Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown; the CBD is also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world. For example, London's "city centre" is regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, the new Santa Fe; the shape and type of a CBD always reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city.
This is quite common for European cities such as Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities in Asia, that will have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area, it has been said. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities. In Australia the acronym CBD is used commonly to refer to major city "centres", it is used in particular to refer to the skyscraper districts in state capital cities such as Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Melbourne is Australia's largest CBD with Sydney second and Brisbane third when judged by area size; the iTowers of Masa Square CBD were built for doing business tasks only.
It is located within Gaborone. In China terms "city centre" are used but a different commercial district outside of the historic core called a "CBD" or "Financial District" may exist. Large Chinese cities have multiple CBDs spread throughout the urban area. Cities traditionally being major cultural centres with many historic structures in the core such as Beijing, Suzhou or Xi'an will have the greenfield CBDs built adjacent to the urban core, similar to European cities. While other cities such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan the city centre will house a number of CBDs in addition to greenfield CBDs built in the periphery. In France, the term « quartier d’affaires » may be used to describe the central business district; the main ones business districts in the country are as following: La Défense in Paris, which with 3,300,000 square metres of office space is Europe's leading business district in terms of area. La Part-Dieu in Lyon, is the 2nd largest business district in France and has nearly 1,600,000 square metres.
Euralille in Lille, is the 3rd business district of France with 1,120,000 square metres of offices. Euroméditerranée in Marseille, is the 4th business district in France with 650,000 square metres of offices. In Germany, the terms Innenstadt and Stadtzentrum may be used to describe the central business district. Both terms can be translated to mean "inner city" and "city centre"; some of the larger cities have more than one central business district, like Berlin, which has three. Due to Berlin's history of division during the Cold War, the city contains central business districts both in West and East Berlin, as well as a newly-built business centre near Potsdamer Platz; the city's historic centre — the location of the Reichstag building, as well as the Brandenburg gate and most federal ministries — was abandoned when the Berlin Wall cut through the area. Only after the reunification with the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz, the construction of numerous shopping centers, government ministries, office buildings and entertainment venues, was the area revived.
In Frankfurt, there is a business district, in the geographical centre of the city and it is called the Bankenviertel. In Düsseldorf, there is a business district, located around the famous High-Street Königsallee with banks and offices. In Hong Kong, Sheung Wan and Causeway Bay are considered as the central business districts of Victoria City; the Yau Tsim Mong District has been considered the city centre of Kowloon before another core emerged in Cheung Sha Wan. As part of the Airport Core Programme, the Union Square project launched by the MTR Corporation has brought it another CBD in West Kowloon. With the latest implementation of "Energising Kowloon East" Scheme by the Hong Kong Government, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Area have been redeveloped and transformed into CBDs; the CBDs of new towns and satellite cities such as Tuen Mun, Sha Tin and Tung Chung have been characterised by sky-scraping residential blocks on top of large shopping centres that provide services to local resi
Museum Planning Area
The Museum Planning Area is a planning area located in the Central Area of the Central Region of Singapore. The area plays a "bridging role" between the Orchard area and the Downtown Core, which necessitates proper transport networks for vehicles and public transport. Due to the sheer size of green areas in the district, the Urban Redevelopment Authority has designated it a'green lung' in the Central Area. However, the Museum Planning Area is home to cultural and commercial activities. Around 65% of the area is available for future development, making it a hotbed for new infrastructure and buildings. Museum planning area is bounded by the planning areas of Newton and Rochor to the north, the Downtown Core to the southeast, Singapore River to the south, River Valley to the west and Orchard to the northwest. Ten national monuments are located within the Museum Planning Area, namely the Armenian Church, the Cathedral of the Good Shepherd, Cathay Building, the Central Fire Station, the House of Tan Yeok Nee, the MacDonald House, the Old Tao Nan School, the National Museum of Singapore, the Old Hill Street Police Station and the Singapore Art Museum/Former Saint Joseph's Institution.
The area is home to significant events such as the Battle of MacDonald House bombing. Other historical sites include: YMCA Building National Theatre United Chinese Library The Museum Planning Area is bordered by Rochor to the northeast, the Downtown Core to the southeast, the Singapore River Area to the southwest, River Valley to the west and Newton and Orchard to the northwest; the area is bounded by Hill Street, River Valley Road, Clemenceau Avenue and Bras Basah Road. It is the smallest urban planning area, with an area of 83 hectares. Parks and open spaces take up a third of the area of the Museum Planning Area, include Fort Canning, Istana Park and Bras Basah Park, which can be used for recreational purposes. Collectively, these places will form the so-called'green lung' of the Central Area. Terraces have been proposed to allow for "a more prominent and convenient access" to the Fort Canning area; the Museum Planning Area is Singapore's "institutional hub", with 11% of land set aside for institutional use and reserve sites to be safeguarded for future institutions.
The many museums in the area, which give the Museum District its name, include the National Museum of Singapore, the Singapore Art Museum, the Asian Civilisations Museum, the National Archives of Singapore and the Singapore Philatelic Museum. The arts scene is vibrant in the area, with The Substation, the Singapore Calligraphy Centre, the YMS Arts Centre and the Singapore Dance Ensemble all located within its boundaries. Scattered throughout the area are places of worship such as churches, Hindu temples and synagogues; the Registry of Marriages and the sprawling Singapore Management University campus are located in the area. Despite its prime location, residential projects were only allocated 1% of the land area, the Museum Planning Area was criticised for lacking residential zoning. Due to the lack of residents, there were fears. Furthermore, the concept of living within the Central Area had gained popularity, up-market skyscraper condominiums could be built; the greenery of the Museum Planning Area could provide a peaceful environment for living.
The URA replied that several plots of land had been sold for residential-commercial mixed use, that more housing developments were to be planned and constructed. The URA emphasised the importance of the area as a transition between the central business district and shopping areas, as well as the green, pedestrian-friendly nature of the URA's plan for the area; the Museum Planning Area is home to various shopping malls, including Park Mall, Plaza Singapura, The Cathay, Singapore Shopping Centre and The Atrium @ Orchard. More vacant land will be set aside for commercial uses around Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station and Bras Basah MRT Station; these will be properly connected with the respective stations. Hotels in the area include Hotel Rendezvous. Furthermore, a hotel development at the foot of Fort Canning Hill near the junction of Clemenceau Avenue and River Valley Road is in the planning stages, is meant to be a retreat from urban living "amidst lush greenery". Other developments are planned on reserved sites near Fort Canning, but details have not been released.
The Museum Planning Area is served by four Mass Rapid Transit Stations: Dhoby Ghaut, Bras Basah, Fort Canning and Bencoolen The North South Line and the North East Line can only be accessible from Dhoby Ghaut while the Circle Line can be accessible from both and the Downtown Line can be accessible from Fort Canning and Bencoolen. The Central Expressway's Chin Swee Tunnel passes under the area. Several changes to the road network in the area will be implemented, including the construction of Fort Canning Tunnel and the realignment of Stamford Road and Handy Road; the rationale for the improvements is increased traffic from Marina Centre and relieving the traffic congestion along Orchard Road. Furthermore, a new road network has been put in place to ensure smooth traffic flow after the full development of land around the MRT Stations. Armenian Street Bras Basah Road Central Expressway Clemenceau Avenue Fort Canning Tunnel Hill Street Orchard Road Queen Street River Valley Road Stamford Road Victoria Street The Development Guide Plan for the Museum Planning Area envisages "a comprehensive pedestrian network linking developments and open spaces".
New promenades and pedestrian malls are planned for the area to enhance and connect existing sidewalks. A web of underpasses and covered walkways will link Orchard, the Sin
Waterboat House Garden
Waterboat House Garden is a small park located near the mouth of the Singapore River, near the Central Business District in Singapore. The park was once the original site of the former Merlion Park where the two iconic statues of the Merlion and its miniature form were located; the first Merlion Park was located near the mouth of the Singapore River was designed by the Singapore Tourism Board as an emblem of Singapore in 1964. The park was opened at an installation ceremony for the Merlion statue, officiated at by Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr Lee Kuan Yew on 15 September 1972; the original statues of the Merlion and its mininature used to stand at the mouth of the Singapore River with Anderson Bridge as its background. The main statue was made from November 1971 to August 1972 by the late Singaporean sculptor, Mr Lim Nang Seng, it weighs 70 tons. Due the completion of the Esplanade Bridge in 1997, the statue could no longer be viewed from the Marina Bay Waterfront. On 23 April 2002, the Merlion statue and its mininature statue were relocated from its original location to a new pier specially built on the other side of The Esplanade Bridge adjacent to the One Fullerton hotel, completed on 25 April 2002.
The new Merlion Park, four times bigger than the original site, had been opened since The site of former Merlion Park had since being renamed as the Waterboat House Garden, so named from the nearby historical building Waterboat House, the renovated Water House, built in 1919. Merlion Merlion Park
Japanese Cemetery Park
The Japanese Cemetery Park is a Japanese cemetery and park in Hougang, Singapore. It is the largest Japanese cemetery in Southeast Asia at 29,359 square metres, consisting of 910 tombstones that contain the remains of members of the Japanese community in Singapore, including young Japanese prostitutes, civilians and convicted war criminals executed in Changi Prison, it was gazetted as a memorial park by the Singapore government in 1987. The Japanese brothel owner, Tagajiro Fukaki, donated 7 acres of his rubber plantation to be used as a burial ground for young Japanese women who died in destitution. Together with other brothel owners Shibuya Ginji and Nakagawa Kikuzo, they applied for the permission and the British colonial government granted permission for this use on 26 June 1891. Since it was used to bury Japanese residents. During World War II, the cemetery was used to bury civilians and soldiers who lost their lives in the battlefield or to illness. After the British repatriated all the Japanese in 1948, no Japanese were allowed back into Singapore or Malaya for fear of their war past.
The Singapore government left it disused. This policy towards the Japanese dead in Singapore remained until the Official Peace Treaty was signed with Japan in 1951. In November 1952, Ken Ninomiya, the first post-war Japanese Consul-General to Singapore, was tasked to find out the fate of Japanese war remains in Singapore. Upon locating the remains, the aim was to repatriate the ashes of the dead. However, the Japanese government decided it would not remove the remains of the Japanese war dead to a separate cemetery nor would they repatriate the ashes; this was because the Japanese surrendered personnel had put so much effort to erect a memorial in the cemetery for their fallen comrades earlier and as such the memorial was a type of a shrine in itself as well as the fact that all ashes had been entombed in one single mound which made any form of identification impossible. In 1969, the Singapore government handed back ownership of the cemetery to the reformed Japanese Association, which oversees the maintenance of the cemetery.
Burials continued until 1973 when the Singapore government passed an ordinance preventing the further expansion of the 42 cemeteries on the island. Yamamoto Otokichi known as "John Matthew Ottoson", was born in Onoura Village at Chita District of Owari in 1818. In 1832, he was a sailor on board the ship "Hojun-maru"; the ship drifted out of the sea at Toba in a storm. Otokichi managed to survive the disaster and was washed ashore at Cape Alava on the west coast of the United States after one year and two months, he travelled around the world but Japan's isolationist policy at that time denied his return to his home country. After being rejected by his home country, he stayed proud to be a Japanese and helped to promote the opening of the country, he became a successful trader. In 1862, Otokichi moved from Shanghai and stayed in Singapore with his Malay wife to become the first Japanese resident here, he died at the age of 49 in 1867. In February 2004, Leong Foke Meng of the Singapore Land Authority, with the help of the National Environment Agency, helped to uncover facts confirming Otokichi's remains at the Choa Chu Kang Government Cemeteries.
On 27 November 2004, together with Mihama Town and the Japanese Association, initiated the exhumation of Otokichi's remains at the Choa Chu Kang Christian Cemetery. The remains were cremated and ashes stored at the columbarium of the Japanese Cemetery. On 17 February 2005, a delegation of about 100 residents from Mihama Town visited Singapore and brought back to Japan a portion of Otokichi's ashes, realising the home-coming of Otokichi's remains after 173 years. Before their repatriation in 1947, the surrendered Japanese prisoners-of-war who were used as manual labourers by the British took it upon themselves to commemorate their war dead. A group of them decided to clean up the cemetery and setting up Hisaichi Terauchi's tombstone in the eastern corner of the cemetery and three tombstones in the western corner of the cemetery with this inscription: In memory of the souls of the Labour Force comprising Army and Navy personnel who died in Singapore between September 1945 and April 1947, their work remained undisturbed by the British authorities as they could not read the Japanese inscriptions on the memorials and were too busy rebuilding the city.
Behind this memorial, the ashes of 10,000 Japanese war dead collected from the destroyed Syonan Chureito were put into a hole, sealed with concrete. Terauchi's tombstone and three other distinctive memorials in the cemetery were completed by three Japanese prisoners-of-war—carpenter Kunio Higashituji, stonemasons Tomokatsu Mizuya and Tokiyaki Tetsuka—in April 1947. There is a small concrete pillar known as A memorial to the ashes of 135 martyrs, which marks the spot where the ashes of the 135 Japanese officers and men who were executed at Changi Prison are buried. A similar pillar on another corner of the west end marks the burial spot of the ashes of 79 Japanese who were executed in Malaysia. Born in 1879, Terauchi Hisaichi was the son of Terauchi Masatake, the 18th Japanese prime minister and a close relative of the emperor Hirohito, he attended the Japanese Military Academy and joined the Japanese Army after graduating the Academy in 1900. Terauchi spent time in Germany and worked as a lecturer at the Military Academy before taking command of the 5th Division and the Chief of Staff of the Korean Army, as the head of the Formosa Army.
In October 1935, he was promoted to General and
The Bidadari Garden is a memorial garden located along Veron Road in Bidadari, Singapore. The site was once the part of Hindu section of the Bidadari Cemetery before exhumation took place from 2001 to 2006. During the exhuming process of the cemetery, a memorial park known as the Bidadari Garden was established on this site by the National Heritage Board in 2004 to commemorate the history of the Bidadari Cemetery; the former gates and gateposts from the former Bidadari Cemetery were moved to this memorial garden and forms its entrance. 21 of the selected headstones from the former cemetery were relocated there. The memorial garden comprised various sections to represent the Christian and Hindu sections of the old cemetery. In August 2013, the Housing and Development Board announced plans for the future Bidadari housing estate and worked with National Heritage Board and National Parks Board to relocate and integrate the memorial garden with the Bidadari Park
Gardens by the Bay
Gardens by the Bay is a nature park spanning 101 hectares of reclaimed land in the Central Region of Singapore, adjacent to the Marina Reservoir. The park consists of three waterfront gardens: Bay South Garden, Bay East Garden and Bay Central Garden; the largest of the gardens is Bay South Garden at 54 hectares designed by Grant Associates. Its Flower Dome is the largest glass greenhouse in the world. Gardens by the Bay is part of the nation's plans to transform its "Garden City" to a "City in a Garden", with the aim of raising the quality of life by enhancing greenery and flora in the city. First announced by the Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, at the National Day Rally in 2005, Gardens by the Bay was intended to be Singapore's premier urban outdoor recreation space, a national icon. Being one of the popular tourist attractions in Singapore, the park received 6.4 million visitors in 2014, while topping its 20 millionth visitor mark in November 2015. Bay Central Garden will act as a link between Bay East Gardens.
It stands at 15 hectares with a 3-kilometre waterfront promenade that allows for scenic walks stretching from the city centre to the east of Singapore. More developments of Bay Central Garden are coming in the next few years. Bay East Garden is 32 hectares in size and it has a 2-kilometre promenade frontage bordering the Marina Reservoir. An interim park was developed at Bay East Garden in support of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics; the first phase of the garden was opened to the public in October 2011, allowing alternative access to the Marina Barrage. It is designed as a series of large tropical leaf-shaped gardens, each with its own specific landscaping design and theme. There will be five water inlets aligned with the prevailing wind direction and extending the shoreline while allowing wind and water to penetrate the site to help cool areas of activity around them. Bay East Garden provides visitors with an unobstructed view of the city skyline. Upcoming developments of Bay East Garden will be based on the theme of water.
Bay South Garden opened to the public on 29 June 2012. It is the largest of the three gardens at 54 hectares and aims to showcase the best of tropical horticulture and garden artistry; the overall concept of its master plan by Grant Associates draws inspiration from an orchid as it is representative of the tropics and of Singapore, being the country's national flower, the Vanda'Miss Joaquim'. The orchid takes root at the waterfront, while the leaves and secondary roots form an integrated network with blooms at key intersections; the conservatory complex at Gardens by the Bay, comprises two cooled conservatories – the Flower Dome and the Cloud Forest, situated along the edge of Marina Reservoir. The conservatories, designed by WilkinsonEyre and Grant Associates, are intended to be an energy efficient showcase of sustainable building technologies and to provide an all-weather edutainment space within the Gardens. Both are large and the Flower Dome is the world's largest columnless glasshouse; the construction of the glasshouses is special in two ways.
First of all by being able to have such large a glass-roof without additional interior support. Secondly because the constructions aims at minimizing the environmental footprint. Rainwater is collected from the surface and circulated in the cooling system, connected to the Supertrees; the Supertrees are used both to cool circulated water. The Flower Dome is the larger of the two, at 1.2 hectares. It replicates a mild, dry climate and features plants found in the Mediterranean and other semi-arid tropical regions; the Flower Dome is 38 metres high and maintains a temperature between 23 °C and 25 °C lower at night. The Flower Dome features seven different "gardens" as well as an olive grove with a bistro and a central changing display field has been incorporated to enable flower shows and displays to be held within the conservatory. Here is the list of some plants growing in the Flower Dome: The Cloud Forest is higher but smaller at 0.8 hectares. It replicates the cool moist conditions found in tropical mountain regions between 1,000 metres and 3,000 metres above sea level, found in South-East Asia, Middle- and South America.
It features a 42-metre "Cloud Mountain", accessible by an elevator, visitors will be able to descend the mountain via a circular path where a 35-metre waterfall provides visitors with refreshing cool air. The "Cloud Mountain" itself is an intricate structure clad in epiphytes such as orchids, peacock ferns, spike- and clubmosses and anthuriums; the design by Grant Associates was inspired by the Maiden Hair Fungus and consists of a number of levels, each with a different theme, including The Lost World, The Cavern, The Waterfall View, The Crystal Mountain, The Cloud Forest Gallery, The Cloud Forest Theatre and The Secret Garden. The following is a partial list of plants growing in the Cloud Forest: Supertrees are tree-like structures that dominate the Gardens' landscape with heights that range between 25 metres and 50 metres, they were conceived and designed by Grant Associates, with the imaginative engineering of Atelier One and Atelier Ten. They are vertical gardens that perform a multitude of functions, which include planting, shading a
Urban Redevelopment Authority
The Urban Redevelopment Authority is the national urban planning authority of Singapore, a statutory board under the Ministry of National Development of the Singapore Government. The authority was established on 1 April 1974, is of critical importance to the city-state, because Singapore is an dense country where land usage is required to be efficient and maximised to reduce land wastage in the face of land shortage. URA's main responsibility is land-use planning. URA planners devise both long-term strategic land use plans and medium-term plans which are reviewed every five to ten years; these plans designate the land use and urban density for the entirety of Singapore, divided by URA into 55 planning areas. This is the responsibility of URA to evaluate and grant planning approval for development projects from the public and private sectors. In approving development applications, the URA states its goal is to foster orderly development conforming to the planning guidelines as stated in the statutory Master Plan and the existing control factors.
URA tries to provide quality service when working in partnership with building industry professionals and the general public to foster development. URA is responsible for the urban design of the city. For areas of especial interest, such as the Singapore River area, the Orchard Road shopping belt, Marina Bay URA devises specific medium and short-term urban design and land use plans, it works with other government agencies in enhancing the city's urban design. Building conservation in Singapore is the responsibility of URA, which issued a Conservation Master Plan in 1989; this plan laid down guidelines and processes for the conservation of culturally and significant buildings. More than 7000 buildings in Singapore have been gazetted as conserved buildings. URA sells land by tender on behalf of the Singapore government to meet demand from private developers. URA deals with tenders for government land and applications to buy reserved land; the URA plays an important role in managing all public car parks outside of Housing Development Board estates.
It provides information and services to the public in regard to coupon parking, season parking and heavy vehicle parking. URA sets the bylaws to parking infringement and fines. In keeping with URA's function as the authority for urban design in Singapore, the URA Centre was conceptualised by URA's in-house architects. Kenzō Tange Associates and Kajima Design Asia Pte Ltd served as design consultants; the building consists of two blocks: a 16-floor tower block, a 5-floor podium block. The URA maintains a regular and updated public urban planning exhibition on the first three floors of their headquarters. Highlights include three scale models of the island of Singapore, the central region, the central area. Special exhibits and models on current projects and developments island-wide are displayed as well. Development Guide Plan Urban planning in Singapore Planning Areas of Singapore History of the Urban Redevelopment Authority Official Website of Urban Redevelopment Authority Singapore City Gallery