Prelude and Fugue in D major, BWV 532
Johann Sebastian Bach's Prelude and Fugue in D major is a prelude and fugue written for the organ c. 1710, has an approximate duration of 11 1⁄2 minutes. Like most of Bach's organ compositions, this piece was written during his tenure in Weimar between 1709 and 1717. Many of his greatest and most well known organ works were written during this period, for example, the Prelude and Fugue in E major, BWV 566; the composer was residing in Weimar after being hired by the ruling duke of Weimar, Wilhelm Ernst, in 1709 as an organist and member of the court orchestra. Indeed, his fame on the instrument grew and he was visited by many students of the organ to hear him play and to try to learn from his technique; the Prelude and Fugue in D major was composed in 1710, although this is not certain. However, it was written before Bach codified the clear two-section prelude and fugue in the form of what is used in The Well-Tempered Clavier, composed in 1722; this is because BWV 532 features a lengthy, self-contained fugue preceded by a multisectional prelude.
The piece is in two sections: a fugue. Both the sections are in D major but, to begin with, there is no tempo marking given on either section. Both pieces are in 4/4; the prelude commences with a semi-quaver scale from the pedals, the manuals begin with an intricate quaver pattern between the hands. Another run from the pedals is followed by a continuation of the quaver pattern from the right-hand; the quaver pattern repeats one octave lower. The pedals play arpeggiated patterns which begin a repeated theme and slow down throughout; this lasts for four bars. A sustained pedal accompanies the manuals, which have a dotted quaver, semi-quaver rhythm; this turns into a repeated G♯, B demi-semi-quaver rhythm. This slows to a series of repeated cadences. A new phrase begins with an ascending scale in the manuals leading up to a large D major chord. A new tempo is introduced: Alla breve, a large phrase is introduced with a polyphonic texture and a prominent tune. A section starts with chords played in the manuals and the quavers played in the pedals.
This continues for another long period of time until the left hand takes the tune and the right hand plays the quavers. When this section finishes, a new tempo of Adagio begins. A new theme arrives with slow quavers on the lower manual and pedal and ascending scales in the upper manual; the prelude concludes with a slow theme, on broken arpeggios and some slow, elongated final chords. The subject of this fugue is eight measures long and consist of tight figurations encompassing an entire octave. Bach takes this subject firstly through the relative minor and the mediant minor, to the minor harmony of the leading tone and the major harmony on the supertonic. After this progression we enter an episode with a flurry of figures on the dominant and a full entry of the subject on the tonic that works to resolve the preceding tension so well that the eventual coda has the nature of an afterthought; this work has been transcribed for solo piano by Ferruccio Busoni as BV B 20 in 1888, by Eugen d'Albert in 1893.
Prelude and Fugue in D major, BWV 532: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Free download of BWV 532 recorded by James Kibbie on the 1755 Gottfried Silbermann/Zacharias Hildebrandt organ in the Katholische Hofkirche, Germany Video of "Fugue in D major" from BWV 532, performed by Timothy Coriddi
Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543
Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543 is a piece of organ music written by Johann Sebastian Bach sometime around his years as court organist to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. An alternate version of the organ piece is numbered BWV 543a; as for this earlier version only the prelude is different, that version of the prelude is sometimes indicated by BWV 543/1a. The fugue of BWV 543 is the final incarnation of Bach's harpsichord Fugue in A minor, BWV 944, written in 1708; the musical materials of the prelude are a descending chromatic bassline and simple arpeggiated chords above it. The embellished cadence that follows—full of manual runs over sustained pedal notes—leads into a contrapuntal exploration of the opening material in sequence; the Toccata-like prelude—in the stylus phantasticus—bears the marks of Bach's early, north German-influenced style, while the fugue could be considered a product of Bach's maturity. The fugue is in 68 time, unlike the prelude, in 44 time; the fugue theme, like that of the prelude, is composed of arpeggiated chords and downward sequences in its half.
Due to the sequential nature of the subject, the majority of the fugue is composed of sequences or cadences. The Fugue ends in one of Bach's most virtuosic cadenzas in the harmonic minor. Unlike most of Bach's minor-key keyboard works, it ends on a minor chord rather than a picardy third; because of the piece's overall rhapsodic nature, many organists play this piece and in a variety of tempi. Liszt included it in his transcriptions of the "six great fugues" BWV 543-8 for piano. Italian composer Ennio Morricone created a variation of Prelude and Fugue in A minor for the main theme of the French movie The Sicilian Clan. Prelude and Fugue in A minor: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Free download of BWV 543 recorded by James Kibbie on the 1736 Erasmus Bielfeldt organ in St. Wilhadi, Germany PDF of Liszt's Piano transcription of BWV 543
A concerto is a musical composition composed of three movements, in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band. It is accepted that definition have changed over time. In the 17th century, sacred works for voices and orchestra were called concertos, as reflected by J. S. Bach's usage of the title "concerto" for many of the works that we know as cantatas; the word concerto comes from Italian. The idea is that the two parts in a concerto—the soloist and the orchestra or concert band—alternate between episodes of opposition and independence to create a sense of flow; the concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period, in parallel to the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments called a concertino with the rest of the orchestra, called the ripieno. The popularity of the concerto grosso declined after the Baroque period, the genre was not revived until the 20th century; the solo concerto, has remained a vital musical force from its inception to this day.
The term "concerto" was used to denote works that involved voices and instruments in which the instruments had independent parts—as opposed to the Renaissance common practice in which instruments that accompanied voices only doubled the voice parts. Examples of this earlier form of concerto include Giovanni Gabrieli's "In Ecclesiis" or Heinrich Schütz's "Saul, was verfolgst du mich"; the concerto began to take its modern shape in the late-Baroque period, beginning with the concerto grosso form popularized by Arcangelo Corelli. Corelli's concertino group was a cello. In J. S. Bach's Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, for example, the concertino is a flute, a violin, a harpsichord; the concerto approached its modern form, in which the concertino reduces to a single solo instrument playing with an orchestra. The main composers of concertos of the baroque were Tommaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Pietro Locatelli, Giuseppe Tartini, Francesco Geminiani and Johann Joachim Quantz.
The concerto was intended as a composition typical of the Italian style of the time, all the composers were studying how to compose in the Italian fashion. The Baroque concerto was for a string instrument or a wind instrument. Bach wrote a concerto for two violins and orchestra. During the Baroque period, before the invention of the piano, keyboard concertos were comparatively rare, with the exception of the organ and some harpsichord concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach; as the harpsichord evolved into the fortepiano, in the end to the modern piano, the increased volume and the richer sound of the new instrument allowed the keyboard instrument to better compete with a full orchestra. Cello concertos have been written since the Baroque era, if not earlier. Among the works from that period, those by Antonio Vivaldi and Giuseppe Tartini are still part of the standard repertoire today; the concertos of the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach, such as C. P. E. Bach, are the best links between those of the Baroque period and those of the Classical era.
It is conventional to state that the first movements of concertos from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form. Final movements are in rondo form, as in J. S. Bach's E Major Violin Concerto. Mozart wrote five violin concertos, all in 1775, they show a number of notably Italian and Austrian. Several passages have leanings towards folk music. Mozart wrote the regarded Sinfonia Concertante for violin and orchestra. Beethoven wrote only one violin concerto, under-appreciated until revealed as a masterpiece in a performance by violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim. Haydn wrote at least two cello concertos, which are the most important works in that genre of the classical era. However, C. P. E. Bach's three cello concertos and Boccherini's twelve concertos are noteworthy. C. P. E. Bach's keyboard concertos contain some virtuosic solo writing; some of them have movements that run into one another without a break, there are frequent cross-movement thematic references. Mozart, as a child, made arrangements for keyboard and orchestra of four sonatas by now little-known composers.
He arranged three sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. By the time he was twenty, Mozart was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition with some five or six contrasted themes, before the soloist enters to elaborate on the material. Of his 27 piano concertos, the last 22 are appreciated. A dozen cataloged keyboard concertos are attributed to Haydn, of which only three or four are considered genuine. C. P. E. Bach wrote two oboe concertos. Bohemian composer Francesco Antonio Rosetti composed several solo and double horn concertos, he was a significant contributor to the genre of horn concertos in the 18th century. Most of his outstanding horn concertos were composed between 1782 and 1789 for the Bohemian duo Franz Zwierzina and Joseph Nage while at the Bavarian court of Oettingen-Wallerstein. One of hi
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through the organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards played by the hands, a pedalboard played by the feet; the keyboard and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate after a key is depressed; the smallest portable pipe organs may have one manual. A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs. A list consisting the ranking of the largest organs in the world - based on the criterion constructed by Michał Szostak, i.e.'the number of ranks and additional equipment managed from a single console - can be found in'The Organ' and in'The Vox Humana'.
The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the water organ in Ancient Greece, in the 3rd century BC, in which the wind supply was created by the weight of displaced water in an airtight container. By the 6th or 7th century AD, bellows were used to supply Byzantine organs with wind. Beginning in the 12th century, the organ began to evolve into a complex instrument capable of producing different timbres. A pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning the pipe organ's establishment in Western European church music. In England, "The first organ of which any detailed record exists was built in Winchester Cathedral in the 10th century, it was a huge machine with 400 pipes, which needed two men to play it and 70 men to blow it, its sound could be heard throughout the city." By the 17th century, most of the sounds available on the modern classical organ had been developed.
From that time, the pipe organ was the most complex man-made device — a distinction it retained until it was displaced by the telephone exchange in the late 19th century. Pipe organs are installed in churches, concert halls, other public buildings and in private properties, they are used in the performance of classical music, sacred music, secular music, popular music. In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theaters to accompany the screening of films during the silent movie era; the beginning of the 21st century has seen a resurgence in installations in concert halls. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire; the organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music, credited as having derived from Greece. Its earliest predecessors were built in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC; the word organ is derived from the Greek όργανον, a generic term for an instrument or a tool, via the Latin organum, an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games.
The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited with inventing the organ in the 3rd century BC. He devised an instrument called the hydraulis, which delivered a wind supply maintained through water pressure to a set of pipes; the hydraulis was played in the arenas of the Roman Empire. The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by an inflated leather bag in the 2nd century AD, true bellows began to appear in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th or 7th century AD; some 400 pieces of a hydraulis from the year 228 AD have been revealed during the 1931 archaeological excavations in the former Roman town Aquincum, province of Pannonia, used as a music instrument by the Aquincum fire dormitory. The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the urghun as one of the typical instruments of the Eastern Roman Empire, it was used in the Hippodrome in the imperial capital of Constantinople. A Syrian visitor describes a pipe organ powered by two servants pumping "bellows like a blacksmith's" as being played while guests ate at the emperor's Christmas dinner in Constantinople in 911.
The first Western European pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent from Constantinople to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western European church music. Portable organs were invented in the Middle Ages. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, its portability made the portative useful for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. In the 11th century, the monk Theophilus described in his treatise, known as Schedula diversarum artium or De diversis artibus, all of th
Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565
The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach. The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue, it is one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. Scholars differ as to, it could have been as early as c. 1704. To a large extent the piece conforms to the characteristics deemed typical for the north German organ school of the baroque era with divergent stylistic influences, such as south German characteristics, described in scholarly literature on the piece. Despite a profusion of educated guesswork, there is not much that can be said with certainty about the first century of the composition's existence other than that it survived that period in a manuscript written by Johannes Ringk; the first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was in 1833, through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, who performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in 1840. Familiarity with the piece was enhanced in the second half of the 19th century by a successful piano version by Carl Tausig, but it was not until the 20th century that its popularity rose above that of other organ compositions by Bach.
That popularity further increased, due for example to its inclusion in Walt Disney's Fantasia, until this composition came to be considered the most famous work in the organ repertoire. A wide, conflicting, variety of analyses has been published about the piece: for instance, in literature on organ music, it is described as some sort of program music depicting a storm, while in the context of Disney's Fantasia, it was promoted as absolute music, nothing like program music depicting a storm. In the last quarter of the 20th century, scholars like Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece, argued against its authenticity. Bach-scholars like Christoph Wolff defended the attribution to Bach. Other commentators ignored the authenticity considered the attribution issue undecided. No edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis listed the Toccata and Fugue among the doubtful works, nor does its entry on the website of the Bach Archiv Leipzig mention alternative views on the attribution issue.
The only extant near-contemporary source for BWV 565 is an undated copy by Johannes Ringk. A broad estimate is that the manuscript was written somewhere in the period from ten years before Bach's death in 1750 to ten years after it. Ringk produced his first copy of a Bach score in 1730 when he was 12. Taking into consideration the evolution of Ringk's handwriting, one can infer that his copy of BWV 565 was written soon after his first copy of a Bach composition, which would narrow the date of his BWV 565 manuscript to between 1730 and 1735, when Ringk was around 15. At the time Ringk was a student of Bach's former student Johann Peter Kellner at Gräfenroda, faithfully copied what his teacher put before him. There are some errors in the score such as note values not adding up to fill a measure correctly; such defects show a carelessness deemed typical of Kellner, who left over 60 copies of works by Bach. The title page of Ringk's manuscript writes the title of the work in Italian as Toccata con Fuga, names Johann Sebastian Bach as the composer of the piece, indicates its tonality as "ex. d. #.", seen as the key signature being D minor.
However, in Ringk's manuscript the staves have no ♭ accidental at the key. In this sense, in Ringk's manuscript, the piece is written down in D Dorian mode. Another piece listed as Bach's was known as Toccata and Fugue in D minor, was entitled to the "Dorian" qualification, it was that piece, BWV 538, that received the "Dorian" nickname, that qualifier being used to distinguish it from BWV 565. Most score editions of BWV 565 use the D minor key signature, unlike Ringk's manuscript. Ringk's manuscript does not use a separate stave for the pedal part, common in the 18th century. Printed editions of the BWV 565 organ score invariably write the pedal line on a separate stave. In Ringk's manuscript the upper stave is written down using the soprano clef, where printed editions use the treble clef. All other extant manuscript copies of the score date from at least several decades later: some of these, written in the 19th century, are related with each other in that they have similar solutions to the defects in the Ringk manuscript.
Whether these derive from an earlier manuscript independent from Ringk's is debated by scholars. These near-identical 19th-century copies, the version Felix Mendelssohn knew, use the treble clef and a separate stave for the pedal. In general, the copies show a less excessive use of fermatas in the opening measures and are more correct in making the note values fit the measures, but that may as well be from polishing a defective source as from deriving from a cleaner earlier source. In the copies the work is named for instance "Adagio" and "Fuga", or "Toccata" for the work as a whole; the name "Toccata" is most a addition, similar to the title of Toccata and Fugue, BWV 564, because in the Baroque era such organ pieces would most be called Prelude (Praeludium, etc
Martha Goldstein was an American harpsichordist and pianist, who gave concerts in the United States, North Africa, the Middle East, Europe. She performed works by George Frideric Handel, Frédéric Chopin, Georg Philipp Telemann, Franz Liszt, Ferruccio Busoni, Johann Sebastian Bach, others. Born in Baltimore, Goldstein was trained at the Peabody Conservatory and the Juilliard School and studied with Audrey Plitt, Eliza Woods, James Friskin and Mieczysław Munz, she taught at the Peabody Conservatory at the Cornish College of the Arts. She performed as a guest artist with the Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet, wind quintet-in-residence at the University of Washington School of Music since 1968. Many of Goldstein's recordings were first released on LP by Pandora Records, founded in 1973 and active for more than ten years; the company went out of business with the advent of the CD. The entire archive of recordings is now available for download without restriction and can be found at many download sites, including Wikipedia.
Her recordings reflect informed performance, employing original period instruments and tunings. She died in Seattle, Washington on February 14, 2014, she had two sons, one of whom predeceased her, was survived by her husband of more than fifty years, Allen A. Goldstein, four stepchildren, several grandchildren and great-grandchildren; the Italian Harpsichord. Pandora Records, cat. No. PAN 101. Bach: Flute sonatas. Complete and Authentic Works from the Neue Bach Gesellschaft. Alex Murray. Pandora Records cat. No. PAN 104. Chopin: Études, Op. 10. Pandora Records, cat. No. PAN 107. Bach: Flute Sonatas. Incomplete and Controversial Sonatas. Alex Murray. Pandora Records, cat. No. PAN 105. Bach / Martha Goldstein - The Sound of the Keyboard Lute. Pandora Records, cat. No. PAN 111. Brahms: Waltzes. Pandora Records, cat. No. PAN 119. Bach: Music for Solo Traverso, Volume I. Alex Murray. Pandora Records, cat. No. PC 176. Sonata in B minor for flute or recorder and harpsichord File:Bach - Flute Sonata Bmin - 1. Andante - Traverso and Harpsichord.ogg H. R. Smith Co..
The New Records, Volume 50. Berkeley, California: University of California. Crystal Record Company. Directory of New Music. Scanned from a holding at the University of Michigan. OCLC 1085363 American Guild of Organists; the American Organist, Volume 19, Issues 1–6. Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Missouri. Muse, Volumes 4–6. Media related to Martha Goldstein at Wikimedia Commons
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist and priest. Born in Venice, the capital of the Venetian Republic, he is regarded as one of the greatest Baroque composers, his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe, he composed many instrumental concertos, for the violin and a variety of other instruments, as well as sacred choral works and more than forty operas. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as the Four Seasons. Many of his compositions were written for the all-female music ensemble of the Ospedale della Pietà, a home for abandoned children. Vivaldi had worked there as a Catholic priest for 1 1/2 years and was employed there from 1703 to 1715 and from 1723 to 1740. Vivaldi had some success with expensive stagings of his operas in Venice and Vienna. After meeting the Emperor Charles VI, Vivaldi moved to Vienna. However, the Emperor died soon after Vivaldi's arrival, Vivaldi himself died, in poverty, less than a year later.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was born on 4 March 1678 in Venice the capital of the Venetian Republic. He was baptized after his birth at his home by the midwife, which led to a belief that his life was somehow in danger. Though the reasons for the child's immediate baptism are not known for certain, it was done most due either to his poor health or to an earthquake that shook the city that day. In the trauma of the earthquake, Vivaldi's mother may have dedicated him to the priesthood; the ceremonies, omitted were supplied two months later. Vivaldi's parents were Giovanni Battista Vivaldi and Camilla Calicchio, as recorded in the register of San Giovanni in Bragora. Vivaldi had eight siblings: Iseppo Santo Vivaldi, Iseppo Gaetano Vivaldi, Bonaventura Tomaso Vivaldi, Margarita Gabriela Vivaldi, Cecilia Maria Vivaldi, Gerolama Michela Vivaldi, Francesco Gaetano Vivaldi, Zanetta Anna Vivaldi. Giovanni Battista, a barber before becoming a professional violinist, taught Antonio to play the violin and toured Venice playing the violin with his young son.
Antonio was taught at an early age, judging by the extensive musical knowledge he had acquired by the age of 24, when he started working at the Ospedale della Pietà. Giovanni Battista was one of the founders of the Sovvegno dei musicisti di Santa Cecilia, an association of musicians; the president of the Sovvegno was Giovanni Legrenzi, an early Baroque composer and the maestro di cappella at St Mark's Basilica. It is possible; the Luxembourg scholar Walter Kolneder has discerned the influence of Legrenzi's style in Vivaldi's early liturgical work Laetatus sum, written in 1691 at the age of thirteen. Vivaldi's father may have been a composer himself: in 1689, an opera titled La Fedeltà sfortunata was composed by a Giovanni Battista Rossi—the name under which Vivaldi's father had joined the Sovvegno di Santa Cecilia. Vivaldi's health was problematic. One of his symptoms, strettezza di petto, has been interpreted as a form of asthma; this did not prevent him from learning to play the violin, composing, or taking part in musical activities, although it did stop him from playing wind instruments.
In 1693, at the age of fifteen, he began studying to become a priest. He was ordained in 1703, aged 25, was soon nicknamed il Prete Rosso, "The Red Priest". Not long after his ordination, in 1704, he was given a dispensation from celebrating Mass because of his ill health. Vivaldi said Mass as a priest only a few times, appeared to have withdrawn from liturgical duties, though he formally remained a member of the priesthood, he remained committed to Catholicism, to the extent that by old age, Ernst Ludwig Gerber considered him extraordinarily bigoted. In September 1703, Vivaldi became maestro di violino at an orphanage called the Pio Ospedale della Pietà in Venice. While Vivaldi is most famous as a composer, he was regarded as an exceptional technical violinist as well; the German architect Johann Friedrich Armand von Uffenbach referred to Vivaldi as "the famous composer and violinist" and said that "Vivaldi played a solo accompaniment excellently, at the conclusion he added a free fantasy which astounded me, for it is hardly possible that anyone has played, or will play, in such a fashion."
Vivaldi was only 25. Over the next thirty years he composed most of his major works while working there. There were four similar institutions in Venice, they were financed by funds provided by the Republic. The boys had to leave when they reached the age of fifteen; the girls received a musical education, the most talented among them stayed and became members of the Ospedale's renowned orchestra and choir. Shortly after Vivaldi's appointment, the orphans began to gain appreciation and esteem too. Vivaldi wrote concertos and sacred vocal music for them; these sacred works, which number over 60, are varied: they included solo motets and large-scale choral works for soloists, double chorus, orchestra. In 1704, the position of teacher of viola all'inglese was added to his duties as violin instructor; the position of maestro di coro, at one time filled by Vivaldi, required a lot of time and work. He had to compose an oratorio or concerto at every feast