Provinces of Greece
The provinces of Greece were sub-divisions of some the country's prefectures. From 1887, the provinces were abolished as actual administrative units, but were retained for some state services finance services and education, as well as for electoral purposes. Before the Second World War, there were 139 provinces, after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147. According to the Article 7 of the Code of Prefectural Self-Government, the provinces constituted a "particular administrative district" within the wider "administrative district" of the prefectures; the provinces were abolished after the 2006 local elections, in line with Law 2539/1997, as part of the wide-ranging administrative reform known as the "Kapodistrias Project", replaced by enlarged municipalities. Provincial administration consisted of two parts: a collective Provincial Council and an eparch. Members of the Provincial Council were the prefectural councillors of the respective province; the eparch or sub-prefect was the prefectural councillor who received the most votes in the prefectural elections.
This is a list of the former provinces of Greece and their capitals, sorted by prefecture, as they stood in 1991: Achaea Aigialeia Province - Aigio Kalavryta Province - Kalavryta Patras Province - Patras Aetolia-Acarnania Missolonghi Province - Missolonghi Nafpaktia Province - Nafpaktos Trichonida Province - Agrinio Valtos Province - Amfilochia Vonitsa-Xiromero Province - Vonitsa Arcadia Gortynia Province - Dimitsana Kynouria Province - Leonidio Mantineia Province - Tripoli Megalopoli Province - Megalopoli Argolis Argos Province - Argos Ermionida Province - Kranidi Nafplia Province - Nafplio Arta Prefecture: no provinces Athens Prefecture: no provinces Boeotia Thebes Province - Thebes Livadeia Province - Livadeia Chalkidiki Arnaia Province - Arnaia Chalkidiki Province - Polygyros Chania Prefecture Apokoronas Province - Vamos Kissamos Province - Kissamos Kydonia Province - Chania Selino Province - Kandanos Sfakia Province - Chora Sfakion Chios Prefecture: no provinces Corfu Prefecture Corfu Province - Corfu Paxoi Province - Gaios Corinthia: no provinces Cyclades Prefecture Andros Province - Andros Kea Province - Ioulis Milos Province - Milos Naxos Province - Naxos Syros Province - Ermoupoli Paros Province - Paros Thira Province - Santorini Tinos Province - Tinos Dodecanese Prefecture Kalymnos Province - Kalymnos Karpathos Province - Karpathos Kos Province - Kos Rhodes Province - Rhodes Drama Prefecture: no provinces East Attica Attica Province Elis Prefecture Elis Province - Pyrgos Olympia Province - Andritsaina Euboea Prefecture Chalcis Province - Chalcis Istiaia Province - Istiaia Karystia Province - Karystos Evros Prefecture Alexandroupoli Province - Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Province - Didymoteicho Orestiada Province - Orestiada Samothrace Province - Samothrace Soufli Province - Soufli Evrytania: no provinces Florina Prefecture: no provinces Heraklion Prefecture Kainourgio Province - Moires Malevizi Province - Agios Myronas Monofatsi Province - Pyrgos Pediada Province - Kastelli Pyrgiotissa Province - Voroi Temenos Province - Heraklion Viannos Province - Pefkos Grevena Prefecture: no provinces Imathia Imathia Province - Veroia Naousa Province - Naousa Ioannina Prefecture Dodoni Province - Ioannina Konitsa Province - Konitsa Metsovo Province - Metsovo Pogoni Province - Delvinaki Kastoria Prefecture: no provinces Kavala Prefecture Kavala Province - Kavala Nestos Province - Chrysoupoli Pangaio Province - Eleftheroupoli Thasos Province - Thasos Kefallinia Prefecture Ithaca Province - Ithaca Kranaia Province - Argostoli Pali Province - Lixouri Sami Province - Sami Karditsa Prefecture: no provinces Kilkis Prefecture Kilkis Province - Kilkis Paionia Province - Goumenissa Kozani Prefecture Kozani Province - Kozani Eordaia Province - Ptolemaida Voio Province - Siatista Laconia Epidavros Limira - Molaoi Gytheio Province - Gytheio Lacedaemon Province - Sparti Oitylo Province - Areopoli Larissa Prefecture Agia Province - Agia Elassona Province - Elassona Farsala Province - Farsala Larissa Province - Larissa Tyrnavos Province - Tyrnavos Lasithi Ierapetra Province - Ierapetra Lasithi Province - Tzermiado Mirampello Province - Neapoli Siteia Province - Siteia Lefkada Prefecture: no provinces Lesbos Prefecture Lemnos Province - Myrina Mithymna Province - Mithymna Mytilene Province - Mytilene Plomari Province - Plomari Magnesia Prefecture Almyros Province - Almyros Skopelos Province - Skopelos Volos Province - Volos Messenia Kalamai Province - Kalamata Messini Province - Messini Pylia Province - Pylos Trifylia Province - Kyparissia Pella Prefecture Almopia Province - Aridaia Edessa Province - Edessa Giannitsa Province - Giannitsa Phocis Dorida Province - Lidoriki Parnassida Province - Amfissa Phthiotis Domokos Province - Domokos Locris Province - Atalanti Phthiotis Province - Lamia Pieria Prefecture: no provinces Piraeus Prefecture Aegina Province - Aegina Cythera Province - Cythera Hydra Province - Hydra Piraeus Province Troizinia Province - Poros Preveza Prefecture: no provinces Rethymno Prefecture Agios Vasileios Province - Spili Amari Province - Amari Mylopotamos Province - Perama Rethymno Province - Rethymno Rhodope Prefecture Komotini Province - Komotini Sapes Province - Sapes Samos Prefecture Ikaria Province - Agios Kirykos Samos Province - Samos Serres Prefecture Fyllida Province - Nea Zichni Serres Province - Serres Sintiki Province - Sidirokastro Visaltia Province - Nigrita Thesprotia Filiates Province - Filiates Thyamida Province - Igoumenitsa Margariti Province - Margariti Souli Province - Paramythia Thessaloniki Prefecture Thessaloniki Province - Thessaloniki Lagkadas Province - Lagkadas Trikala Prefecture Trikala Province - Trikala Ka
The Kallikratis Programme is the common name of Greek law 3852/2010, a major administrative reform in Greece. It brought upon the second major reform of the country's administrative divisions after the 1997 Kapodistrias reform. Named after ancient Greek architect Callicrates, the programme was presented by the socialist Papandreou cabinet and was adopted by the Hellenic Parliament in May 2010; the programme's implementation started with the November 2010 local elections and was completed by January 2011. 1994 reforms under the socialist Papandreou government turned the dysfunctional prefectures into Prefectural Self-Government entities with prefects and prefectural councils both being popularly elected. In return, the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, created in 1987, but in the absence of a working budget remained unable to fulfill their limited responsibilities, now assumed the prefectures' competences in regard to tax collection, European structural funding and treasury. Part of the subsequent Kapodistrias plan, Law 2539/1997 reduced the number of municipalities and communities from 5.823 to 1.033, after the increasing urbanization had left small communities dying out.
With a median of just 4,661.5 inhabitants, a large number of small municipalities and rural communities however remained independent. This included 88 communities with a population of less than 1000, down to Gramos with just 28 inhabitants. With the territorial reforms of the 1990s, Greece has been cited as the first Southern European country to follow a coercive top-down approach for territorial reforms, an approach rather typical for North European countries. Though strengthened by the 1990s reforms, the prefectural second-tier level however did not meet expectations. Subverted by an uncoordinated but convergent anti-reform opposition, the reformed prefectures lost a number of important competences following court decisions; the numerous controversies undermined public trust in the prefectural level. After the electoral victory of the liberal-conservative New Democracy party in 2004, the Karamanlis government had been reserved to further administrative reforms, as it had opposed the reforms of the 1990s.
In a late implementation of a provision, part of the Kapodistrias plan, the 147 provinces, as subunits of the 51 prefectures, were abolished in 2007. It was only after the 2007 reelection, that the Karamanlis government decided that further reforms were necessary, to bring the territorial structure in line with the European Union's Lisbon Strategy and the requirements of the Fourth Programming Period; the thirteen regions were planned to be combined to just six major "programmatic supra-regions" that were expected to more compete for European structural funding. Municipalities should be amalgamated from 1034 down to 400 and prefectural governments reduced from 50 down to 16, in order to overcome fragmentation, to facilitate fiscal control by the state and to create economies of scale. Putting administrative efficiency first, the top-down reform plan was criticized as subordinating questions of legitimacy and participation. Rather than being opposed by the parliamentary opposition, the plan faced obstruction by the more conservative camp within the governing party and failed.
Following the landslide victory of the socialist PASOK in the early 2009 legislative election, a new attempt on further administrative reforms was started. The Kallikratis plan was presented to the public in January 2010, inmidst the beginnings of the Greek financial crisis. While in terms of figures rather similar to the failed New Democracy plans, it wasn't confined to reducing the sheer number of administrative entities and their state accountability. In a country, regarded as the most centralist country of the European Union, with many smaller municipalities rural communities being "extremely understaffed and deprived of any possibility to fulfil their tasks," an emphasis was put on strengthening the remaining authorities in terms of autonomy of self-governance, public transparency and overall accessibility to citizens. At the same time, the programme aimed at reducing local government employees by 50%, from around 50.000 to 25.000 across the country. The law was adopted in May 2010 and was implemented following the November 2010 local elections comprising the constituting regional elections, which replaced provincial elections as they were held before in 2002 and 2006.
The Kallikratis Programme further reduced the number of self-governing local administrative units by compulsory merging the 1033 municipalities and communities which the Kapodistrias reform had amalgamated to just 325 municipalities. Amalgamation of communities led to a number of pre-2007 provinces being reinstated as municipalities. Altogether, Greek municipalities now reached a mean size of 31,000 inhabitants, a level comparable to many other countries in the European Union. To improve public transparency, local authorities are now obliged to make public all their decisions via the internet. Furthermore, a Local Ombudsman was established to support both citizens and enterprises in coping with local administrations. New Financial Committees and Executive Committees were established to help professionalize financial accounting, to monitor the local administrations. In communities with more than 10,000 residents, a Committee for the quality of life and a Consultation Committee is established.
Aimed at improving local allocation of municipal resources, the Consultation Committee consists of representatives of local stakeholders such as businesses, trade unions, chambers and NGOs. At the same time the programme abolished t
Aidipsos is a village and a former municipality in Euboea, Greece. The municipality Aidipsos was founded in 1997 by the merger of the municipality Loutra Aidipsou with the communities Agios and Gialtra. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Istiaia-Aidipsos, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 115.461 km2. 80 of Greece's 752 hot springs are located in Aidipsos. The spas date back more than 20,000 years. In 2011 the population was 6,141. Many famous personalities have visited the town so far, such as Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Sir Winston Churchill, Eleutherios Venizelos, Theodoros Deligiannis, Georgios Theotokis, Ioannis Kondilakis, Archbishop of Athens Theocletus I, Aristotelis Onassis, Maria Callas, Kostis Palamas, Marika Kotopouli and others. Within the modern borders of the municipal units are the remains of ancient town of Aedepsus
Amfikleia–Elateia is a municipality in the Phthiotis regional unit, Central Greece, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Kato Tithorea; the municipality has an area of 533.320 km2. The municipality Amfikleia–Elateia was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Amfikleia Elateia Tithorea
Domokos, the ancient Thaumacus or Thaumace, is a town and a municipality in Phthiotis, Greece. The town Domokos is the seat of the municipality of Domokos and of the former Domokos Province; the town is built on a mountain slope overlooking the plain of Thessaly, 38km from the city of Lamia. The area of Domokos became part of Greece in 1881 when the Ottoman Empire ceded Thessaly and a few adjacent areas to Greece; until 1899, it was part of the Larissa Prefecture. In 1897, during the Greco-Turkish War, about 2,000 Italian volunteers under the command of Giuseppe Garibaldi's son, Ricciotti Garibaldi, helped the Greeks in the Battle of Domokos. Among them there was a member of the Italian Parliament, Antonio Fratti, who died in the fighting; the Turkish Army was victorious over the Greek Army. The town is served by Domokos railway station on the Piraeus–Platy Mainline, located 5 km from the city and serves the surrounding area; the municipality Domokos was formed during the 2011 local government reforms by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Domokos Thessaliotida XyniadaThe municipality has an area of 707.953 km2, the municipal unit 346.129 km2.
The province of Domokos was one of the provinces of Phthiotis. It had the same territory as the present municipality, it was abolished in 2006. Municipality of Domokos
Phthiotis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece; the capital is the city of Lamia. It is bordered by the Malian Gulf to the east, Boeotia in the south, Phocis in the south, Aetolia-Acarnania in the southwest, Evrytania in the west, Karditsa regional unit in the north, Larissa regional unit in the north, Magnesia in the northeast; the name dates back to ancient times. It is best known as the home of Achilles. Phthiotis covers the northern and southern shorelines of the Malian Gulf, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, it stretches inland towards the west along the valley of the river Spercheios. In the south it covers the upper part of the Cephissus valley. There are several mountain ranges in Phthiotis, including the Othrys in the northeast, the Tymfristos in the west, the Vardousia in the southwest, Oeta in the south and the Kallidromo in the southeast. "Phthiotis" means "the region of Phthia", the southernmost region of ancient Thessaly around Pharsalus and home of Achilles.
In Classical times, it referred to the region of Achaea Phthiotis, which bordered on Thessalian Phthiotis to the south and east. Achaea Phthiotis covered the northern part of the present regional unit Phthiotis and the southern part of present Magnesia; the southeastern part of present Phthiotis was covered by the ancient region Locris, the southwestern part was ancient Malis and Ainis. E65, S, Cen. NE Greek National Road 1/E75, SE, E, Cen. NE Greek National Road 3, SE, S, Cen. N Greek National Road 27, S, Cen. Greek National Road 38, W, Cen; the regional unit Phthiotis is subdivided into 7 municipalities. These are: Amfikleia-Elateia Domokos Lamia Lokroi Makrakomi Molos-Agios Konstantinos Stylida The prefecture Phthiotis and Phocis was created in 1845. In 1947 this prefecture was split into the northern part Phthiotis; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Phthiotis was created out of the former prefecture Phthiotis. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Domokos - Domokos Province of Phthiotis - Lamia Province of Locris - AtalantiNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Thanos Livaditis Dimitrios Holevas Lamia F. C. Ionikos Lamias BC List of traditional Greek place names List of settlements in Phthiotis Media related to Phthiotis at Wikimedia Commons
Evrytania is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece, its capital is Karpenisi. Evrytania is entirely formed of mountains, including the Tymfristos and the Panaitoliko in the south, its rivers include the Acheloos in the west, Agrafiotis to the east, Megdova in the east flowing down to the Ionian Sea. It is one of the least populated regional units in Greece; the area borders Aetolia-Acarnania to the west and south, Karditsa regional unit to the north, Phthiotis to the east. Evrytania features a famous skiing resort located near Karpenisi on the Tymfristos mountain, its climate is a mixture of mountainous in the western portion. Much of the area is warm during the summer months; the Greek National Road 38 from Agrinio to Lamia passes through the southern part of Evrytania and the town Karpenisi. On the border with Phthiotis, the GR-38 passes through the 1.4 km-long Tymfristos Tunnel since 2004. Evrytania dates to ancient times, the area was first settled around 6000 to 5000 BC.
In classical antiquity, the Greek Eurytanes resided in the region. In the 2nd century BC it fell into Roman hands, became part of the Roman province of Macedonia. At the division of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century it joined the eastern part, which became the Byzantine Empire. In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 it became part of the Despotate of Epirus, conquered by the Ottoman Empire around 1450. Unlike other parts of Greece at the time, while the eastern and the southern parts were definitively ruled by the Ottomans, the area around Agrafa managed to sustain complete autonomy due to the difficulties experienced in conquest of the region. After 400 years, Evrytania became part of Greece following the Greek War of Independence; as in all of Greece, the area was affected by World War II, the Greek Civil War. Peace returned to Evrytania at the end of the 1940s and its economy expanded, though there was significant migration from the villages to cities; the regional unit Evrytania is subdivided into 2 municipalities.
These are: Agrafa Karpenisi Evrytania was created as a prefecture in 1947 out of the Aetolia-Acarnania prefecture. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Evrytania was created out of the former prefecture Evrytania; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Pavlos Bakoyannis Markos Giolias, artist Demosthenis Goulas, artist Stefanos Granitsas, artist Georgios Kafantaris, politician Christos Kagaras, painter Spyros Paliouras, a Greek artist Zacharias Papantoniou, artist Michael Stafylas, artist Lefteris Theodorou, painter Spyridon Papadimitriou, General Greek Army and the History of Agios Nikolaos Evrytanes Istories List of settlements in Evrytania Evrytania Prefecture of Evrytania Official Website: www.evrytania.gr Evrytania