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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism known as Classical Fascism or Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy. The ideology is associated with a series of three political parties led by Benito Mussolini, namely the Revolutionary Fascist Party founded in 1915, the succeeding National Fascist Party, renamed at the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943 and the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945. Italian Fascism is associated with the post-war Italian Social Movement and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements. Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism, national syndicalism, revolutionary nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.

Italian Fascism promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes. Italian Fascism opposed liberalism classical liberalism that Mussolini and Fascist leaders denounced as "the debacle of individualism", but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction. Fascism was opposed to Marxist socialism because of the latter's typical opposition to nationalism, but it was opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre, it believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernised Italy.

While Fascism in Italy did not espouse the explicit Nordicism and antisemitism inherent to Nazi ideology, racist overtones were present in Fascist thought and policies from the beginning of Fascist rule of Italy. As Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany grew politically closer in the latter half of the 1930s, Italian laws and policies became explicitly antisemitic, including the passage of the Italian Racial Laws; when the Fascists were in power, they persecuted the linguistic minorities in Italy. Italian Fascism is based upon Italian nationalism and in particular seeks to complete what it considers as the incomplete project of Risorgimento by incorporating Italia Irredenta into the state of Italy; the National Fascist Party founded in 1921 declared that the party was to serve as "a revolutionary militia placed at the service of the nation. It follows a policy based on three principles: order, hierarchy", it identifies modern Italy as the heir to the Roman Empire and Italy during the Renaissance and promotes the cultural identity of Romanitas.

Italian Fascism sought to forge a strong Italian Empire as a Third Rome, identifying ancient Rome as the First Rome and Renaissance-era Italy as the Second Rome. Italian Fascism has emulated ancient Rome and Mussolini in particular emulated ancient Roman leaders, such as Julius Caesar as a model for the Fascists' rise to power and Augustus as a model for empire-building. Italian Fascism has directly promoted imperialism, such as within the Doctrine of Fascism, ghostwritten by Giovanni Gentile on behalf of Mussolini: The Fascist state is a will to power and empire; the Roman tradition is here a powerful force. According to the Doctrine of Fascism, an empire is not only a territorial or military or mercantile concept, but a spiritual and moral one. One can think of an empire, that is, a nation, which directly or indirectly guides other nations, without the need to conquer a single square kilometre of territory. Fascism emphasized the need for the restoration of the Mazzinian Risorgimento tradition that pursued the unification of Italy, that the Fascists claimed had been left incomplete and abandoned in the Giolittian-era Italy.

Fascism sought the incorporation of claimed "unredeemed" territories to Italy. To the east of Italy, the Fascists claimed that Dalmatia was a land of Italian culture whose Italians, including those of Italianized South Slavic descent, had been driven out of Dalmatia and into exile in Italy, supported the return of Italians of Dalmatian heritage. Mussolini identified Dalmatia as having strong Italian cultural roots for centuries via the Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice; the Fascists focused their claims based on the Venetian cultural heritage of Dalmatia, claiming that Venetian rule had been beneficial for all Dalmatians and had been accepted by the Dalmatian population. The Fascists were outraged after World War I, when the agreement between Italy and the Entente Allies in the Treaty of London of 1915 to have Dalmatia join Italy was revoked in 1919; the Fascist regime supported annexation of Yugoslavia's region of Slovenia into Italy that held a portion of the Slovene population, whereby Slovenia would become an Italian province, resulting in a quarter of Slovene ethnic territory and 327,000 out of total population of 1.3 million Slovenes being subjected to forced Italianization.

The Fascist regime imposed mandatory Italianization upon the German and South Slavic populations living within Italy's bo

Fascia (sash)

The fascia is a sash worn by clerics and seminarians with the cassock in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Church. It is placed above the waist between the navel and the breastbone; the ends that hang down are worn on the left side of the body and placed a little forward but not off the left hip. The fascia is not a vestment, but is part of choir dress and is used in more solemn everyday dress; the pope's fascia is white. Only the pope may have his coat of arms placed on the ends of the fascia that hang down near or past the knees; the fascia worn by cardinals is scarlet-red watered silk. The fascia worn by nuncios within the territories assigned to them is purple watered silk; the fascia worn by patriarchs and archbishops and bishops who are not cardinals, protonotaries apostolic, honorary prelates, chaplains of His Holiness is plain purple. The fascia worn by priests and seminarians is black, while the fascia worn by priests in the service of the Papal Household is black watered silk.

Prior to the changes that followed the Second Vatican Council there were two types of fascia: the tufted fascia, on which each end was finished in a single large tassel, the fringed fascia, on which each end is straight and finished with fringe. The Instruction Ut sive sollicite of the Secretariat of State, dated 31 March 1969, declared that "the sash with tassels is abolished" for cardinals, "Prelate Superiors of the Dicasteries of the Roman Curia who do not have the episcopal dignity, the Auditors of the Sacred Roman Rota, the Promotor General of Justice and the Defender of the Bond in the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the Protonotaries Apostolic de numero, the Clerics of the Apostolic Camera and the Prelates of the Pontifical Antechamber"; this Instruction did not deal with canons, some few of whom have retained the tufted sash to which membership of their particular chapter entitled them

Jens Adolf Jerichau

Emil Jens Baumann Adolf Jerichau was a Danish sculptor. He belonged to the generation after Bertel Thorvaldsen, for whom he worked in Rome, but moved away from the static Neoclassicism he inherited from him and towards a more dynamic and realistic style, he was a professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and its director from 1857 to 1863. Jens Adolf Jerichau was born on 17 April 1816 in Assens on the Danish island of Funen to grocer and lieutenant Carl Christian Jerichau and his wife Karen Birch, he worked in a painter's apprenticeship for one and a half years before traveling to Copenhagen where he was admitted to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in 1831. He was accepted into the model school in 1833 and continued to the painting school, at the same time studying with Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, after winning both silver medals. In 1836 he started sculpting with Hermann Ernst Freund After graduating from the Academy in 1837, Jerichau traveled to Rome where he worked for around a year in Bertel Thorvaldsen's studio.

He established his calling through a bas-relief on a frieze in the royal palace Christiansborg in Copenhagen, depicting the marriage of Alexander the Great to Roxane. His early works such as the sculpture Hercules and Hebe as well as his colossal Christ figure from 1849 are in a strong Neoclassical style which bear clear testament to Thorvaldsen. With his sculpture group Penelope, which won international acclaim, he moved away from the static Neoclassicism and towards a more dramatic and dynamic style, he created formed depictions of nature, such as The Panther Hunter. As a result of a commission from the Princess of Prussia, he produced a depiction of the resurrection of Christ, he died on 25 July 1883. A number of his most famous works were damaged or ruined in a fire in the Christiansborg Palace in 1884. Jerichau married the painter Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann and they had 9 children, including painter Harald Jerichau. Adam and Eve before the Fall, Danish National Gallery, Copenhagen Standing Goat, Danish National Gallery, Copenhagen Bathing Women, Danish National Gallery, Copenhagen Sleeping Reaper, Little girl with a dead bird The Panther Hunter Slave Giirl, Danish National Gallery, Copenhagen H. C.

Ørsted Memorial, Copenhagen Crucifix, Jesus Church, Copenhagen David, Church of Our Lady, Copenahgen Art of Denmark Nicolaj Bøgh, Erindringer af og om Jens Adolf Jerichau. Jens Adolf Jerichau at Kunstindeks Danmark

Kodiak tobacco

Kodiak is a brand of dipping tobacco manufactured by American Snuff Company, a U. S. smokeless tobacco manufacturer that produces the Grizzly tobacco and Levi Garrett brands. Introduced in 1980, Kodiak is available in three flavours: Wintergreen and Straight, each featuring a picture of a Kodiak bear on the top label. Kodiak introduced pouches, which hold the moist snuff in a tea-bag like pouch, preventing it from spreading around the mouth and keeping it out of the teeth; the Kodiak Wintergreen variety is a strong brand of dipping tobacco. It is a basic mixture with high nicotine content and a pH as high as 8.35. It has high levels of deprotonated nicotine, "the chemical form..., most absorbed through the mouth into the bloodstream," when compared amongst other brands. Kodiak sponsored many NASCAR teams from the late 1980s to 2001. Levi Garett sponsored some races too. Notable drivers who drove for Kodiak/Levi Garett are Rusty Wallace, Ken Schrader, Ricky Craven, Steve Grissom, Stacy Compton. Kodiak was the 1989 NASCAR Winston Cup Championship winning sponsor with Rusty Wallace in the 27 Blue Max Racing Pontiac.

The snuff company sponsored Hendrick Motorsports, Larry Hedrick Motorsports, Melling Racing. In 2019, Kyle Larson threw back to Craven’s 1996 Kodiak livery with Larry Hedrick Racing in the Southern 500 with Clover Network sponsorship instead of Kodiak who’s colors are similar. Kodiak Mint Long Cut Kodiak Straight Long Cut Kodiak Wintergreen Long Cut and Pouches Kodiak straight pouches Snus American Snuff Co

Geoff Smith (politician)

Geoffrey Norman "Geoff" Smith is a former Australian politician. Smith was worked as a senior technical officer before entering politics. A long-time member of the Labor Party, he was president and secretary of the Ross River branch and secretary of the Townsville branch. In 1980 he was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly as the member for Townsville West, transferring to Townsville East in 1986 and Townsville in 1992, he was the Opposition Health Spokesman from 1982 to 1985, transferring to Environment in 1985, Industry and Northern Development in 1986, Corrective Services, Administrative Services and Valuation in 1987, Tourism and Racing in 1988 and Industry and Technology that year. When Labor won the 1989 state election he was appointed Minister for Manufacturing and Commerce, to which small business was added in 1990. In 1990 the portfolio was reorganised as Business and Regional Development. In 1992 he became Minister for Lands, holding the position until 1995. Smith retired in 1998

Acropectoral syndrome

Acropectoral syndrome is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia syndrome affecting the hands, feet and lumbosacral spine. A proposed candidate gene for preaxial polydactyly is LMBR1, encoding a novel transmembrane receptor, which may be an upstream regulator of SHH; the LMBR1 gene is on human chromosome 7q36. Some individuals have preaxial polydactyly in the feet, consisting of a small extra biphalangeal toe, in most cases with an associated rudimentary extra metatarsal, lying in a soft tissue web between the hallux and second toe. In some cases, this was accompanied by hypoplasia of the head of the first metatarsal and absence of both phalanges of the hallux; the cytogenetic location is 7q36 and genomic coordinates are GRCh37:147,900,000 - 159,138,663. Mapping of this syndrome was done by Dundar and coworkers in 2001, they showed that this phenotype was linked to a 6.4-cM region of 7q36 flanked by the EN2 gene and the marker D7S2423. Dundar and coworkers characterized and mapped acropectoral syndrome and showed it was unrelated to acropectorovertebral syndrome.

The mapping showed that the acropectoral locus was in a region where preaxial polydactyly and triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly had been mapped. This study was important because it expanded the range of phenotypes that are connected to this locus. Preaxial polydactyly and sternal defects have been linked to ectopic expression of the gene Sonic hedgehog Shh in limbbud and lateral plate mesoderm during development in mice. Dundar and coworkers found; this gene encodes for a new transmembrane receptor and it is proposed that this receptor is an upstream regulator of SHH. Three main support groups of this syndrome are the ASGA in Australia, The Association for Children with Genetic Disorders in Poland, the Association of People of Genetic Disorders in Greece