In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire. Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey. Cilicia extended along the Mediterranean coast east from Pamphylia, to the Nur Mountains, which separated it from Syria. North and east of Cilicia lie the rugged Taurus Mountains that separate it from the high central plateau of Anatolia, which are pierced by a narrow gorge, called in antiquity the Cilician Gates. Ancient Cilicia was divided into Cilicia Trachaea and Cilicia Pedias by the Limonlu River. Salamis, the city on the east coast of Cyprus, was included in its administrative jurisdiction; the Greeks invented for Cilicia an eponymous Hellene founder in the purely mythical Cilix, but the historic founder of the dynasty that ruled Cilicia Pedias was Mopsus, identifiable in Phoenician sources as Mpš, the founder of Mopsuestia who gave his name to an oracle nearby.
Homer mentions the people of Mopsus, identified as Cilices, as from the Troad in the northernwesternmost part of Anatolia. The English spelling Cilicia is the same as the Latin, as it was transliterated directly from the Greek form Κιλικία; the palatalization of c occurring in the west in Vulgar Latin accounts for its modern pronunciation in English. Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbors, a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a string of havens for pirates and, in the Middle Ages, outposts for Genoese and Venetian traders; the district is watered by the Calycadnus and was covered in ancient times by forests that supplied timber to Phoenicia and Egypt. Cilicia lacked large cities. Cilicia Pedias, to the east, included the rugged spurs of Taurus and a large coastal plain, with rich loamy soil, known to the Greeks such as Xenophon, who passed through with his mercenary group of the Ten Thousand, for its abundance, filled with sesame and millet and olives and pasturage for the horses imported by Solomon.
Many of its high places were fortified. The plain is watered by the three great rivers, the Cydnus, the Sarus and the Pyramus, each of which brings down much silt from the deforested interior and which fed extensive wetlands; the Sarus now enters the sea due south of Tarsus, but there are clear indications that at one period it joined the Pyramus, that the united rivers ran to the sea west of Kara-tash. Through the rich plain of Issus ran the great highway that linked east and west, on which stood the cities of Tarsus on the Cydnus, Adana on the Sarus, Mopsuestia on the Pyramus. Cilicia was settled from the Neolithic period onwards. Dating of the ancient settlements of the region from Neolithic to Bronze Age is as follows: Aceramic/Neolithic: 8th and 7th millennia BC. 5400–4500 BC. 3400 BC. The area had been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era; the region was divided into two parts, Uru Adaniya, a well-watered plain, "rough" Cilicia, in the mountainous west. The Cilicians appear as Hilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, in the early part of the first millennium BC were one of the four chief powers of Western Asia.
Homer mentions the plain as the "Aleian plain" in which Bellerophon wandered, but he transferred the Cilicians far to the west and north and made them allies of Troy. The Cilician cities unknown to Homer bore their pre-Greek names: Tarzu, Danuna-Adana, which retains its ancient name, Pahri and Azatiwataya. There exists evidence that circa 1650 BC both Hittite kings Hattusili I and Mursili I enjoyed freedom of movement along the Pyramus River, proving they exerted strong control over Cilicia in their battles with Syria. After the death of Murshili around 1595 BC, Hurrians wrested control from the Hitties, Cilicia was free for two centuries; the first king of free Cilicia, Išputahšu, son of Pariyawatri, was recorded as a "great king" in both cuneiform and Hittite hieroglyphs. Another record of Hittite origins, a treaty between Išputahšu and Telipinu, king of the Hittites, is recorded in both Hittite and Akkadian. In the next century, Cilician king Pilliya finalized treaties with both King Zidanta II of the Hittites and Idrimi of Alalakh, in which Idrimi mentions that he had assaulted several military targets throughout Eastern Cilicia.
Niqmepa, who succeeded Idrimi as king of Alalakh, went so far as to ask for help from a Hurrian rival, Shaushtatar of Mitanni, to try and reduce Cilicia's power in the region. It was soon apparent, that increased Hittite power would soon prove Niqmepa's efforts to be futile, as the city of Kizzuwatna soon fell to the Hittites, threatening all of Cilicia. Soon after, King Sunassura II was forced to accept vassalization under the Hittites, becoming the last king of ancient Cilicia. In the 13th century BC a major population shift occurred as the Sea Peoples overran Cilicia; the Hurrians that resided there deserted the area and moved northeast towards the Taurus Mountains, where
Allianoi, is an ancient spa settlement, with remains dating predominantly from the Roman Empire period located near the city of Bergama in Turkey's İzmir Province. The site is at a distance of 18 kilometers to the northeast of Bergama, on the road to the neighboring town of İvrindi. Allianoi is directly inside the reservoir of the Yortanlı Dam, built by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. After ongoing discussion in Turkey with regards to preserving Allianoi's ruins, the site was covered with sand and the dam was activated, resulting in Allianoi's complete inundation and destruction in February 2011. One particularity of Allianoi is its being a recent historical discovery, it was mentioned only once in the 2nd century by the orator and medicinal writer Aelius Aristides in his "Hieroi Logoi", one of the key sources for the knowledge on the science of healing as it was understood at that time. No other writer of antiquity nor any epigraphic finding known had referred to Allianoi. During the excavations conducted in the forest to the west of Allianoi, a vessel of the type known as Yortan was found.
On the hills of Çakmaktepe nearby, a high quantity of flintstones were found during surveys. Additionally, two stone axes were unearthed from an earth fill; these findings suggest some form of prehistoric settlement near Allianoi. Because of the presence of hot springs, it is thought that there must have been a thermal bath complex in the Hellenistic period, but at a smaller scale than the Roman site. No architectural material was found in Allianoi belonging to this period apart from a few archaeological and numismatic clues. During the Roman Imperial Period and as of the 2nd century AD, consistent with the emergence of a multitude of urban centers in Anatolia and with the construction of the famous Asklepion of nearby Pergamon, the number of public works built in Allianoi increased. Many of the edifices encountered at the site today date from this period. Besides the thermal baths, the bridges, the streets, the insulae, the Connection Building and the nympheum were all planned and built during this period.
Allianoi was still densely populated during the Byzantine period. As was the case with neighboring Pergamon, the socio-economic fabric of the urban settlement had frayed; some architectural elements of the Roman Period were re-used by the Byzantine settlers. Utilizing the paved streets of the stoas and streets of the Roman period, succeeding Byzantine populations constructed simpler dwellings; the most important buildings of Allianoi, namely the thermal baths and the nympheum, remained in use for a long time, with some minor alterations. A large church reminiscent of a basilica was built in the east, while chapels were constructed in and around the settlement. Metal and glass workshops were all traceable to this period; the site was known as Paşa Ilıcası in the Ottoman Period. While noted in the historical documentation of the vilayet of Aydın, it does not seem to have been used on an extensive scale; the only traces of this period are a few shards of coins. In the beginning of the 20th century, the sub-governor of the region did start an effort to put the spa complex back to use and the big pool section has been refurbished.
All along the Ottoman period and up to 1979, the Roman Bridge situated to the west of the settlement was used to connect the towns of Bergama and İvrindi. The bath complex was cleaned of accumulated silt in the beginning of the 20th century. Despite continuous flooding, the hot springs section was in use in the 1950s. In 1992, the Roman Bridge, still in use was reconstructed with some distortions, disregarding the interests of conservationists. In 1992, some rather shabby reconstruction work had been done in Allianoi itself, as a modern building was constructed over the historical remains; the complex was put out of use after heavy flooding in February 1998. Some of the site has been used as farmland; these recent elements were removed in 2003 by the excavation team and the major parts of the Bath Complex beneath them started to come to light. The Turkish State Hydraulic Works devised a plan in 1994 to dam the Ilya River with Yortanlı Dam, creating a reservoir in order to increase agricultural productivity in the region.
The Allianoi bath complex lies within the proposed reservoir area, meaning it would be covered in water should the dam project go through. Protests from ICOMOS, UNESCO, Europa Nostra, the EU have done little but to delay the inevitability of the project; as of December 31, 2010, Yortanli Dam started filling water and Allianoi is under 61 million meter cubic water
Pescennius Niger was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. He claimed the imperial throne in response to the murder of Pertinax and the elevation of Didius Julianus, but was defeated by a rival claimant, Septimius Severus, killed while attempting to flee from Antioch. Although Niger was born into an old Italian equestrian family, around the year 135, he was the first member of his family to achieve the rank of Roman senator. Not much is known of his early career. During the late 180s, Niger was elected as a Suffect consul, after which Commodus made him imperial legate of Syria in 191, he was still serving in Syria when news came through firstly of the murder of Pertinax, followed by the auctioning off of the imperial title to Didius Julianus. Niger was a well regarded public figure in Rome and soon a popular demonstration against Didius Julianus broke out, during which the citizens called out for Niger to come to Rome and claim the imperial title for himself; as a consequence, it is alleged that Julianus dispatched a centurion to the east with orders to assassinate Niger at Antioch.
The result of the unrest in Rome saw Niger proclaimed Emperor by the eastern legions by the end of April 193. On his accession, Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, or "the Just". Although imperial propaganda issued on behalf of Septimius Severus claimed that Niger was the first to rebel against Didius Julianus, it was Severus who persisted, claiming the imperial title on April 9. Although Niger sent envoys to Rome to announce his elevation to the imperial throne, his messengers were intercepted by Severus; as Niger began bolstering his support in the eastern provinces, Severus marched on Rome which he entered in early June 193 after Julianus had been murdered. Severus wasted no time consolidating his hold on Rome, ordered his newly appointed prefect of the watch, Gaius Fulvius Plautianus to capture Niger’s children and hold them as hostages. Meanwhile, Niger was busy securing the support of all of the governors in the Asiatic provinces, including the esteemed proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, who had occupied Byzantium in the name of Niger.
He proceeded to secure direct control over Egypt, while Severus did as much as he could to protect the wheat supply, ordered troops loyal to him to keep watch on the western border of Egypt and prevent the legion stationed there Legio II Traiana Fortis from sending military aid to Niger. Although these lands contained great wealth, Niger's military resources were inferior to Severus’. While Severus had the sixteen Danubian legions at his disposal, Niger possessed only six: three in Syria, the two stationed in Arabia Petraea, one located at Melitene. Niger therefore decided to act aggressively, sent a force into Thrace where it defeated a part of Severus’ army under Lucius Fabius Cilo at Perinthus. Severus now marched from Rome to the east, sending his general Tiberius Claudius Candidus ahead of him. Niger, having made Byzantium his headquarters, gave Asellius Aemilianus the task of defending the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara; as Severus approached, he offered Niger the opportunity to surrender and go into exile, but Niger refused, trusting in the outcome of a military encounter.
In the fall of 193, Candidus met Aemilianus in battle at Cyzicus, resulting in Niger’s forces being defeated as well as the capture and death of Aemilianus. Byzantium was now placed under siege, forcing Niger to retreat back to Nicaea; the city remained loyal to Pescennius Niger, it would take Severus until the end of 195 to capture Byzantium. Another battle took place outside of Nicaea in December 193, which resulted in a defeat for Niger, he was able to withdraw the bulk of his army intact to the Taurus Mountains, where he was able to hold the passes for a few months as Niger returned to Antioch. However, the problem now for Niger was; some cities loyal to Niger decided that it was time to change their allegiance, in particular Laodicea and Tyre. By February 13, 194, Egypt had declared for Severus, as had the imperial legate of Arabia, further diminishing Niger’s chances. After Severus had replaced Candidus with another general, Publius Cornelius Anullinus, Niger met Anullinus in battle at Issus in May 194, where after a long and hard-fought struggle, Pescennius Niger was decisively defeated.
Forced to retreat to Antioch, Niger was captured while attempting to flee to Parthia. Niger was beheaded, his severed head was taken to Byzantium, but the city refused to surrender. Severus stormed and destroyed Byzantium before he had it rebuilt. Niger’s head found its way to Rome where it was displayed. After his victory in the east, Severus punished all of Niger’s supporters, he had Niger’s wife and children put to death, while his estates were confiscated. The name "Niger" means "black", which incidentally, contrasts him with one of his rivals for the throne in 194, Clodius Albinus, whose name means "white". According to the Historia Augusta, his cognomen of "Niger" was given due to his black neck, which contrasted with the rest of his body. Abdsamiya Cassius Dio, Roman History, Books 74 & 75 Herodian, Roman History, Books 2 & 3 Historia Augusta, Life of Pescennius Niger Southern, Pat; the Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001 Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge, 2004 Bowman, Alan K.
The Cambridge Ancient History: The Crisis of Empire, A. D. 193-337, Cambridge University Press, 2005 http://www.roman-emperors.org/pniger.htm M
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Aigai Aigaiai was an ancient Greek Roman and bishopric in Aeolis. Aegae is mentioned by both Strabo as being a member of the Aeolian dodecapolis, it was an important sanctuary of Apollo. Aigai had its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty, which ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd and 2nd century BC; the remains of the city are located near the modern village of Yuntdağı Köseler in Manisa Province, Turkey. The archaeological site is situated at a rather high altitude on top of Mount Gün, part of the mountain chain of Yunt; the city was a possession of the Lydian Empire and the Achaemenid Empire when it conquered the former. In the early third century BC it became part of the Kingdom of Pergamon, it changed hands from Pergamon to the Seleucid Empire, but was recaptured by Attalus I of Pergamon in 218 BC. In the war between Bithynia and Pergamon, it was destroyed by Prusias II of Bithynia in 156 BC. After a peace was brokered by the Romans, the city was compensated with hundred talents. Under the rule of Pergamon a market building and a temple to Apollo were constructed.
In 129 BC the Kingdom of Pergamon became part of the Roman Empire. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 17 AD and received aid for reconstruction from emperor Tiberius. Ægæ was important enough in the Roman province of Asia Prima to become one of the many suffragans of its capital Ephesus's Metropolitan Archbishopric. The diocese was nominally restored in 1933 as titular bishopric, it is vacant since decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest rank: Titular Bishop Gérard-Marie Coderre Titular Bishop Marius Paré Titular Bishop Cornélio Chizzini, Sons of Divine Providence The city is situated on a plateau at the summit of the steep Gün Dağı mountain, which can be climbed from the north. The plateau is surrounded by a wall with a length of 1.5 kilometers. On the eastern side are the remains of the three-story indoor market with a height of 11 meters and a length of 82 meters; the upper floor of the Hellenistic building was renovated in Roman times. The overgrown remains of many other buildings are scattered over the site.
These include the acropolis, laid out in terraces, a Macellum, a gymnasium, a bouleuterion and the foundations of three temples. About five kilometers to the east the foundations of a sanctuary of Apollo are found on the banks of the river which flows around the ruins, it was an Ionic order peripteros temple from the first century BC. A cella, six meters high and three monoliths still remain; the first western visitors of Aigai were William Mitchell Ramsay and Salomon Reinach in 1880. They reported about their visit in the Journal of Hellenic Studies and the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, they were followed by Richard Bohn and Carl Schuchhardt, who examined the site as a part of the excavations in Pergamon. Since 2004 the site is being excavated by Ersin Doğer of Ege University in Izmir. By 2010 the access road, the bouleuterion, the odeon, numerous water pipes and large parts of the market hall were uncovered. For the coming years it is planned to re-erect the market hall's facade with the original stones.
In 2016, archaeologists discovered a mosaic depicting the god Poseidon. The mosaic was found in the frigidarium part of the ancient bath; the bottom part of the mosaic contains ruined inscription in Greek: “Greetings to all of you bathing.” Archaeologists believe that it dates back to the 3rd or 4th century B. C. In 2018, archaeologists unearthed a Macellum, an ancient meat and fish market. GCatholic with titular incumebt biography links Official website of Aigai Excavations More photos of the site Ancient Coinage of Aeolis, Aegae Inscriptions from Aigai Description of Aigai on Current Archeology in Turkey
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Gulf of Alexandretta
The Gulf of Alexandretta or İskenderun is a gulf of the eastern Mediterranean or Levantine Sea. It lies beside the southern Turkish provinces of Hatay; the gulf is named for the nearby Turkish city of the classical Alexandretta. It was formerly known as the Sea or Gulf of Issus. Herodotus records it as the Marandynian Bay, after the nearby town of Myriandrus; the Gulf of Alexandretta forms the easternmost inlet of the Mediterranean Sea. It lies beside the southern coast of Turkey near its border with Syria. In antiquity, the adjacent Nur Mountains were thought to separate the regions of Cilicia and Syria, although Herodotus at one point places the division further south at Ras al-Bassit. Çukurova, the modern equivalent to Cilicia List of gulfs Rennell, The Geographical System of Herodotus Examined and Explained... Vol. I, London: C. J. G. & F. Rivington