Srivijaya, was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the Indonesian archipelago; the rise of the Srivijayan Empire is seen to run parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods based economy; the earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang Chinese monk, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for six months; the earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, dated 16 June 682. Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia.
It was involved in close interactions rivalries, with the neighbouring Java and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East; the kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires. After Srivijaya fell, it was forgotten, it was not until 1918 that French historian George Cœdès, of École française d'Extrême-Orient, formally postulated its existence. Srivijaya is a Sanskrit-derived name: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, it was known in many names, including Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese: ᮞᮢᮤᮝᮤᮏᮚ, Thai: ศรีวิชัย RTGS: Siwichai, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ Srey Vichey, Burmese: သီရိပစ္စယာ Thiripyisaya, Chinese: 三佛齊 Sanfoqi. In Sanskrit, śrī means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya means "victorious" or "excellence".
Thus the combined word Srivijaya means "shining victory", "splendid triumph", "prosperous victor", "radiance of excellence" or "glorious". Historians of early 20th-century that studied the inscriptions of Sumatra and the neighboring islands, thought that the term "Srivijaya" refer to a person's name — a king to be exact; the Sundanese manuscript of Carita Parahyangan composed around the late 16th-century in West Java, mentioned vaguely about a princely hero that rose to be a king named Sanjaya that after secured his rule in Java — involved in battle with the Malayu and Keling, against their king named "Sang Sri Wijaya". The term Malayu is Javanese-Sundanese term to refer Malay people of Sumatra, while Keling — derived from historical Kalinga kingdom of Southern India, refer to people of Indian descent that inhabit the archipelago. Fascinatingly, the name Srivijaya still being found in this local manuscript, although was mistakenly refer to a king. Subsequently, after studying both local stone inscriptions and Chinese historical accounts, historians concluded that the term "Srivijaya" refer to a polity or a kingdom.
Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains. There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya in Indonesia and Malaysia. Contemporary Indonesians those from the area of Palembang, had not heard of Srivijaya until the 1920s when the French scholar, George Cœdès, published his discoveries and interpretations in the Dutch- and Indonesian-language newspapers. Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi" read as "Sribhoja", the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire; the Srivijayan historiography was acquired and established from two main sources: the Chinese historical accounts and the Southeast Asian stone inscriptions that have been discovered and deciphered in the region. The Buddhist pilgrim Yijing's account is important on describing Srivijaya, when he visited the kingdom in 671 for six months; the 7th-century siddhayatra inscriptions discovered in Palembang and Bangka island are vital primary historical sources. Regional accounts that some might be tales and legends, such as the Legend of the Maharaja of Javaka and the Khmer King provides a glimpse of the kingdom.
Besides, some Indian and Arabic accounts describes vaguely about the riches and fabulous fortune of the king of Zabag. The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions. Srivijaya had become a symbol of early Sumatran importance as a great empire to balance Java's Majapahit in the east. In the 20th century, both empires were referred to by nationalistic intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within an Indonesian state that had existed prior to the colonial state of the Dutch East Indies. Srivijaya, by extension Sumatra, had been known by different names to different peoples; the Chinese called it Sanfoqi or Che-li-fo-che, there was an older kingdom of Kantoli, which could be considered the predecessor of Srivijaya. Sanskrit and Pali texts referred to it as Javadeh, respectively; the Arabs called the Khmers called it Melayu.
While the Javanese called them Suvarnabhumi, Suvarnadvipa or Malayu. This is another reason. While some of these names are reminiscent of the name o
Sañjaya was an ancient Javanese dynasty that ruled the Mataram kingdom in Java during first millennium CE. The dynasty was an active promoter of Hinduism in ancient Java. According to Canggal inscription, this dynasty appears to have been founded in 732 by Sañjaya; the Canggal inscription was discovered in Southwest from the town of Magelang. This inscription was written in south Indian Pallava letters and in Sanskrit, tells about the erection of a linga on the hill in Kunjarakunja area; this area is located at a noble island called Yawadwipa, blessed with abundance of rice and gold. This inscription tells that Yawadwipa was reigned by King Sanna, whose long period of reign was marked with wisdom and virtue. After king Sanna died, the kingdom fell into disunity. Confusion was widespread due to a lost of patron. Amidst this, Sanjaya ascended to the throne, he was the son of Sannaha. Sanjaya was a king who mastered holy scriptures, martial arts, military prowess, he conquered neighboring areas around his kingdom and his wise reign blessed his land with peace and prosperity for all his subjects.
King Sanna and Sanjaya was known in Carita Parahyangan, a book from period which tells the history of Pasundan. This book mentioned that Sanna was defeated by Purbasora, king of Galuh he retreated to mount Merapi. Sanna's successor, reclaimed Sanna's kingdom and ruled West Java, Central Java, East Java, Bali, he was involved in battle with Malayu and Keling. The main theme of Carita Parahyangan corresponds to Canggal inscription; this story suggested links of the dynasty. There are some theories regarding the Sañjaya-Sailendra relationship; some scholars suggested that there is no such things as Sanjaya dynasty, since there was only one dynasty called Sailendra that ruled central Java. This theory was proposed by Poerbatjaraka and suggested that there was only one kingdom and one dynasty, he holds that Sanjaya and all of his offsprings were belongs to Sailendra family that were Shivaist. Another suggests that the Sañjaya dynasty was forced to the north of Java by the Sailendra dynasty, which emerged around 778.
The evidence for this event is based on the Kalasan inscription. During this period, the Sañjaya dynasty existed next to Sailendra dynasty in Central Java, much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation; the association of Sailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion of Raja Sankhara to buddhism. The Sailendran kings, successors of Panangkaran become Mahayana Buddhist too and gave Buddhism royal patronage in Java until the end of Samaratungga reign; this theory was based on Raja Sankhara Inscription, Sojomerto inscription and Carita Parahyangan manuscript. Shivaist Hindu gain royal patronage again since the reign of Pikatan, well until the end of the Medang kingdom. Another evidence pointed that Sailendra family was using old Malay language in some of their inscriptions, which suggested Sailendra dynasty's foreign origin in Sumatra and their connections with Srivijaya; this theory holds that the Sailendras, with their strong connections to Srivijaya, managed to gain control of Central Java and imposing overlordship on the Rakais including the Sañjaya, thus incorporated the kings of Mataram Sañjaya dynasty in their bureaucracy.
The center of the dynasty court seems to be located in South Kedu. Kingdoms of Java maintain a close relationship with Champa kingdom in mainland Southeast Asia since at least the reign of Sañjaya dynasty. Like the Javanese, the Cham are indianized Austronesian people. An example of relationship can be seen in architectural features in Cham temples, that have many similarities with architectural styles of temples in central Java, built during the reign of Sañjaya dynasty. Rakai Pikatan, the crown prince of the Sañjaya Dynasty, wedded Pramodhawardhani, a daughter of Samaratungga, king of Sailendra. From that time onwards, the influence of Sañjaya, a Hindu adherer, began to emerge in Mataram, replacing the Buddhist Sailendra. Rakai Pikatan toppled king Balaputra, son of Samaratungga the brother of Pramodhawardhani; as a result, in 850, the Sañjaya Dynasty was the sole ruler in Mataram. This ended the Sailendra presence in Central Java and Balaputra retreated to Srivijaya in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.
The information about Sañjaya Dynasty is found in the Balitung inscription dated 907. According to the Balitung inscription – when a ruler died, they transformed into a divine form. From this inscriptions, the scholars estimated the possible sequence of the ruling kings of Sañjaya dynasty: Sanjaya Panangkaran Panungalan Samaragrawira Rakai Garung Rakai Pikatan Rakai Kayuwangi known as Lokapala Balitung It was during the reign of the Sañjaya dynasty, the classic Javanese literature blossomed; the translations and adaptation of classic Hindu literatures into Old Javanese was conducted, such as the Kakawin Ramayana. Around 850s, Pikatan initiated the construction of the Prambanan temple in Central Java completed and expanded extensively by king Balitung. Prambanan temple complex is one of the largest Hindu temple in Southeast-Asia and its greatness rivalled Borobudur, which happened to be the biggest Buddhist temple in the world; the successions of Sañjaya kings after Balitung are: Daksa Tulodong Wawa (
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century. Mataram reached its peak of power during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, began to decline after his death in 1645. By the mid-18th century, Mataram lost both territory to the Dutch East India Company, it had become a vassal state of the company by 1749. The name Mataram itself was never the official name of any polity, as the Javanese refer to their realm as Bhumi Jawa or Tanah Jawi. Mataram refers to the historical areas of plains south of Mount Merapi around present-day Muntilan, Yogyakarta, to Prambanan. More it refers to Kota Gede area, the capital of the Sultanate in the outskirt of southern Yogyakarta. A common practise in Java is to refer to their kingdom by metonymy by the location of its capital. There were two kingdoms that have existed in this region and both are called Mataram.
The kingdom however, is called as Mataram Islam or "Mataram Sultanate" to distinguish it from the Hindu-Buddhist 9th-century Kingdom of Mataram. The key sources to uncover the history of Mataram Sultanate are local Javanese historical accounts called Babad, Dutch accounts of Dutch East India Company; the problem with traditional Javanese Babad, are undated and incorporates non-historic and fantastic elements. Most of this Javanese historical account are used as the tool to legitimise the authority of the ruler; the example of a mythical element is the sacred bonds between Panembahan Senapati with mythical Ratu Kidul, the ruler of Java's Southern Seas as his spiritual consort, as claimed in the Babad Tanah Jawi. The dates for events before the Siege of Batavia in the reign of Sultan Agung, third king of Mataram, are difficult to determine. There are several annals used by H. J. de Graaf in his histories such as Babad Sangkala and Babad Momana which contain list of events and dates in Javanese calendar, but besides de Graaf's questionable practice of adding 78 to Javanese years to obtain corresponding Christian years, the agreement between Javanese sources themselves is less than perfect.
The Javanese sources are selective in putting dates to events. Events such as the rise and fall of kratons, the death of important princes, great wars, etc. are the only kind of events deemed important enough to be dated, by using a poetic formula chronogram called candrasengkala, which can be expressed verbally and pictorially, the rest being described in narrative succession without dates. Again these candrasengkalas do not always match the annals. Therefore, it is suggested to follow the following rule of thumb: the dates from de Graaf and Ricklefs for the period before the Siege of Batavia can be accepted as best guess. For the period after the Siege of Batavia until the first War of Succession, the years of events in which foreigners participated can be accepted as certain, but –again- are not always consistent with Javanese version of the story; the events in the period 1704–1755 can be dated with greater certainty since in this period the Dutch interfered in Mataram affairs but events behind kraton walls are in general difficult to be dated precisely.
Details in Javanese sources about the early years of the kingdom are limited, the line is unclear between the historical record and myths since there are indications of the efforts of rulers Agung, to establish a long line of legitimate descent by inventing predecessors. However, by the time more reliable records begin in the mid-17th century the kingdom was so large and powerful that most historians concur it had been established for several generations. According to Javanese records, the kings of Mataram were descended from one Ki Ageng Sela. In the 1570s, one of Ki Ageng Sela's descendants, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan was awarded to rule the land of Mataram by King of Pajang, Sultan Hadiwijaya, as the reward for his service on defeating Arya Panangsang, Hadiwijaya's enemy. Pajang was located near the current site of Surakarta, Mataram was a vassal of Pajang. Pamanahan was referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram. Meanwhile, in Pajang, there were major power struggles took place after the death of Sultan Hadiwijaya in 1582.
Pamanahan's son, Sutawijaya or Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father around 1584, he began to released Mataram from Pajang's control. Under Sutawijaya, Mataram grew through military campaigns against Mataram's overlord of Pajang and Pajang's former overlord, Demak; the new Pajang Sultan, Arya Pangiri, was an unpopular ruler, Benowo rallied support to regain his throne and recruited Sutawijaya's support against Pajang. Subsequently, Pajang was attacked from two directions, by Prince Benowo from Jipang and by Sutawijaya from Mataram, was defeated. After the defeat of Pajang, Prince Benowo did not dare to stand against Senapati and agreed to bowed down to him and submitted Pajang under Mataram's rule; this event in 1586, marked the end of Pajang kingdom and the rise of its former vassal, the Mataram Sultanate. Senapati assumed royal status by wearing the title "Panembahan", he revealed the expansive nature of his reign and began the fateful campaign to the East along the course of Solo River that would bring endless conflicts.
Sultanate of Serdang
The state of Serdang was an ancient Malay-Indonesian monarchy, neighbouring the Sultanate of Deli, to which it lost some territory. In 1943 the Japanese beheaded Tengku Rachmadu'llah, a member of the royal family of the Sultanate of Serdang. 1728 - 1782 Tuanku Umar Johan Pahlawan Alam Shah bin Tuanku Panglima Paderap, Raja of Serdang 1782 - 1822 Tuanku Ainan Johan Pahlawan Alam Shah ibni al-Marhum Tuanku Umar, Raja of Serdang. 1822 - 1851 Paduka Sri Sultan Thaf Sinar Bashar Shah ibni al-Marhum Tuanku Ainan Johan Pahlawan Alam Shah and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Serdang 1851 - 1879 Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Bashar ud-din Saif ul-'Alam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Thaf Sinar Bashar *Shah and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Serdang 20 December 1879 - 13 October 1946 Paduka Sri Sultan Tuanku Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Bashar un-din Al-Marhum Perbaungan and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Serdang 1946 - 1960 Tuanku Rajih Anwar ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah, Tengku Putra Mahkota, Head of the Royal House of Serdang 1960- 2001 Paduka Sri Sultan Tuanku Abu Nawar Sharifu'llah Alam Shah al-Haj ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah and Head of the Royal House of Serdang 2001 Paduka Sri Sultan Tuanku Lukman Sinar Bashar Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah and Head of the Royal House of Serdang
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam
The Malacca Sultanate was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara known as Iskandar Shah. At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Islands and a significant portion of the northern coast of Sumatra in present-day Indonesia; as a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, encouraged the development of the Malay language and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural and intellectual exchange, it is through these intellectual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity, the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu.
In the year of 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah, to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties and Perak. The political and cultural legacy of the sultanate remains to this day. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilisation, it established systems of trade and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. The fall of Malacca benefited Brunei when its ports became a new entrepôt as the kingdom emerged as a new Muslim empire in the Malay Archipelago, attracting many Muslim traders who fled from the Portuguese occupation after the ruler of Brunei's conversion to Islam; the series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious empire of Srivijaya.
By the end of the 13th century, the fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, Kertanegara of Singhasari. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces sacked Jambi and Palembang and brought Malayu Dharmasraya—the successor state of Srivijaya, to its knees. In 1293 Singhasari was succeeded by Majapahit ruling the region. According to the Malay Annals, a prince from Palembang named Seri Teri Buana who claimed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great, stayed in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299; the Orang Laut, famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya made him king of a new kingdom called Singapura. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a centre of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. In an effort to revive the fortune of Malayu in Sumatra, in the 1370s, a Malay ruler of Palembang sent an envoy to the court of the first emperor of the newly established Ming dynasty.
He invited China to resume the tributary system. Learning this diplomatic maneuver King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit sent an envoy to Nanking, convinced the emperor that Malayu was their vassal, was not an independent country. Subsequently, in 1377—a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang, which caused the complete destruction of Srivijaya and caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. By the second half of 14th century, Kingdom of Singapura grew wealthy. However, its success alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south; as a result, the kingdom's fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Parameswara fled to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river. The village belonged to the sea-sakai or orang laut which were left alone by Majapahit forces that not only sacked Singapura but Langkasuka and Pasai; as a result, the village became a safe haven and in the 1370s it began to receive a growing number of refugees running away from Mahapahit's attacks. By the time Parameswara reached Malacca in the early 1400s, the place had a cosmopolitan feel with Buddhists from the north, Hindus from Palembang and Muslims from Pasai. Legend has it that Parameswara saw a mouse deer outwit his hunting dog into the water when he was resting under the Malacca tree, he thought this bode well, remarking,'this place is excellent the mouse deer is formidable. Tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms; the name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica.
Another account of the naming origin of Malacca elaborates that
Riau-Lingga Sultanate known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention. The sultanate came into existence as a result of the partition of the Johor-Riau Sultanate that separated Peninsular Johor, together with the island of Singapore, from the Riau archipelago; this partition followed the succession dispute following the death of Mahmud III of Johor, when Abdul Rahman was crowned as the first Sultan of Riau-Lingga. The maritime kingdom was recognised by both the British and the Dutch following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824; the Riau Archipelago became a part of the Malaccan Empire after the expansion by Tun Perak in the 15th century, following the decline of the Srivijaya Empire. After the fall of Malacca at the hands of the Portuguese, the axis of regional power was inherited by the Johor Sultanate. During the golden age of Johor, the kingdom stretched across half of the Malay Peninsular, eastern Sumatra, Bangka and the Riau Islands.
According to the 1849 Johor Annals, on 27 September 1673 the Laksamana of Johor, Tun Abdul Jamil, was ordered by Abdul Jalil Shah III to found a settlement in Sungai Carang, Ulu Riau, on Bintan Island. The settlement in Sungai Carang was known as Riau Lama. A fortress to protect the Johor Empire, Riau Lama prospered and became an prominent entrepôt for regional trade in the Strait of Malacca. Ulu Riau became the capital of Johor during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim when he relocated the capital from Batu Sawar, Kota Tinggi in Peninsular Johor after the old capital was sacked by Jambi forces on 4 October 1722. Riau Lama became the capital of the empire for 65 years, from 1722 to 1787; the importance of Lingga began during the reign of Mahmud Shah III. In 1788, he relocated the capital from Ulu Riau, Bintan to Daik, Lingga; the Sultan did this. He requested aid from his distant relative, Raja Ismail, a local ruler of Tempasuk to organise a successful campaign against the Dutch. Out of fear of retaliation by the Dutch, he organised a mass transfer of the populace: the Sultan left for Lingga with 2000 people, the Bendahara went to Pahang with 1000 people while others headed to Terengganu.
When the Dutch arrived in Riau, there were only a few Chinese planters left, who persuaded the Dutch not to chase the Orang-orang Melayu. The Sultan developed Lingga and welcomed new settlers to the island. Dato Kaya Megat was appointed as the new Bendahara of Lingga. New dwellings were constructed, roads were built and buildings were improved, he found unprecedented new wealth. Both the British and Dutch restored his claim on the Riau island, he began to revive maritime trade discreetly with the British as a major source of commodities valuable tin and spices. In 1812, the Johor-Riau Sultanate experienced a succession crisis; the death of the Mahmud Shah III in Lingga left no heir apparent. Royal custom required; however at the time Mahmud Shah III died, the eldest prince, Tengku Hussein, was in Pahang to celebrate his marriage to the daughter of the Bendahara. The other candidate was Tengku Abdul Rahman. To complicate matters, neither of the candidates was of full royal blood; the mother of Tengku Hussein, Cik Mariam, owed her origin to a Balinese slave lady and a Bugis commoner.
Tengku Abdul Rahman had a lowborn mother, Cik Halimah. The only unquestionably royal wife and consort of Mahmud Shah was Engku Puteri Hamidah, whose only child had died an hour after birth. In the following chaos, Engku Puteri was expected to install Tengku Hussein as the next sultan, because he had been preferred by the late Mahmud Shah. Based on the royal adat, the consent of Engku Puteri was crucial as she was the holder of the Cogan of Johor-Riau, the installation of a new sultan was only valid if it took place with the regalia; the regalia was fundamental to the installation of the sultan. Nonetheless, Yang Dipertuan Muda Jaafar supported the reluctant Tengku Abdul Rahman, adhering to the rules of royal protocol, as he had been present at the late Sultan's deathbed. Unwilling and furious, the outspoken Queen is reported to have said, "Who elected Abdul Rahman as sovereign of Johor? Was it my brother Raja Jaafar or by what law of succession has it happened? It is owing to this act of injustice that the ancient empire of Johor is fast falling to decay".
Rivalry between the British and the Dutch now came into play. The British had earlier gained Malacca from the Dutch under the Treaty of The Hague in 1795 and saw an opportunity to increase their regional influence, they crowned Tengku Hussein in Singapore, he took the title Hussein Shah of Johor. The British were involved in the Johor-Riau administration between 1812–1818, their intervention further strengthened their dominance in the Strait of Malacca; the British recognised Johor-Riau as a sovereign state and offered to pay Engku Puteri 50,000 Ringgits for the royal regalia, which she refused. Seeing the diplomatic advantage gained in the region by the British, the Dutch responded by crowning Tengku Abdul Rahman as sultan instead, they obtained, at the Congress of Vienna, a withdrawal of British recognition of Johor-Riau sovereignty. To further curtail the British domination over the re