or similar publication. Newsletter: A bulletin, pamphlet, or newspaper distributed to a specific audience. Newspaper: A publication of several pages printed with news, sports and advertising. Newspapers may be published and distributed daily, monthly, quarterly, or annually.
Magazine: A book with front and back paper covers, printed with information and advertising. Some magazines are distributed every week or every month. Pamphlet: Can be a booklet or saddle-stapled booklet. Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, the development of digital libraries and catalogues. Electronic publishing has
The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control; the traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below. According to the definition of edition above, a book printed today, by the same publisher, from the same type as when it was first published, is still the first edition of that book to a bibliographer. However, book collectors use the term first edition to mean the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books include a number line that indicates the print run. A "first edition" per se is not a valuable collectible book.
A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, in a variety of formats. There will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as: "First mass market paperback edition"; the first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publisher's first edition, but not the first edition of the work itself. The Independent Online Booksellers Association has a A First Edition Primer which discusses several aspects of identifying first editions including publishing and specific publishers way of designating first editions; the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. Bowers wrote that an edition is “the whole number of copies printed at any time or times from the same setting of type-pages,” including “all issues and variant states existing within its basic type-setting, as well as all impressions.” Publishers use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the title page and copyright page may differ, the page margin sizes may differ, but to a bibliographer they are the same edition. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, report these to the publisher; the publisher keeps these "reprint corrections" in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry depends on the method of typesetting. For letterpress metal, it meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it. With film, it involved inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally; such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the bibliographer's definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover.
The type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition. Collectors would use the term for the first printing only. First edition most refers to the first commercial publication of a work between its own covers if it was first printed in a periodical: the complete text of Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the September 1, 1952 issue of Life, yet the accepted “first” edition is the hardcover book Scribner’s published on September 8, 1952; the term "first trade edition," refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel. A "Sustainers' Edition", published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair; the first trade edition was published by Page to be sold in bookstores. Many book collectors place maximum value on the earliest bound copies of a book—promotional advance copies, bound galleys, uncorrected proofs, advance reading copies sent by publishers to book reviewers and booksellers.
It is true. Publishers use "first edition" according to their own purposes, among them the designation is used inconsistently; the "first edition" of a trade book may be the first iteration of the work printed by the publisher in question or the first iteration of the work that includes a specific set of illustrations or editorial commentary. Publishers of non-fiction, academic works, textbooks distinguish between revisions of the text of the work, by citing the dates of the first and latest editions of the work in the copyright page. Exceptions to this rule of thumb include denominating as a "second edition" a new textbook that has a different format, and/or author because a previous textbook that shares only the same subject matter as the "second edition" is considered the first edition; the reason for this stretch of the definition is for the short-term marketing advantage of the