Molasses or black treacle is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, age of plant. Sugarcane molasses is used for sweetening and flavoring foods in the United States and elsewhere. Molasses is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar. Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called "sorghum molasses" in the southern United States. Similar products include honey, maple syrup, corn syrup, invert syrup. Most of these alternative syrups have milder flavors; the word comes from the Portuguese melaço. Cognates include Ancient Greek μέλι, Latin mel, Spanish melaza, French miel. Cane molasses is an ingredient used in cooking, it was popular in the Americas prior to the 20th century. To make molasses, sugar cane is stripped of leaves, its juice is extracted by cutting, crushing, or mashing. The juice is boiled promoting sugar crystallization; the result of this first boiling is called first syrup, it has the highest sugar content.
First syrup is referred to in the Southern states of the United States as cane syrup, as opposed to molasses. Second molasses is created from a second boiling and sugar extraction, has a bitter taste; the third boiling of the sugar syrup yields dark, viscous"blackstrap molasses", known for its robust flavor. The majority of sucrose from the original juice has been removed; the caloric content of blackstrap molasses is due to the small remaining sugar content. Unlike refined sugars, it contains significant amounts of vitamin B6 and minerals, including calcium, magnesium and manganese. Blackstrap is a good source of potassium. Blackstrap molasses has long been sold as a dietary supplement. Blackstrap molasses is more bitter than "regular" molasses, it is sometimes used in baking or for producing ethanol and rum, as an ingredient in cattle feed, as fertilizer. The term "black-strap" or "blackstrap" is an Americanism dating from 1875 or before, its first known use is in a book by detective Allan Pinkerton in 1877.
The exaggerated health benefits sometimes claimed for blackstrap molasses were the topic of a 1951 novelty song, "Black Strap Molasses", recorded by Groucho Marx, Jimmy Durante, Jane Wyman, Danny Kaye. Molasses made from sugar beets differs from sugarcane molasses. Only the syrup left from the final crystallization stage is called molasses. Intermediate syrups are called high green and low green, these are recycled within the crystallization plant to maximize extraction. Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, but contains significant amounts of glucose and fructose. Beet molasses is limited in biotin for cell growth; the nonsugar content includes many salts, such as calcium, potassium and chloride. It contains the trisaccharide raffinose; these are a result of concentration from the original plant material or chemicals in processing, make it unpalatable to humans. So, it is used as an additive to animal feed or as a fermentation feedstock. Extracting additional sugar from beet molasses is possible through molasses desugarization.
This exploits industrial-scale chromatography to separate sucrose from non-sugar components. The technique is economically viable in trade-protected areas, where the price of sugar is supported above market price; as such, it is practiced in the U. S. and parts of Europe. Sugar beet molasses is consumed in Europe. Molasses is used for yeast production. Many kinds of molasses on the market come branded as "unsulphured". Many foods, including molasses, were once treated with sulfur dioxide as a preservative, helping to kill off molds and bacteria. Sulfur dioxide is used as a bleaching agent, helped to lighten the color of molasses. Most brands have moved away from using sulphured molasses, due to the stable natural shelf life of untreated molasses and the off flavor and trace toxicity of low doses of sulfur dioxide. In Middle Eastern cuisine, molasses is produced from carob, dates and mulberries. In Nepal it is called chaku used in the preparation of Newari foods such as yomari. Molasses can be used: The principal ingredient in the distillation of rum In dark rye breads or other whole grain breads In some cookies and pies In gingerbread In barbecue sauces In beer styles such as stouts and porters To stabilize emulsification of home-made vinaigrette As a humectant in jerky processing A source for yeast production An additive in mu'assel, the tobacco smoked in a hookah.
The carbon source for in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons Blended with magnesium chloride and used for de-icing A stock for ethanol fermentation to produce an alternative fuel for motor vehicles As a brightener in copper electroforming solution when used in tandem with thiourea As a minor component of mortar for brickwork Mixed with gelatin glue and glycerine when casting composition ink rollers on early printing presses As a soil additive to promote microbial activity Molasses is composed of 22% water, 75% carbohydrates, no protein or fat. In a 100 gram reference amount, molasses is a rich source of vitamin B6 and several dietary minerals, including manganese, m
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds published online by the Royal Society of Chemistry. The first edition of the Merck's Index was published in 1889 by the German chemical company Emanuel Merck and was used as a sales catalog for Merck's growing list of chemicals it sold; the American subsidiary was established two years and continued to publish it. During World War I the US government seized Merck's US operations and made it a separate American "Merck" company that continued to publish the Merck Index. In 2012 the Merck Index was licensed to the Royal Society of Chemistry. An online version of The Merck Index, including historic records and new updates not in the print edition, is available through research libraries, it includes an appendix with monographs on organic named reactions. The current edition is the 15th, published in April 2013. Monographs in The Merck Index contain: a CAS registry number synonyms of the substance, such as trivial names and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry nomenclature a chemical formula molecular weight percent composition a structural formula a description of the substance's appearance melting point and boiling point solubility in solvents used in the laboratory citations to other literature regarding the compound's chemical synthesis a therapeutic category, if applicable caution and hazard information 1st - first edition released by E.
Merck 2nd - second edition released by Merck's American subsidiary and added medicines from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th - first named editor is Merck chemist Paul G. Stecher. 8th - editor Paul G. Stecher 9th - editor Martha Windholz, a Merck chemist. 10th, ISBN 0-911910-27-1 - editor Martha Windholz. In 1984 the Index became available online as well as printed. 11th, ISBN 0-911910-28-X 12th, ISBN 0-911910-12-3 - editor Susan Budavari, a Merck chemist. 13th, ISBN 0-911910-13-1 - editor Maryadele O'Neil, senior editor at Merck. 14th, ISBN 978-0-911910-00-1 - editor Maryadele O'Neil 15th, ISBN 978-1-84973670-1 - editor Maryadele O'Neil, first edition under the Royal Society of Chemistry. List of academic databases and search engines The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy The Merck Veterinary Manual Home Health and Pet Health Official website
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature and presence of other chemicals of the solution; the extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a liquid or gaseous solvent. Most the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. One may speak of solid solution, but of solution in a gas. Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, metastable. Metastability of crystals can lead to apparent differences in the amount of a chemical that dissolves depending on its crystalline form or particle size.
A supersaturated solution crystallises when'seed' crystals are introduced and rapid equilibration occurs. Phenylsalicylate is one such simple observable substance when melted and cooled below its fusion point. Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to'dissolve' a substance, because the solution might occur because of a chemical reaction. For example, zinc'dissolves' in hydrochloric acid as a result of a chemical reaction releasing hydrogen gas in a displacement reaction; the zinc ions are soluble in the acid. The solubility of a substance is an different property from the rate of solution, how fast it dissolves; the smaller a particle is, the faster it dissolves although there are many factors to add to this generalization. Crucially solubility applies to all areas of chemistry, inorganic, physical and biochemistry. In all cases it will depend on the physical conditions and the enthalpy and entropy directly relating to the solvents and solutes concerned. By far the most common solvent in chemistry is water, a solvent for most ionic compounds as well as a wide range of organic substances.
This is a crucial factor in much environmental and geochemical work. According to the IUPAC definition, solubility is the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent. Solubility may be stated in various units of concentration such as molarity, mole fraction, mole ratio, mass per volume and other units; the extent of solubility ranges from infinitely soluble such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is applied to poorly or poorly soluble compounds. A number of other descriptive terms are used to qualify the extent of solubility for a given application. For example, U. S. Pharmacopoeia gives the following terms: The thresholds to describe something as insoluble, or similar terms, may depend on the application. For example, one source states that substances are described as "insoluble" when their solubility is less than 0.1 g per 100 mL of solvent. Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase joining.
The solubility equilibrium occurs. The term solubility is used in some fields where the solute is altered by solvolysis. For example, many metals and their oxides are said to be "soluble in hydrochloric acid", although in fact the aqueous acid irreversibly degrades the solid to give soluble products, it is true that most ionic solids are dissolved by polar solvents, but such processes are reversible. In those cases where the solute is not recovered upon evaporation of the solvent, the process is referred to as solvolysis; the thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply straightforwardly to solvolysis. When a solute dissolves, it may form several species in the solution. For example, an aqueous suspension of ferrous hydroxide, Fe2, will contain the series + as well as other species. Furthermore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide and the composition of its soluble components depend on pH. In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute, thermodynamically stable, the value of the solubility will include all the species in the solution.
Solubility is defined for specific phases. For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula; the solubility of one substance in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, the entropy change that accompanies the solvation. Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance. Solubility may strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions in liquids. Solubility will depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect. To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of solutions; the last two effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium. For a solid that dissolves in a redox reaction, solubility is expe
Aspergillus terreus known as Aspergillus terrestris, is a fungus found worldwide in soil. Although thought to be asexual until A. terreus is now known to be capable of sexual reproduction. This saprotrophic fungus is prevalent in warmer climates such as subtropical regions. Aside from being located in soil, A. terreus has been found in habitats such as decomposing vegetation and dust. A. terreus is used in industry to produce important organic acids, such as itaconic acid and cis-aconitic acid, as well as enzymes, like xylanase. It was the initial source for the drug mevinolin, a drug for lowering serum cholesterol. Aspergillus terreus can cause opportunistic infection in people with deficient immune systems, it is resistant to amphotericin B, a common antifungal drug. Aspergillus terreus produces aspterric acid and 6-hydroxymellein, inhibitors of pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Aspergillus terreus gets darker as it ages on culture media. On Czapek or malt extract agar medium at 25 °C, colonies have the conditions to grow and have smooth-like walls.
In some cases, they are able to become floccose. Colonies on malt extract agar grow sporulate more densely than on many other media. Aspergillus terreus has conidial heads that are compact and densely columnar, reaching 500 × 30–50 µm in diameter. Conidiophores of A. terreus hyaline up to 100 -- 250 × 4 -- 6 µm in diameter. The conidia of A. terreus are small, about 2 µm in diameter, globose-shaped, smooth-walled, can vary from light yellow to hyaline. Unique to this species is the production of aleurioconidia, asexual spores produced directly on the hyphae that are larger than the phialoconidia; this structure might be influential in the way A. terreus presents itself clinically as it can induce elevated inflammatory responses. This fungus is distinguished from the other species of Aspergillus by its cinnamon-brown colony colouration and its production of aleurioconidia. A. terreus is a thermotolerant species since it has optimal growth in temperatures between 35–40 °C, maximum growth within 45–48 °C.
Aspergillus terreus, like other species of Aspergillus, produces spores that disperse efficiently in the air over a range of distances. The morphology of this fungus provides an accessible way for spores to disperse globally in air current. Elevation of the sporulating head atop a long stalk above the growing surface may facilitate spore dispersal through the air. Spores in fungi are discharged into still air, but in A. terreus, it resolves this problem with a long stalk and it allows the spores to discharge into air currents like wind. In turn, A. terreus has a better chance to disperse its spores amongst a vast geography which subsequently explains for the worldwide prevalence of the fungus. Despite A. terreus being found worldwide in warm, arable soil, it has been located in many different habitats such as compost and dust. The dispersed fungal spores come into contact with either liquid or solid material and settle onto it, but only when the conditions are right do the spores germinate. One of the conditions important to the fungus is the level of moisture present in the material.
The lowest water activity capable of supporting growth of the fungus has been reported as 0.78. Tolerance of low Aw conditions may explain, in part, the ubiquitous nature of this species given its ability to grow is a wide array of places; the soil of potted plants is one common habitat supporting the growth of A. terreus, colonized soils may be important reservoirs of nosocomial infection. Other habitats include cotton and decomposing vegetation; the Broad Fungal Genome Initiative funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease carried out the sequencing A. terreus in 2006. The result was 11.05 × genome sequence coverage. A. terreus contains 30-35 Mbp and 10,000 protein-coding genes. Identification of virulence determinants within the genome of A. terreus may facilitate the development of new approaches to the treatment of A. terreus-related diseases. In addition, because A. terreus is resistant to the common antifungal drug amphotericin B, the mechanisms underlying its resistance may be better understood by genome-level investigation.
Aspergillus terreus is not as common as other Aspergillus species to cause opportunistic infections in animals and humans. However, the incidence of A. terreus infection is increasing more than any other Aspergillus and for this reason it is considered an emerging agent of infection. As an opportunistic pathogen, it is able to cause both superficial infections. Inhalation of fungal spores, which travel down along the respiratory tract, cause the typical respiratory infection. Other infections could occur, such as onychomycosis and otomycosis. A. terreus has the ability to cause serious effects in immunocompromised patients who lack specific immune cells. Prolonged neutropenia predisposes humans and animals to this fungal disease. Aspergillus terreus has no adaptation in terms of changing its physical structure when infecting a human or animal host; the fungus continues to grow as the characteristic hyphae filaments. Other pathogenic fungi switch over to a different growth stage, mycelia-to-yeast conversion, to best suit their new environment.
This process does not occur in A. terreus. For decades, A. terreus has been used in agriculture as a means to control pathogenic fungi from destroying crops. However, during the late 1980s, researchers described A. terreus as a fungal pathogen in plants. Crops such as wheat and ryegrass
Raney nickel called spongy nickel, is a fine-grained solid composed of nickel derived from a nickel-aluminium alloy. Several grades are known; some are pyrophoric, most are used as air-stable slurries. Raney nickel is used as a catalyst in organic chemistry, it was developed in 1926 by American engineer Murray Raney for the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Since Raney is a registered trademark of W. R. Grace and Company, only those products produced by its Grace Division are properly called "Raney nickel"; the more generic terms "skeletal catalyst" or "sponge-metal catalyst" may be used to refer to catalysts with physical and chemical properties similar to those of Raney nickel. However, since the Grace company itself does not use any generic names for the catalysts it supplies, "Raney" may become generic under US trademark law; the Ni–Al alloy is prepared by dissolving nickel in molten aluminium followed by cooling. Depending on the Ni:Al ratio, quenching produces a number of different phases.
During the quenching procedure, small amounts of a third metal, such as zinc or chromium, are added to enhance the activity of the resulting catalyst. This third metal is called a "promoter"; the promoter changes the mixture from a binary alloy to a ternary alloy, which can lead to different quenching and leaching properties during activation. In the activation process, the alloy as a fine powder, is treated with a concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide; the simplified leaching reaction is given by the following chemical equation: 2 Al + 2 NaOH + 6 H2O → 2 Na + 3 H2The formation of sodium aluminate requires that solutions of high concentration of sodium hydroxide be used to avoid the formation of aluminium hydroxide, which otherwise would precipitate as bayerite. Hence sodium hydroxide solutions with concentrations of up to 5 M are used; the temperature used to leach the alloy has a marked effect on the properties of the catalyst. Leaching is conducted between 70 and 100 °C; the surface area of Raney nickel tends to decrease with increasing leaching temperature.
This is due to structural rearrangements within the alloy that may be considered analogous to sintering, where alloy ligaments would start adhering to each other at higher temperatures, leading to the loss of the porous structure. During the activation process, Al is leached out of the NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 phases that are present in the alloy, while most of the Ni remains, in the form of NiAl; the removal of Al from some phases but not others is known as "selective leaching". The NiAl phase has been shown to provide the thermal stability of the catalyst; as a result, the catalyst is quite resistant to decomposition. This resistance allows Raney nickel to be reused for an extended period. For this reason, commercial Raney nickel is available in both "active" and "inactive" forms. Before storage, the catalyst can be washed with distilled water at ambient temperature to remove remaining sodium aluminate. Oxygen-free water is preferred for storage to prevent oxidation of the catalyst, which would accelerate its aging process and result in reduced catalytic activity.
Macroscopically, Raney nickel is a gray powder. Microscopically, each particle of this powder is a three-dimensional mesh, with pores of irregular size and shape of which the vast majority is created during the leaching process. Raney nickel is notable for being thermally and structurally stable, as well has having a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area; these properties are a direct result of the activation process and contribute to a high catalytic activity. The surface area is determined by a BET measurement using a gas, preferentially adsorbed on metallic surfaces, such as hydrogen. Using this type of measurement all the exposed area in a particle of the catalyst has been shown to have Ni on its surface. Since Ni is the active metal of the catalyst, a large Ni surface area implies a large surface is available for reactions to occur, reflected in an increased catalyst activity. Commercially available Raney nickel has an average Ni surface area of 100 m2 per gram of catalyst. A high catalytic activity, coupled with the fact that hydrogen is absorbed within the pores of the catalyst during activation, makes Raney nickel a useful catalyst for many hydrogenation reactions.
Its structural and thermal stability allows its use under a wide range of reaction conditions. Additionally, the solubility of Raney nickel is negligible in most common laboratory solvents, with the exception of mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid, its high density facilitates its separation from a liquid phase after a reaction is completed. Raney nickel is used in a large number of industrial processes and in organic synthesis because of its stability and high catalytic activity at room temperature. A practical example of the use of Raney nickel in industry is shown in the following reaction, where benzene is reduced to cyclohexane. Reduction of the benzene ring is hard to achieve through other chemical means, but can be effected by using Raney nickel. Other heterogeneous catalysts, such as those using platinum group elements, may be used instead, to similar effect, but these tend to be more expensive to produce than Raney nickel; the cyclohexane thus produced may be used in the synthesis of adipic acid, a raw material used in the industrial production of polyamides such as nylon.
Other industrial applications of Raney nickel include the
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a common thermoplastic polymer. Its glass transition temperature is 105 °C. ABS therefore has no true melting point. ABS is a terpolymer made by polymerizing acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene; the proportions can vary from 15 to 35 % 5 to 30 % butadiene and 40 to 60 % styrene. The result is a long chain of polybutadiene criss-crossed with shorter chains of poly; the nitrile groups from neighboring chains, being polar, attract each other and bind the chains together, making ABS stronger than pure polystyrene. The styrene gives the plastic a shiny, impervious surface; the polybutadiene, a rubbery substance, provides toughness at low temperatures. For the majority of applications, ABS can be used between −20 and 80 °C as its mechanical properties vary with temperature; the properties are created by rubber toughening, where fine particles of elastomer are distributed throughout the rigid matrix. The most important mechanical properties of ABS are impact toughness.
A variety of modifications can be made to improve impact resistance and heat resistance. The impact resistance can be amplified by increasing the proportions of polybutadiene in relation to styrene and acrylonitrile, although this causes changes in other properties. Impact resistance does not fall off at lower temperatures. Stability under load is excellent with limited loads. Thus, by changing the proportions of its components, ABS can be prepared in different grades. Two major categories could be ABS for extrusion and ABS for injection moulding high and medium impact resistance. ABS would have useful characteristics within a temperature range from −20 to 80 °C; the final properties will be influenced to some extent by the conditions under which the material is processed to the final product. For example, molding at a high temperature improves the gloss and heat resistance of the product whereas the highest impact resistance and strength are obtained by molding at low temperature. Fibers and additives can be mixed in the resin pellets to make the final product strong and raise the maximum operating temperature as high as 80 °C.
Pigments can be added, as the raw material original color is translucent ivory to white. The aging characteristics of the polymers are influenced by the polybutadiene content, it is normal to include antioxidants in the composition. Other factors include exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which additives are available to protect against. ABS polymers are resistant to aqueous acids, concentrated hydrochloric and phosphoric acids and animal, vegetable and mineral oils, but they are swollen by glacial acetic acid, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons and are attacked by concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids, they are soluble in esters and ethylene dichloride. Though ABS plastics are used for mechanical purposes, they have electrical properties that are constant over a wide range of frequencies; these properties are little affected by temperature and atmospheric humidity in the acceptable operating range of temperatures. ABS is flammable, it will melt and boil, at which point the vapors burst into intense, hot flames.
Since pure ABS contains no halogens, its combustion does not produce any persistent organic pollutants, the most toxic products of its combustion or pyrolysis are carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. ABS is damaged by sunlight; this caused one of the most widespread and expensive automobile recalls in US history due to the degradation of the seatbelt release buttons. ABS can be recycled. ABS is derived from acrylonitrile and styrene. Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced from ammonia. ABS combines the strength and for its hardness, gloss and electrical insulation properties. According to the European plastic trade association PlasticsEurope, industrial production of 1 kg of ABS resin in Europe uses an average of 95.34 MJ and is derived from natural gas and petroleum. ABS is machined. Common machining techniques include turning, milling, die-cutting and shearing. ABS can be cut with standard shop tools and line bent with standard heat strips. ABS can be chemically affixed to other like-plastics.
ABS's light weight and ability to be injection molded and extruded make it useful in manufacturing products such as drain-waste-vent pipe systems, musical instruments, golf club heads, automotive trim components, automotive bumper bars, medical devices for blood access, enclosures for electrical and electronic assemblies, protective headgear, whitewater canoes, buffer edging for furniture and joinery panels and protective carrying cases, small kitchen appliances, toys, including Lego and Kre-O bricks. Household and consumer goods are the major applications of ABS. Keyboard keycaps are made out of ABS. ABS plastic ground down to an average diameter of less than 1 micrometer is used as the colorant in some tattoo inks. Tattoo inks that use ABS are vivid; when extruded into a filament, ABS plastic is a common material used in 3D printe