Leone I Cabinet
The Leone I Cabinet was the cabinet of the Italian government which held office from 22 June 1963 until 5 December 1963, for a total of 166 days, or 5 months and 13 days. The government was composed by the following parties
Christian Democracy (Italy)
Christian Democracy was a Christian democratic political party in Italy. The DC was founded in 1943 as the ideal successor of the Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield. A Catholic-inspired, catch-all party comprising both right- and left-leaning political factions, the DC played a dominant role in the politics of Italy for fifty years, from its inception in 1944 until its final demise in 1994 amid the Tangentopoli scandals; the party was nicknamed the White Whale, due to party's huge organization and to its official color. From 1946 until 1994 the DC was the largest party in Parliament, governing in successive coalitions, it supported governments based on liberal-conservative political positions, before moving to centre-left coalitions. The party was succeeded by a string of smaller parties, including the Italian People's Party, the Christian Democratic Centre, the United Christian Democrats, the still active Union of the Centre. Former Christian Democrats are spread among other parties, including the centre-right Forza Italia and the centre-left Democratic Party.
The DC was a founding member of the European People's Party in 1976. The party was founded as the revival of the Italian People's Party, a political party created in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, a Catholic priest; the PPI won over 20% of the votes in the 1919 and 1921 general elections, but was declared illegal by the Fascist dictatorship in 1925 despite the presence of some Popolari in Benito Mussolini's first government. As World War II was ending, the Christian Democrats started organizing post-Fascist Italy in coalition with all the other mainstream parties, including the Italian Communist Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Liberal Party, the Italian Republican Party, the Action Party and the Labour Democratic Party. In December 1945 Christian Democrat Alcide De Gasperi was appointed Prime Minister of Italy. In the 1946 general election the DC won 35.2% of the vote. In May 1947 De Gasperi broke decisively with his Communist and Socialist coalition partners under pressure from U. S. President Harry Truman.
This opened the way for a centrist coalition that included the Italian Workers' Socialist Party, a centrist break-away from the PSI, as well as its usual allies, the PLI and the PRI. In the 1948 general election the DC went on to win a decisive victory, with the support of the Catholic Church and the United States, obtained 48.5% of the vote, its best result ever. Despite his party's absolute majority in the Italian Parliament, De Gasperi continued to govern at the head of the centrist coalition, successively abandoned by the Liberals, who hoped for more right-wing policies, in 1950 and the Democratic Socialists, who hoped for more leftist policies, in 1951. Under De Gasperi, major land reforms were carried out in the poorer rural regions in the early postwar years, with farms appropriated from the large landowners and parcelled out to the peasants. In addition, during its years in office, Christian Democrats passed a number of laws safeguarding employees from exploitation, established a national health service, initiated low-cost housing in Italy’s major cities.
De Gasperi would die a year later. No Christian Democrat would match his longevity in office and, despite the fact that DC's share of vote was always between 38 and 43% from 1953 to 1979, the party was more and more fractious; as a result, Prime Ministers changed more frequently. From 1954 the DC was led by progressive Christian Democrats, such as Amintore Fanfani, Aldo Moro and Benigno Zaccagnini, supported by the influential left-wing factions. In the 1950s the party formed centrist or moderately centre-left coalitions, a short-lived government led by Fernando Tambroni relying on parliamentary support from the Italian Social Movement, the post-fascist party. In 1963 the party, under Prime Minister Aldo Moro, formed a coalition with the PSI, which returned to ministerial roles after 16 years, the PSDI and the PRI. Similar "Organic Centre-left" governments became usual through the 1970s. From 1976 to 1979 the DC governed with the external support of the PCI, through the Historic Compromise. Moro, the party main leader and who had inspired the Compromise, was abducted and murdered by the Red Brigades.
The event was a shock for the party. When Moro was abducted, the government, at the time led by Giulio Andreotti took a hardline position stating that the "State must not bend" on terrorist demands; this was a different position from the one kept in similar cases before. It was however supported by all the mainstream parties, including the PCI, with the two notable exceptions of the PSI and the Radicals. In the trial for Mafia allegations against Andreotti, it was said that he took the chance of getting rid of a dangerous political competitor by sabotaging all of the rescue options and leaving the captors with no option but killing him. During his captivity Moro wrote a series of letters, at times critical of Andreotti; the memorial written by Moro during his imprisonment was subject to several plots, including the assassination of journalist Mino Pecorelli and general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa. At the beginning of the 1980s the DC had lost part of its support over Italian voters. In 1981 Giovanni Spadolini of the PRI was the first non-Christian Democrat to lead a government since 1944, at the head of a coalition comprising the DC, the PSI, the PSDI, the PRI and the PLI, the so
Moro I Cabinet
The Moro I Cabinet was the Government of Italy headed by Prime Minister Aldo Moro from 4 December 1963 until 22 July 1964 for a total of 231 days, or 7 months and 18 days. The cabinet is described as an organic centre-left government. Composition of Government: Christian Democrats Italian Socialist Party Italian Social Democratic Party Italian Republican Party 4 December 1963; the transitional government led by Giovanni Leone was followed by an historic agreement between the Christian Democrats and Italian Socialist Party - desired by Aldo Moro - which led to the first government in the Italian Republic which included a socialist party. PSI leader Pietro Nenni was Deputy Prime Minister, alongside 6 socialist ministers. However, some socialist parliamentarians expressed their dissatisfaction and founded a new party, known as the Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity, PSIUP. Dissent came from some Christian Democrats, for example Mario Scelba, leader of the Centrist current; when debate was completed, the government obtained a vote of confidence.
27 December 1963. Molise was established as the twentieth region of Italy, separated out from the former portion known as Abruzzo-Molise. 26 January 1964. The president of the Council, Aldo Moro, resigned from his post as party secretary of the Christian Democrats, leaving that position to Mariano Rumor and the vice secretariat to Arnaldo Forlani. 27 May 1964. Government measures reach a crisis: the socialist budget minister Antonio Giolitti says he is not in accord and foresees and aggravation of the situation. A few days ad avallare this situation, the governor of the Bank of Italy, Guido Carli, says that the entire system of production will pay the consequences. 25 June 1964. The government falls on a measure concerning private education. Only 7 voti di scarto determined the rejection of the government proposal to allocate 149 million lire for private education, a negligible sum but the opposition takesit as a matter of principle. Other matters of contention are the tax on automobiles, the increased price of petrol, above all the new urbanistic plan proposed by socialist minister Giovanni Pieraccini.
26 June 1964. Lo scontro è infuocato: socialists, social democratics, republicans, as well as some of Moro's own Christian Democrats fail to back the measure; the government cannot stand, Moro resigns
Democrats of the Left
The Democrats of the Left was a social-democratic political party in Italy. The DS, successor of the Democratic Party of the Left and the Italian Communist Party, was formed in 1998 upon the merger of the PDS with several minor parties. A member of The Olive Tree coalition, in October 2007 the DS merged with Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy and a number of minor centre-left parties to form the Democratic Party; the DS was successively led by Walter Veltroni and Piero Fassino. At its 20th congress in 1991, the Italian Communist Party was transformed into the Democratic Party of the Left, responding to the Revolutions of 1989 in eastern Europe by re-orienting the party towards the European democratic-socialist tradition. Under the leadership of Massimo D'Alema, the PDS merged with some minor centre-left movements on 13 February 1998; the DS' symbol lacked the hammer and sickle, present in the PDS' one and was instead replaced by the red rose of European social democracy as used by the Party of European Socialists.
Massimo D'Alema became Prime Minister of Italy in October 1998, the first former Communist to hold the post. D'Alema was replaced as the leader of DS by Walter Veltroni. During the party's first national congress in January 2000, Veltroni received the support of the 79.9% of delegates, while the left-wing of the party, at the time led by three women, had the support of 20.1% of delegates. During the party's second national congress in November 2001, Piero Fassino, a mainstream social democrat, was elected secretary with 61.8% of party members' votes. In the event, Giovanni Berlinguer, endorsed by left-wingers, democratic socialists and the Italian General Confederation of Labour trade union, gained 34.1%, while Enrico Morando, from the liberal right-wing, got 4.1%. Contextually, D'Alema was elected president. During the third national congress in February 2005, Fassino was re-elected with 79.0% of the vote. No-one stood against Fassino, but left-wing candidates ran for congressional delegates: the DS Left-wing – Returning to win motion/list won 14.6% of the vote, DS Left-wing for Socialism 4.0% and the Ecologist Left 2.4%.
In the 2006 general election, the DS endorsed Romano Prodi for Prime Minister and were part of the Olive Tree electoral list, along with Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy and the European Republicans Movement, for the Chamber of Deputies, while fielding its own list for the Senate. The DS–DL–MRE joint list obtained 31.2% of the vote and 220 deputies, while the DS list 17.2% and 62 senators. The party's dismal result and the razor-thin win of The Union coalition over the centre-right House of Freedoms coalition prompted a discussion on the party's future. By the end of 2006 the party leadership was committed to a merger with DL. Nine Ministers of the Prodi II Cabinet were affiliated to the DS, notably including D'Alema who served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Giorgio Napolitano, another DS member, was elected President of Italy in May 2006; the party's fourth national congress was held in 19–21 April 2007: During local congresses and his motion named For the Democratic Party, backed by most leading members, received the support of 75.6% by party members.
The left-wing of Fabio Mussi, Cesare Salvi, Fulvia Bandoli and Valdo Spini scored 15.0%. A third motion, signed by Gavino Angius, Mauro Zani and Giuseppe Caldarola, took 9.3% of the vote: its members supported the creation of a new party only within the PES, opposed by DL. As a result, the DS approved the formation of a "Democratic Party", along with minor parties. Most supporters of the two motions which had opposed the merger left the DS right after the congress and launched the Democratic Left on 5 May 2007, which aimed to unite the heterogeneous Italian left-wing; the Democratic Party was formed in October 2007 and its first secretary was Walter Veltroni, a former DS leader, elected leader of the new party through a leadership election, which saw the participation of over 3.5 million Italian voters in which Veltroni won 75.8% of the vote. Inside the DS, there was a somewhat simplistic distinction between reformists and radicals, indicating the party's mainstream and its left-wing; the party included several organised factions.
The social-democratic majority was loosely organised, while including several organised movements: the Labourites – Liberal Socialists, Reformist Europe and the Sicilian "Reformist Movement", all three splinter groups of the Italian Socialist Party. A dissident group left the Labourites in order to launch Socialists and Europeans as a vehicle to oppose the party's merger with DL. On the party's right, the Liberal DS had a moderate Third Way or radical-centrist political agenda and joined the party's majority in latter years. Before the party's last congress in 2007, the left-wing opposition was led by the DS Left-wing – Returning to win, a democratic-socialist grouping, with other smaller groups including DS Left – wing for Socialism and the Ecologist Left. Before that, some DS leading members, including Pietr
Guido Gonella was an Italian politician from the Christian Democracy, former Minister of Public Education and Minister of Justice. Gonella graduated in Philosophy at the Catholic University of Milan and in Law at the Sapienza University of Rome, teaching a few years Philosophy of law at the University of Bari and at the University of Pavia, he became a columnist of L'Osservatore Romano, receiving the task of talking about the foreign affairs by Bishop Giovanni Montini, the future Pope Paul VI. However, Gonella was kept under control by the political police for suspected anti-fascism: several times the fascist hierarchy asked Benito Mussolini to suppress the Vatican newspaper, but L'Osservatore Romano belonged to the Holy See and therefore could not be suppressed by the Italian government. On 3 September 1939, a few days after the beginning of World War II, Gonella was arrested by the fascists and brought to Regina Coeli, being freed only after the intervention of Pope Pius XII. Though he returned to L'Osservatore Romano, he was forbidden to teach in Universities.
Before the World War II, Gonella began to work with Alcide De Gasperi and took part in the drawing of the Code of Camaldoli, the document planning of economic policy by members of the Italian Catholic forces. In 1943, Gonella joined the new-born party Christian Democracy, with which he was elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1945, to the Chamber of Deputies from 1948 to 1968 and to the Senate from 1972 to 1979. From 1950 to 1953 he has been elected Secretary of the Christian Democracy, he has been the first Minister of Public Education of the Italian Republic in the Cabinets led by Alcide De Gasperi and has been many times, over a period of 20 years, Minister of Justice. During the 1978 presidential election, Gonella was the candidate of the Christian Democracy for the office of President of Italy, until the party decided, together with all the left-wing and centre-left parties in Parliament, to support the Socialist candidate Sandro Pertini. Gonella died in Nettuno, near Rome, at the age of 76, on 19 August 1982 28 years after the death of Alcide De Gasperi.
Files about his parliamentary activities: Constituent Assembly, I, II, III, IV, V, VI,VII, VIII legislature
Italian Democratic Socialist Party
The Italian Democratic Socialist Party was a minor social-democratic political party in Italy. The PSDI, before the 1990s decline in votes and members, had been an important force in Italian politics, being the longest serving partner in government for Christian Democracy; the party's founder and longstanding leader was Giuseppe Saragat, who served as President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. The party was founded as the Socialist Party of Italian Workers in 1947 by a splinter group of the Italian Socialist Party, due to the decision of the latter to join the Italian Communist Party in the Popular Democratic Front's electoral list for the 1948 general election; the split, led by Giuseppe Saragat and the sons of Giacomo Matteotti, took the name of scissione di Palazzo Barberini from the name of a palace in Rome where it took place. In 1952, the party became the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, after joining forces with the smaller Unitary Socialist Party in 1951. From 1949 to 1965 members of the PSDI held the presidency of the Istituto Nazionale di Previdenza Sociale.
In 1963 the party joined the PSI to form the Unified Socialist Party, but in 1968, after a dismaying result at the general election, it left the new party, returning to the PSDI name in 1971. In 1980 the party joined Christian Democracy, the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Liberal Party in the five-party coalition which ruled the country until 1994; however the party's role in the coalition was minimal and was over-shadowed by the more powerful PSI. The PSDI was a member of Socialist International and a founder member of the Party of European Socialists, its members of the European Parliament thus sat within the Socialist Group since 1979. In 1994 the party was expelled from the PES; the PSDI was involved in the corruption scandals known as Tangentopoli and disappeared from the political scene. The 1994 general election resulted in an overnight decline of the Pentapartito coalition parties and the rise of Silvio Berlusconi-led Forza Italia, which absorbed many PSDI voters.
In January 1995 Gian Franco Schietroma was elected national secretary of the party replacing Enrico Ferri, who wanted to join the centre-right Pole of Freedoms. The followers of Ferri left and established the European Liberal Social Democracy and joined the centre-right Christian Democratic Centre. In 1998 the party, led by Schietroma merged with the Italian Socialists, one of the successor parties of the PSI, to form the Italian Democratic Socialists. By most members and voters of the party have joined other parties: Forza Italia, the Christian Democratic Centre and The Democrats; the party was re-established in 2004 with the same name, "Italian Democratic Socialist Party", as the continuation of the party of Saragat, so that the new PSDI numbers its congresses in perfect continuity with the late PSDI. The PSDI had its best result at its first appearance in the 1948 general election, when it gained 7.1% of the vote. In that occasion the party was successful in stealing many votes from the Italian Socialist Party, damaged by the split as well as by the alliance with the Italian Communist Party in the Popular Democratic Front.
The PSDI found its heartlands in Northern Italy: 12.9% in the Province of Turin, 11.9% in Cuneo, 10.6% in Milan, 13.9% in Sondrio, 12.6% in Treviso, 15.9% in Belluno, 14.9% in Udine. From 1953 to 1987 the party's support was around 4-5%, with the sole exception of 1963, when it gained 6.1%. In the 1992 general election, the last before Tangentopoli, the PSDI won just 2.7%. The party maintained for decades its strongholds in the North-West and North-East, but since the 1960s it started to gain support in Southern Italy. By 1987 the party's strongholds had moved South Apulia, Basilicata and Sicily to what the other parties of Pentapartito were experiencing; this was due to the growth of regionalist parties in the North. After Tangentopoli, Mani pulite and subsequent political crisis, the PSDI has disappeared electorally, although it retains some support locally in the South in Apulia. Secretary: Giuseppe Saragat, Alberto Simonini, Ugo Guido Mondolfo, Ludovico D'Aragona, Giuseppe Saragat, Ezio Vigorelli, Giuseppe Romita, Giuseppe Saragat, Gian Matteo Matteotti, Giuseppe Saragat, Mario Tanassi, unification with PSI in the PSU, Mauro Ferri, Mario Tanassi, Flavio Orlandi, Mario Tanassi, Giuseppe Saragat, Pier Luigi Romita, Pietro Longo, Franco Nicolazzi, Antonio Cariglia, Carlo Vizzini, Enrico Ferri, Gian Franco Schietroma President: Giuseppe Saragat, Party Leader in the Chamber of Deputies: Giuseppe Modigliani, Rocco Gullo, Mario Langhena, Luigi Benanni, Ezio Vigorelli, Paolo Rossi, Alberto Simonini, Giuseppe Saragat, Virginio Bertinelli, Mario Tanassi, Egidio Ariosto, Flavio Orlandi, Antonio Cariglia, Luigi Preti, Franco Nicolazzi, Alessandro Reggiani, Filippo Caria, Dino Madaudo, Enrico Ferri
Antonio Segni was an Italian politician, the 34th Prime Minister of Italy, the fourth President of the Italian Republic from 1962 to 1964. Adhering to the centrist Christian Democratic party, he was the first Sardinian to become Prime Minister of Italy; the son of a Sardinian landowning family, born in Sassari, Sardinia, he studied to become a lawyer with a degree in agricultural and commercial law. Segni joined the Italian People's Party – the predecessor of the Christian Democratic Party – in 1919. In 1924 he was a member of the party’s national council, until all political organizations were dissolved by Benito Mussolini two years in 1926. For the next 17 years Segni taught Agrarian Law at the Universities of Pavia and Cagliari. In 1943 Segni was one of the organizers of the new Christian Democratic Party in Sardinia, he held ministerial positions in many Christian Democrat governments from 1944 onward, despite his frail physique. Time Magazine once quoted a friend: "He is like the Colosseum.
In 1946, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly after World War II and to parliament in 1948. Segni made his reputation as Minister of Agriculture under Alcide de Gasperi, he favoured land reform legislation and ordered the expropriation of most of his own estate in Sardinia. He became known as a "white Bolshevik" for his agrarian reforms. Modern historians assert that landowners were favored by Segni and his decrees allowed them to reclaim land, granted to the peasantry by the preceding administration, he became Prime Minister in 1955. During Segni’s government the treaties instituting the European Economic Community were signed on 25 March 1957, Italy co-founded the community. In March 1959, he became Prime Minister again, succeeding Amintore Fanfani, in whose government he had been Minister of Defense. In social policy, various reforms in social welfare were carried out. A law of 21 March 1959 extended insurance against occupational diseases to agricultural workers. A law of 17 May 1959 introduced a special additional indemnity for retired civil servants.
A law of 4 July 1959 extended pension insurance to artisans. Segni was elected President of the Italian Republic on 6 May 1962, he suffered a serious cerebral hemorrhage while working at the presidential palace on 7 August 1964. At the time he was 73 years old and the first prognosis was not positive, he only recovered, he retired from office on 6 December 1964. In the interim, the President of the Senate Cesare Merzagora served as acting president. Politically, Segni was a moderate conservative opposed to "opening to the centre-left" enabling coalition governments between the Italian Socialist Party and the Christian Democrats. Segni was accused of having tried to instigate a coup d'état along with General Giovanni De Lorenzo during his presidency to frustrate the opening to the left. Segni was a professor of law at University of Sassari. Straightforward and courteous, Segni was more at ease in the classroom or the law court than in the back rooms of Italian politics, he died on 1 December 1972 in Rome, at the age of 81.
The frail ailing Segni, was affectionately called malato di ferro—"the invalid with the iron constitution". In 1921, Segni married Laura Carta Camprino and had four sons, Giuseppe and Mariotto. Segni's son, Mariotto Segni, is a prominent Italian politician. Marcus, George E.. ‘’Paranoia Within Reason: A Casebook on Conspiracy as Explanation'’, Chicago: University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-50457-3 President Antonio Segni, Italian Chamber of Deputies Political factors related to the illness of Italian President Antonio Segni, declassified CIA document dated 14 August 1964