Mohammed V International Airport
Mohammed V International Airport is an international airport serving Casablanca, Morocco. Located in Nouaceur Province, it is operated by ONDA. With just under 8 million passengers passing through the airport in 2014, it was the busiest airport in Morocco and the fourth busiest in Africa. In August 2014, ONDA reported a year-on-year increase of 7.28% passenger traffic, to 918,238. The airport serves as hub for Royal Air Maroc, Air Arabia Maroc and RAM Express, it is named after King Mohammed V of Morocco. Mohammed V is one of the six airports in Morocco where ONDA offers its special VIP service Salon Convives de Marque; the Casablanca Mohammed V Airport was built by the United States in early 1943 during World War II as an auxiliary airfield for Casablanca's Anfa Airport and was named Berrechid Airfield. The airfield handled diverse military traffic as a stopover en route to Port Lyautey Airfield, to Marrakech Airport on the North African Cairo-Dakar route. In addition, it was the terminus of Mid-Atlantic route transatlantic flights via the Azores to Nova Scotia and airfields on the East Coast of the United States.
In addition to its transportation role, the airfield supported the North African Campaign with the Twelfth Air Force 68th Reconnaissance Group operating photo-reconnaissance versions of the P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang. Part of the 68th first arrived at Angads Airport in Oujda in November 1942 and moved to Berrechid in March 1943 upon its completion, it flew both antisubmarine missions over the Atlantic and photo-reconnaissance combat missions over German-held territory until early September when it moved east to Massicault Airfield in Tunisia. With the end of the war in 1945, the airfield was handed over to the civil government. During the Cold War in the early and middle 1950s, the airfield was reopened as Nouasseur Air Base and was used as a United States Air Force Strategic Air Command staging area for B-47 Stratojet bombers pointed at the Soviet Union; these operations moved to Ben Guerir Air Base. With the destabilisation of French government in Morocco, Moroccan independence in 1956, the government of Mohammed V wanted the US Air Force to pull its bases out of Morocco, insisting on such action after American intervention in Lebanon in 1958.
The United States agreed to leave in December 1959, was out of Morocco by 1963. The U. S. felt that, with the long range of the B-52 and completion of Spanish bases in 1959, the Moroccan bases were no longer important. A train service is available every hour from Casablanca Port station to the Casablanca airport. From Casablanca main access is by A3 Motorway. On 24 August 1994, a Royal Air Maroc ATR-42 crashed near Tizounine while en route from Agadir to Casablanca Mohammed V airport; the plane crashed with a steep dive in the Atlas mountains. All 40 passengers and 4 crew died in this accident; the captain disconnected the autopilot and let the plane crash deliberately, but the Moroccan Pilots Union challenged these findings. On 1 April 1970, a Royal Air Maroc Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle crashed on approach to Casablanca Mohammed V airport when it lost control at a height of about 500 feet; the fuselage broke in two. Sixty-one of the 82 passengers and crew were killed. Transport in Morocco Media related to Mohammed V International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Mohammed V International Airport Moroccan Airports Authority Accident history for CMN at Aviation Safety Network Aeronautical chart for GMMN at SkyVector Current weather for GMMN at NOAA/NWS
Air Manas is a low-cost airline based in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Its main base is Manas International Airport. Air Manas was founded in 2006 in Bishkek. First flight of Air Manas was carried out in December 2009. In June 2012, 49% of the air company was bought by a Turkish Pegasus Airlines; the first flight under the brand name Pegasus Asia was operated from Bishkek to Istanbul on 22 March 2013. Now the airlines operates domestic flights between Bishkek to Osh, as well as international flights from Kyrgyzstan to India, Russia and China; the efforts of the Kyrgyz Government to attract foreign investments had borne fruit: mutual visits of high level Governmental Delegations gave a serious impetus to bilateral trade relations between Turkey and Kyrgyzstan. Thus, at the end of 2012 in the basis of pre-existing airline, a new Kyrgyz airline with the same name of "Air Manas" was created, being 51% owned by the Kyrgyz side and 49% by newly attracted strategic partner Pegasus Airlines, one of the leading air companies in Europe.
The base airport for Air Manas, is the main airport - International Airport Manas, located near Bishkek. In its fleet, Air Manas uses Boeing 737-400 and 737-800 NG. Air Manas has its own certified aviation-technical base for the operational maintenance of aircraft. Air Manas serve the following as of July 2015: ChinaÜrümqi - Ürümqi Diwopu International AirportKyrgyzstanBishkek - Manas International Airport Hub Osh - Osh AirportRussiaMoscow Moscow Domodedovo Airport Zhukovsky International AirportTurkeyIstanbul - Sabiha Gökçen International AirportUzbekistanTashkent - Tashkent International Airport The Air Manas fleet consists of the following aircraft: Official website
Pegasus Airlines is a Turkish low-cost airline headquartered in the Kurtköy area of Pendik, Istanbul with bases at several Turkish airports. On 1 December 1989 two businesses and Silkar, partnered with Aer Lingus to create an inclusive tour charter airline called Pegasus Airlines and services were inaugurated on 15 April 1990 with two Boeing 737–400s. In Greek mythology, Pegasus was a winged horse sired by Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, foaled by the Gorgon Medusa. However, four months after the launch, Iraq invaded Kuwait and the seven month occupation that followed had a serious effect on Turkish tourism. By 1992, tourists began returning to the country and Pegasus grew with the acquisition of a third 737-400; the airline leased a further two Airbus A320s to meet the summer demand. After two positive years, Aer Lingus and Net sold their shares in the company in 1994 to Istanbul-based Yapi Kredibank, making Pegasus a purely Turkish company. On 4 September 1997, Pegasus placed an order for one 737-400 and one 737–800 from Boeing Commercial Airplanes making it the first Turkish carrier to place an order for the Boeing 737 Next Generation.
The airline signed lease agreements for a further 10 737-800s from the ILFC. In January 2005, ESAS Holdings placed Ali Sabanci as the chairman. Two months he changed the airline from a charter airline, to a low-cost airline. In November 2005, Pegasus placed an order for 12 new 737-800s from Boeing, backed up with an order for a further 12 737-800s in November 2008; the latter order has flexibility in it as the orders can be changed to the 149-seat 737-700 or the 215-seat 737–900 depending on market demand. In 2018, Pegasus tried to acquire an A380 but cancelled the order. In 2007, Pegasus carried more passengers in Turkey than any other private airline. In 2008, it carried a total of 4.4 million passengers. In 2013 the passenger traffic grew further to 16.8 million passengers carried. In 2012, Pegasus Airlines, the second largest airline in Turkey, has signed for up to 100 A320neo Family aircraft, of which 75 are firm orders. Pegasus becomes the first Turkish airline to order the A320neo; this was the largest single commercial aircraft order placed by an airline in Turkey at that time, was announced on December 18, 2012 at a ceremony attended by Binali Yıldırım, the Turkish Minister of Transport.
In June 2012, Pegasus Airlines bought 49% of the Kyrgyz air company Air Manas. 22 March 2013 the air company had operated its first flight under the brand name Pegasus Asia. The company offered 34.5% of its shares of stock to the public. The shares began to be traded at the Borsa Istanbul as BİST: PGSUS on 26 April 2013. In October 2016, Pegasus Airlines announced it was offering three of its aircraft on the ACMI and leasing markets, stating decreasing passenger numbers. Pegasus Airlines operates a one-class interior configuration on all of their aircraft. A "Flying Cafe" is available to all passengers whereby food and beverages are provided for an additional charge. Pegasus is considering installing In-Flight-Entertainment and charging for headphones. All new Boeing 737-800s arrived. Unlike most low-cost carriers, Pegasus runs its own flight crew training centre and maintenance organisation, Pegasus Technic. Both centres are licensed and are used to train new staff members both on the ground and in the air.
Pegasus Airlines is one of the official sponsors of Türk Telekom Arena, newly built stadium for Turkish Club Galatasaray SK. Pegasus Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Alitalia Flynas KLM As of March 2019, the Pegasus Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: Boeing 737-300 Boeing 737-400 On 10 March 2010, Pegasus Airlines Flight 361, an Airbus A319 operated by IZair on a ferry flight, made an emergency landing at Frankfurt Airport, Germany after a malfunction in the nose gear; the flight blew both front nose gear tires. The airport closed runway 07R/25L for 3 hours to allow recovery; the nose gear suffered the same problem as JetBlue Flight 292. On 7 February 2014, Pegasus Airlines Flight 751, a Boeing 737, was the victim of an attempted hijacking by a Ukrainian passenger Artem Kozlov who claimed he had a bomb on board; the passenger demanded to be flown to Sochi, the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics, where the Opening Ceremony was taking place. The plane landed safely in Istanbul.
On 13 January 2018, Pegasus Airlines Flight 8622 from Esenboğa International Airport, Ankara to Trabzon Airport veered off the icy runway at Trabzon, slid into the ground of an acutely angled cliff, got stuck in the mud, which prevented the 41-tonne fuselage from skidding into the Black Sea. All 168 people on board survived and there were no reported injuries; the aircraft sustained substantial damage. Pegasus Asia Media related to Pegasus Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
Adana Airport or Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an international airport located in Adana, Turkey. The airport serves to the Çukurova region, in a lesser extent to the provinces surrounding Çukurova, due to its frequent domestic flight schedule and several flights to international destinations. With 5.6 million passengers in 2016, it is the sixth-busiest airport in Turkey and ranked 80th in Europe. Adana Airport was constructed on a farmland at the Şakirpaşa area, 2.3 km west of the historical city centre. It was opened to service as a civil-military airport in 1937 and became a full civil airport in 1956. Passenger traffic at Adana Airport is doubled since 2011, hitting a record in 2016 with 5,594,630 passengers; as of June 2016, there are 436 weekly departures to 23 routes from the airport, connecting the region to 8 destinations in Turkey, 11 in Germany, 3 in the Middle East and one in N. Cyprus. Ercan is the shortest, Hamburg is the longest route. Route to both airports in İstanbul, is one of the busiest in Turkey, with 201 departures weekly half of the total flights.
Local buses/minibuses, airline shuttles and taxi serve ground transportation to or close to the airport. Adana Metropolitan Municipality local buses #135 and #159, run from the airport to the neighbourhoods of Seyhan, Çukurova and Sarıçam. Bus #159 is a 35-minute interval service that connects airport to the old town, Central railway station, routes further north, ending in Kurttepe, close to the lake. Bus #135 is an hourly service to Balcalı. Several local buses and minibuses that run east-west on the D400 state road, stop at the Airport intersection, 800 metres north of the airport terminals. Coach transport to the provinces surrounding Çukurova, run from the Central Coach Terminal, 3.9 km west of the airport entrance. Coach companies' shuttle services from the city centre to the Central Coach Terminal have stops at the Airport Intersection on the D400 state road. AtlasGlobal airlines run shuttle buses for their passengers from the airport to Mersin Tarsus, İskenderun, Dörtyol and Osmaniye.
Şakirpaşa railway station is 1.9 kilometres' walking distance to the airport terminals, it is located one block north of the D400 state road. There are frequent train services to Mersin Central and Adana Central stations, fewer daily services to eastern stations of Adana. From the station, there are once daily trips to Osmaniye, İskenderun, İslahiye, Karaman and Niğde. 1961 Turkish Airlines Ankara crash 1962 Turkish Airlines Taurus Mountains crash 7 April 1999 Turkish Airlines Flight 5904 Official website Current weather for LTAF at NOAA/NWS Accident history for ADA at Aviation Safety Network
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, Mumbai known as Sahar International Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Mumbai Metropolitan Area, India. It is the second busiest airport in the country in terms of total and international passenger traffic after Delhi, was the 14th busiest airport in Asia and 28th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic in calendar year 2017, its passenger traffic was about 49.8 million in year 2018. The airport is the second busiest in the country in terms of cargo traffic also. In March 2017, the airport overtook London Gatwick Airport as the world's busiest airport with only one operational runway at a time; the airport has three operating terminals spread over a total land area of 750 hectares and handles about 950 aircraft movements per day. It handled a record 1,007 aircraft movements on December 09 2018, higher than its earlier record of 1,003 flight movements in a day in June 2018, it handled a record 51 movements in one hour on 16 September 2014.
Along with IGI Delhi, it was adjudged the "World's Best Airport" at Airport Service Quality Awards 2017 in the highest category of airports handling more than 40 million passengers annually by Airports Council International. It has won the "Best Airport in India and Central Asia" award at the Skytrax 2016 World Airport Awards, it is one of the three airports in India to have implemented Airport Collaborative Decision Making to ensure timely takeoffs and landings. The airport is operated by Mumbai International Airport Limited, a Joint Venture between the Airports Authority of India and the GVK Industries Ltd led consortium, appointed in February 2006 to carry out the modernisation of the Airport; the new integrated terminal T2 was inaugurated on 10 January 2014 and opened for international operations on 12 February 2014. A dedicated six lane, elevated road connecting the new terminal with the main arterial Western Express Highway was opened to the public the same day; the airport is named after the 17th-century Maratha warrior king, having been renamed in 1999 from the previous "Sahar Airport" to "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport".
CSIA's IATA airport code -- "BOM" -- is derived from Mumbai's former name. It is situated across the suburbs of Vile Parle and Sahar village in Andheri. RAF Santacruz was constructed in the 1930s, it was a bigger airfield than Juhu and was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947. The Airport covered an area of about 1,500 acres and had three runways; the apron existed on the south side of runway 09/27, the area, referred to today as the "Old Airport", among others, maintenance hangars of Air India, Air Works India, Indamer Aviation Pvt Ltd. and MIAL's General Aviation Terminal. By 1946, when the RAF began the process of handing over the airfield to the Director General of Civil Aviation for Civil operations, two old abandoned hangars of the Royal Air Force had been converted into a terminal for passenger traffic. One hangar was used as the other for international traffic, it had counters for customs and immigration checks on a lounge in the centre. Air India handled its passengers in its own terminal adjoining the two hangars.
In its first year, it handled six civilian services a day. Traffic at the airport increased after Karachi was partitioned to Pakistan and as many as 40 daily domestic and foreign services operated by 1949, prompting the Indian Government to develop the airport, equipping the airport with a night landing system comprising a Radio range and a modernised flare path lighting system Construction of a new passenger terminal and apron began in 1950 and was commissioned in 1958. Named after the neighbourhood in which it stood and under the aegis of the Public Works Department, the new airport was subsequently run by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. A major fire gutted the International section of the terminal building on 21 September 1979, killing three passengers and shutting down the airport. A temporary departure extension or "Gulf Terminal" was made functional in October that year until the terminal was repaired. With the dawning of the Jumbo Jet era in the 1970s, despite several extensions, began suffering from insufficient operational capacity.
The Tata committee, set up in 1967 to examine the issues concerning the airport, had recommended the construction of a new international terminal to meet the requirements of traffic in the seventies. The Santa Cruz terminal was to be used for domestic traffic alone; the International Airport Authority of India, set up in 1972, started planning the construction of a new terminal building for handling international passenger traffic, to be completed by 1981. Accordingly, construction of the new International terminal at Sahar to the north-east of Santacruz in Andheri was taken up at an estimated cost of ₹ 110 million. AAI had been considering the modernisation of Mumbai airport in 1996 although the AAI board approved a modernisation proposal only in 2003. By Mumbai and Delhi airports were handling 38% of the country's aircraft movement and generating one third of all revenues earned by AAI. At that time, Mumbai airport handled 60 % of which were domestic travellers; the airport faced severe congestion for both aircraft and passengers as it was handling twice as many aircraft movements per day than it was designed for.
The bidding process for its modernisation began in May 2004 with the decision by the Empowered Group of Ministers was announced in January 2006. A consortium of GVK Industries Ltd, Airports Company South Africa and Bidve
The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation known as Eurocontrol, is an international organisation working to achieve safe and seamless air traffic management across Europe. Founded in 1960, Eurocontrol has 41 member states and is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium; the organisation employs two thousand people and operates with an annual budget in excess of half a billion Euros. Although Eurocontrol is not an agency of the European Union, the EU has delegated parts of its Single European Sky regulations to Eurocontrol, making it the central organisation for coordination and planning of air traffic control for all of Europe; the EU itself is a signatory of Eurocontrol and all EU member states are presently members of Eurocontrol. The organisation works with national authorities, air navigation service providers and military airspace users and other organisations, its activities involve all gate-to-gate air navigation service operations: strategic and tactical flow management, controller training, regional control of airspace, safety-proofed technologies and procedures, collection of air navigation charges.
The Eurocontrol Convention was signed in 1960 and ratified in 1963. Before the Convention entered into force in 1963, there were indications that the matter of national sovereignty would complicate the full implementation of the organisation’s founding mission; the first European plan for a harmonised air traffic control system, proposed in 1962, was beset by the refusal of both France and Britain to comply due to reasons linked with their national military airspace control. The other four original members agreed in 1964 to set up a single international air traffic control centre to manage their upper airspace, settling in the Dutch city of Maastricht; the European Parliament at the time expressed concern about the lack of clear intergovernmental agreements to ensure common air traffic control services across the continent. In 1979, Eurocontrol signed a working cooperation agreement with the European Commission, attempting to create a synergy of Eurocontrol’s technical expertise and EU’s regulatory authorities.
Several initiatives originating in this period become a lasting element of the organisation, such as the Eurocontrol forecasting service, which became STATFOR, as well as the Aeronautical Information Service. By 1986, the pressures on the European ATC network was so big that a new, wider mandate was being considered for Eurocontrol, with much of the initiative coming from ECAC’s Ministers of Transport. Subsequently, ECAC urged all of its member states to join Eurocontrol. A revised Eurocontrol Convention was signed in 1997, renewing the organisation’s optimism for greater political support, surpassing the original vision of the 1960 Convention. In June 1998, the European Space Agency and the European Commission signed an agreement formalising cooperation in the realm of satellite navigation systems and services. In 1999 the European Commission presented its plan for a Single European Sky to the European Parliament, followed by two High Level Groups; the HLG reports on SES led to the establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency and reinforced the European Commission’s role as the sole European aviation safety regulator, while acknowledging Eurocontrol’s technical expertise in the implementation of said regulations.
The early 2000s were marred by several fatal accidents in Europe, such as the 2001 Linate Airport disaster and the 2002 Überlingen mid-air collision, both of which were related to air traffic navigation shortcomings. The pressure was further compounded by the September 11 attacks, increasing the need for a rapid Europe-wide regulatory and coordinating body. By May 2003, EUROCONTROL and NATO had signed a memorandum of cooperation, followed by a similar memorandum with the European Commission in December 2003. In February 2004, Eurocontrol started work on first mandates from the European Commission and in April 2004, it adopted the Single European Sky Regulations. In March 2006, the European Commission’s Single European Sky ATM Research Program was launched by the Stakeholder Consultation Group under Eurocontrol's aegis. Eurocontrol provides a set of different services: Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre Network Manager Operations Centre – coordinates flight plans and actual traffic. EAD – centralised access to AIS information.
Central Route Charges Office – collects en-route charges on behalf of Air Navigation Service providers. Eurocontrol Experimental Centre – ATM research, etc. Institute of Air Navigation Services – training and e-learning. Eurocontrol Safety Regulatory Requirement – basis requirements for certification and designation according to EC regulation 2096/2005. Eurocontrol's Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre, ICAO designator EDYY, located at Maastricht Aachen Airport, provides air traffic control for traffic above 24,500 ft over Belgium, the Netherlands, north-west Germany. In 2017 it became the first multinational, cross-border civil-military air navigation service provider since it integrated the military air traffic control of the German and Dutch upper airspace, it is the third busiest upper area Area Control Centre in Europe after the London Area Control Centre and Karlsruhe ACC in terms of traffic numbers, but the first in terms of flight hours and distance. MUAC has put in operation innovative technology and productivity enhancements: a new generation Flight Data Processing System, Integrated Flow Management Position, the Short Term Conflict Alert, Contro
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion