The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia. Founded in March 2001, it is the second-oldest, after the English Wikipedia, with 2,291,320 articles, at present the fourth-largest edition of Wikipedia by number of articles, behind the English Wikipedia and the bot-generated Swedish Wikipedia and Cebuano Wikipedia, it has the second-largest number of over 260,000 disambiguation pages. On 7 November 2011, it became the second edition of Wikipedia, after the English edition, to exceed 100 million page edits. On 21 March 2019 the German Wikipedia went offline to inform users about the situation of the European Union's copyright law reformation, the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, which will be voted on in the European Parliament on 27 March 2019. Opponents of the reformation are concerned about the restriction of fundamental rights including a free press and the freedom of speech and arts; the German edition of Wikipedia was the first non-English Wikipedia subdomain, was named deutsche.wikipedia.com.
Its creation was announced by Jimmy Wales on 16 March 2001. One of the earliest snapshots of the home page, dated 21 March 2001, can be seen at the Wayback Machine site. Aside from the home page, creation of articles in the German Wikipedia started as early as April 2001 with translations of Nupedia articles; the earliest article still available on Wikipedia's site is Polymerase-Kettenreaktion, dated May 2001. Andrew Lih wrote that the hacker culture in Germany and the verein concept solidified the German Wikipedia's culture; the geography of Europe facilitated face-to-face meetups among German Wikipedians. On 27 December 2009, the German Wikipedia edition exceeded 1,000,000 articles, becoming the first edition after the English-language Wikipedia to do so; the millionth article was Ernie Wasson. In November 2008, 90% of the edition's articles had more than 512 bytes, 49% had more than 2 kilobytes, the average article size was 3,476 bytes. In the middle of 2009 this edition had nearly 250,000 biographies and in December 2006 more than 48,500 disambiguations.
Compared to the English Wikipedia, the German edition tends to be more selective in its coverage rejecting small stubs, articles about individual fictional characters and similar materials. Instead, there is one article about all the characters from a specific fictional setting only when the setting is considered important enough. A dedicated article about a single fictional entity exists only if the character in question has a significant impact on popular culture. Andrew Lih wrote that German Wikipedia users believe that "having no article at all is better than a bad article." Therefore, growth on the German Wikipedia leveled before it did for the English Wikipedia, with accelerating growth in article count shifting to constant growth in mid-2006. The number of users signing up for accounts began to decline in 2007 through 2008; the January 2005, Google Zeitgeist announced that "Wikipedia" was the eighth most-searched query on Google.de. In February 2005, Wikipedia reached third place behind Valentine's Day.
In June 2005, Wikipedia ranked first. Separate Wikipedias have been created for several other varieties of German, including Alemannic German, Pennsylvania German, Low German and Bavarian; these however, have less popularity than the German Wikipedia. The German Wikipedia is different from the English Wikipedia in a number of aspects. Compared to the English Wikipedia, different criteria of encyclopedic notability are expressed through the judgments of the editors for deciding if an article about a topic should be allowed; the criteria for notability are more specific, each field has its own specific guidelines. There are no fair use provisions. Images and other media that are accepted on the English Wikipedia as fair use may not be suitable for the German Wikipedia. However, the threshold of originality for works of applied art is set much higher, which allows the use of company logos and similar icons, too; the use of scholarly sources, in preference over journalistic and other types of sources, is more encouraged.
The German Verifiability guideline classifies scholarly sources as inherently more reliable than non-academic sources. In September 2005, Erik Möller voiced concern that "long term page protection is used excessively on the German Wikipedia": on 14 September 2005, 253 pages were protected for more than two weeks; this was the highest number of such blocks of all Wikipedias. As of May 2008, the German Wikipedia still had the highest percentage of semi-protected articles - 0.281% - among the ten largest Wikipedias, but with respect to the fraction of protected articles it ranks fourth, behind the Japanese and English Wikipedias. Vandalism and other abuse is handled in a less formal way. Vandals may get blocked on their first edit and without warning if their edit shows lack of interest for actual encyclopaedic work; this is true if the added text includes unlawful statements, such as holocaust denial. The Checkuser function is used to determine multiple accounts, as "suspicious" accounts are block
Media blackout refers to the censorship of news related to a certain topic in mass media, for any reason. A media blackout may be voluntary, or may in some countries be enforced by the state; the latter case is controversial in peacetime, as some regard it as a human rights violation and repression of free speech. Press blackout is a similar phrase, but refers to printed media. Media blackouts are used, in particular, in times of declared war, to keep useful intelligence from the enemy. In some cases formal censorship is used, in others the news media are keen to support their country voluntarily as in the UK D- Notice system in the Second World War; some examples of media blackout would include the media bans of southern Japan during the droppings of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the lack of independent media correspondence from Iraq during the Persian Gulf War. During World War II, the US Office of Censorship sent messages to newspapers and radio stations, which were acted on by recipients, asking them not to report any sightings or explosions of fire balloons, so the Japanese would have no information on the balloons' effectiveness when planning future actions.
As a result, the Japanese learned the fate of only one of their bombs, which landed in Wyoming, but failed to explode. The Japanese stopped all launches after less than six months; the press blackout in the U. S. was lifted after the first deaths from fire balloons, to ensure that the public was warned, though public knowledge of the threat could have prevented the deaths. News of the loss of over 4,000 lives when UK ship RMS Lancastria was sunk during the war was voluntarily suppressed to prevent it affecting civilian morale, but was published after it became known overseas; some media critics have questioned whether the 2000 Wichita Massacre received little to no coverage in the mainstream media due to political correctness regarding the race of the perpetrators and the victims. Such critics cite the 2007 Murders of Channon Christian and Christopher Newsom in Knoxville, Tennessee. A media blackout was used during the 2005 New York City transit strike to allow for more effective contract negotiation between the two sides of the dispute.
Most the more freedom of the press that any particular country has, the more sensational the story, the more it is that at least one news organization will ignore the "blackout" and run the story. The 2008 abduction of Canadian journalist Mellissa Fung was given a media blackout to assure her safe return. All media sources obliged making the Canadian public unaware of the fate of Fung. In 2008, the fact that Prince Harry third in line to the British throne, was serving on active duty in Afghanistan was subject to a blackout in the British media for his own safety, he was brought. On 22 June 2009, when news came that New York Times reporter David Rohde had escaped from his Taliban captors, few knew he had been kidnapped, because for the seven months he and two Afghan colleagues were in the Taliban's hands, The Times kept that information under wraps. Out of concern for the reporter's safety, The Times asked other major news organizations to do the same. Kelly McBride, who teaches ethics to journalists at the Poynter Institute, says she was "really astounded" by the media blackout.
"I find it a little disturbing, because it makes me wonder what else 40 international news organizations have agreed not to tell the public," she tells NPR's Melissa Block. McBride says. "I don't think we do ourselves any favors long term for our credibility when we have a total news blackout on something that's of interest to the public," she says. In 2009, on the 20th anniversary of Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, a number of social media websites were made inaccessible and foreign television reception disrupted in China. On 18 January 2012, Wikipedia participated in a voluntary media blackout to protest SOPA; some blackouts, or media dereliction, may arise due to social factors rather than mandates, such as the Kermit Gosnell abortion trial having been avoided by all media. Congresswoman Marsha Blackburn and 71 other Members of Congress condemned the blackout, it was termed a blackout by Troy Newman, president of the Kansas-based pro-life Operation Rescue."Writing for The Washington Post, Melinda Henneberger responded that "we didn’t write more because the only abortion story most outlets cover in the news pages is every single threat or perceived threat to abortion rights.
In fact, so fixed a view of what constitutes coverage of that issue that it’s genuinely hard, I think, for many journalists to see a story outside that paradigm as news. That’s not so much a conscious decision as a reflex, but the effect is one-sided coverage". Explaining why some of her colleagues did not report on the story, Henneberger wrote, "One colleague viewed Gosnell’s alleged atrocities as a local crime story, though I can’t think of another mass murder, with hundreds of victims, that we saw that way. Another said it was just too lurid, though that didn’t keep us from covering Jeffrey Dahmer, or that aspiring cannibal at the NYPD." Writing for Bloomberg View, Jeffrey Goldberg said that this story "upsets a particular narrative about the reality of certain types of abortion, that reality isn’t something some pro-choice absolutists want to discuss"." A still unidentified American man working as an English teacher in Japan'went into cardiac arrest' after being restrained by six Tokyo police officers on February 11, 2015, remained in a coma until
Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri known by his name of art Dante Alighieri or as Dante, was an Italian poet during the Late Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy called Comedìa and christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language. In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, making it accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia, Dante defended the use of the vernacular in literature, he would write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life and the Divine Comedy. Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, his depictions of Hell and Heaven provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art, he is cited as an influence among many others. In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, or the terza rima, is attributed to him. In Italy, he is referred to as il Sommo Poeta and il Poeta. Dante was born in Republic of Florence, present-day Italy.
The exact date of his birth is unknown, although it is believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in the Divine Comedy, its first section, the Inferno, begins, "Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita", implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the average lifespan according to the Bible is 70 years. Some verses of the Paradiso section of the Divine Comedy provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of Gemini: "As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw revealed, from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious". In 1265, the sun was in Gemini between May 11 and June 11. Giovanni Boccaccio described Dante's appearance and demeanor as follows: "the poet was of middle height, in his years he walked somewhat bent over, with a grave and gentle gait, he was clad always in most seemly attire, such as befitted his ripe years. His face was long, his nose aquiline, his eyes big rather than small, his jaws were large, his lower lip protruded.
He had a brown complexion, his hair and beard were thick and curly, his countenance was always melancholy and thoughtful." Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans, but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei, born no earlier than about 1100. Dante's father, Alighiero or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the middle of the 13th century; this suggests that Alighiero or his family may have enjoyed some protective prestige and status, although some suggest that the politically inactive Alighiero was of such low standing that he was not considered worth exiling. Dante's family was loyal to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the Papacy and, involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines, who were backed by the Holy Roman Emperor; the poet's mother was Bella a member of the Abati family. She died when Dante was not yet ten years old, Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi.
It is uncertain whether he married her, since widowers were limited in such matters, but this woman bore him two children, Dante's half-brother Francesco and half-sister Tana. When Dante was 12, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati, member of the powerful Donati family. Contracting marriages at this early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a notary, but by this time Dante had fallen in love with another, Beatrice Portinari, whom he first met when he was only nine. Years after his marriage to Gemma he claims to have met Beatrice again; the exact date of his marriage is not known: the only certain information is that, before his exile in 1301, he had three children. Dante fought with the Guelph cavalry at the Battle of Campaldino; this victory brought about a reformation of the Florentine constitution. To take any part in public life, one had to enroll in one of the city's many commercial or artisan guilds, so Dante entered the Physicians' and Apothecaries' Guild.
In the following years, his name is recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic. A substantial portion of minutes from such meetings in the years 1298–1300 was lost, however, so the true extent of Dante's participation in the city's councils is uncertain. Gemma bore Dante several children. Although several others subsequently claimed to be his offspring, it is that only Jacopo, Pietro and Antonia were his actual children. Antonia became a nun, taking the name Sister Beatrice. Not much is known about Dante's education, it is known that he stud
Jimmy Donal "Jimbo" Wales is an American Internet entrepreneur, best known as the co-founder of the online non-profit encyclopedia Wikipedia and the for-profit web hosting company Wikia. Wales was born in Huntsville, where he attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school, he earned bachelor's and master's degrees in finance from Auburn University and the University of Alabama respectively. While in graduate school, Wales taught at two universities. In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, an adult web portal featuring entertainment and adult content; the company would provide the initial funding for the peer-reviewed free encyclopedia and its successor, Wikipedia. On January 15, 2001, with Larry Sanger and others, Wales launched Wikipedia—a free, open content encyclopedia that enjoyed rapid growth and popularity, he is cited as a co-founder of Wikipedia, though he has disputed the "co-" designation, declaring himself the sole founder. Wales serves on the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, the non-profit charitable organization that he helped establish to operate Wikipedia, holding its board-appointed "community founder" seat.
His role in creating Wikipedia, which has become the world's largest encyclopedia, prompted Time magazine to name him in their 2006 list of "The 100 Most Influential People in the World". Wales was born in Huntsville, shortly before midnight on August 7, 1966, his father, worked as a grocery store manager, while his mother, Doris Ann, his grandmother, ran the House of Learning, a small private school in the tradition of the one-room schoolhouse, where Wales and his three siblings received their early education. As a child, Wales enjoyed reading; when he was three, his mother bought a World Book Encyclopedia from a door-to-door salesman. As he grew up and learned to read, it became an object of reverence, it put at his fingertips an abundant supply of knowledge complete with maps, a few cellophane layers of transparencies one could lift to explore such things as the muscles and digestive system of a dissected frog. But Wales soon discovered that the World Book had shortcomings: no matter how much was in it, there were many more things that were not.
World Book sent out stickers for owners to paste on the pages in order to update the encyclopedia, Wales was careful to put the stickers to work, stating, "I joke that I started as a kid revising the encyclopedia by stickering the one my mother bought."During an interview in 2005 with Brian Lamb, Wales described his childhood private school as a "Montessori influenced philosophy of education", where he "spent lots of hours poring over the Britannicas and World Book Encyclopedias". There were only four other children in Wales's grade, so the school grouped together the first through fourth-grade students and the fifth through eighth-grade students; as an adult, Wales was critical of the government's treatment of the school, citing the "constant interference and bureaucracy and sort of snobby inspectors from the state" as a formative influence on his political philosophy. After eighth grade, Wales attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school in Huntsville, graduating at sixteen.
Wales said that the school was expensive for his family, but that "education was always a passion in my household... you know, the traditional approach to knowledge and learning and establishing that as a base for a good life." He received his bachelor's degree in finance from Auburn University in 1986. He began his Auburn education. Wales entered the PhD finance program at the University of Alabama before leaving with a master's degree to enter the PhD finance program at Indiana University. At the University of Alabama, he played Internet fantasy games and developed his interest in the web, he taught at both universities during his postgraduate studies but did not write the doctoral dissertation required for a PhD, something he ascribed to boredom. In 1994, Wales took a job with Chicago Options Associates, a futures and options trading firm in Chicago, Illinois. Wales has described himself as having been addicted to the Internet from an early stage and he wrote computer code during his leisure time.
During his studies in Alabama, he had become an obsessive player of Multi-User Dungeons —a type of virtual role-playing game—and thereby experienced the potential of computer networks to foster large-scale collaborative projects. Inspired by the remarkably successful initial public offering of Netscape in 1995, having accumulated capital through "speculating on interest-rate and foreign-currency fluctuations", Wales decided to leave the realm of financial trading and became an Internet entrepreneur. In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, a web portal featuring user-generated webrings and, for a time, erotic photographs. Wales described it as a "guy-oriented search engine" with a market similar to that of Maxim magazine. Though Bomis had at the time struggled to make money, it provided Wales with the funding to pursue his greater passion, an online encyclopedia. While moderating an online discussion group devoted to the philosophy of Objectivism in the early 1990s, Wales had encountered Larry Sanger, a skeptic of the philosophy.
The two had engaged in detailed debate on the subject on Wales's list and on Sanger's meeting offline to continue the de
Francesco Petrarca anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy, one of the earliest humanists. His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is credited with inventing the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is considered the founder of Humanism. In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca. Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry, he is known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages." Petrarch was born in the Tuscan city of Arezzo in 1304. He was the son of his wife Eletta Canigiani, his given name was Francesco Petracco. The name was Latinized to Petrarca. Petrarch's younger brother was born in Incisa in Val d'Arno in 1307. Dante was a friend of his father.
Petrarch spent his early childhood near Florence. He spent much of his early life at Avignon and nearby Carpentras, where his family moved to follow Pope Clement V who moved there in 1309 to begin the Avignon Papacy, he studied law at the University of Montpellier and Bologna with a lifelong friend and schoolmate called Guido Sette. Because his father was in the legal profession, he insisted that Petrarch and his brother study law also. Petrarch however, was interested in writing and Latin literature and considered these seven years wasted. Additionally, he proclaimed that through legal manipulation his guardians robbed him of his small property inheritance in Florence, which only reinforced his dislike for the legal system, he protested, "I couldn't face making a merchandise of my mind," as he viewed the legal system as the art of selling justice. Petrarch was a prolific letter writer and counted Boccaccio among his notable friends to whom he wrote often. After the death of their parents and his brother Gherardo went back to Avignon in 1326, where he worked in numerous clerical offices.
This work gave him much time to devote to his writing. With his first large-scale work, Africa, an epic in Latin about the great Roman general Scipio Africanus, Petrarch emerged as a European celebrity. On April 8, 1341, he became the second poet laureate since antiquity and was crowned by Roman Senatori Giordano Orsini and Orso dell'Anguillara on the holy grounds of Rome's Capitol, he traveled in Europe, served as an ambassador, has been called "the first tourist" because he traveled just for pleasure, the reason he climbed Mont Ventoux. During his travels, he collected crumbling Latin manuscripts and was a prime mover in the recovery of knowledge from writers of Rome and Greece, he encouraged and advised Leontius Pilatus's translation of Homer from a manuscript purchased by Boccaccio, although he was critical of the result. Petrarch had acquired a copy, which he did not entrust to Leontius. In 1345 he discovered a collection of Cicero's letters not known to have existed, the collection Epistulae ad Atticum, in the Chapter Library of Verona Cathedral.
Disdaining what he believed to be the ignorance of the centuries preceding the era in which he lived, Petrarch is credited or charged with creating the concept of a historical "Dark Ages". Petrarch recounts that on April 26, 1336, with his brother and two servants, he climbed to the top of Mont Ventoux (1,912 meters, a feat which he undertook for recreation rather than necessity; the exploit is described in a celebrated letter addressed to his friend and confessor, the monk Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro, composed some time after the fact. In it, Petrarch claimed to have been inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo and that an aged peasant had told him that nobody had ascended Ventoux before or after himself, 50 years before, warned him against attempting to do so; the nineteenth-century Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt noted that Jean Buridan had climbed the same mountain a few years before, ascents accomplished during the Middle Ages have been recorded, including that of Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne.
Scholars note that Petrarch's letter to Dionigi displays a strikingly "modern" attitude of aesthetic gratification in the grandeur of the scenery and is still cited in books and journals devoted to the sport of mountaineering. In Petrarch, this attitude is coupled with an aspiration for a virtuous Christian life, on reaching the summit, he took from his pocket a volume by his beloved mentor, Saint Augustine, that he always carried with him. For pleasure alone he climbed Mont Ventoux, which rises to more than six thousand feet, beyond Vaucluse, it was no great feat, of course. Petrarch was dazed and stirred by the view of the Alps, the mountains around Lyons, the Rhone, the Bay of Marseilles, he took Augustine's Confessions from his pocket and reflected that his climb was an allegory of aspiration toward a better life. As the book fell open, Petrarch's eyes were drawn to the following words: And men go about to wonder at the heights of the mountains, the mighty waves of the sea, the wide sweep of rive
Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019, it is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free. Wikipedia was launched on January 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, as a portmanteau of wiki and "encyclopedia". An English-language encyclopedia, versions in other languages were developed. With 5,838,942 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages and by February 2014 it had reached 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors per month.
In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica, although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues. The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and the best encyclopedia in the world, was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales. Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, some falsehoods", for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. In 2017, Facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.
Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company, its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia; the domains wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001 and January 13, 2001 and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.
Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, web search engine indexing. Language editions were created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, its text was incorporated into Wikipedia; the English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for 600 years. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002; these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.
Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that merit an article—have been created and built up extensively. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend. Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. Two years in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.
In the same interview, Wales claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable". A 2013 article titled; the article revealed
Stop Online Piracy Act
The Stop Online Piracy Act was a controversial United States bill introduced by U. S. Representative Lamar S. Smith to expand the ability of U. S. law enforcement to combat online copyright infringement and online trafficking in counterfeit goods. Provisions included the requesting of court orders to bar advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with infringing websites, web search engines from linking to the websites, court orders requiring Internet service providers to block access to the websites; the proposed law would have expanded existing criminal laws to include unauthorized streaming of copyrighted content, imposing a maximum penalty of five years in prison. Proponents of the legislation said it would protect the intellectual-property market and corresponding industry and revenue, was necessary to bolster enforcement of copyright laws against foreign-owned and operated websites. Claiming flaws in existing laws that do not cover foreign-owned and operated websites, citing examples of active promotion of rogue websites by U.
S. search engines, proponents asserted. The bill received bipartisan support in the House of Representatives and the Senate, it received support from the Fraternal Order of Police, the National Governors Association, The National Conference of Legislatures, the U. S. Conference of Mayors, the National Association of Attorneys General, the Chamber of Commerce, the Better Business Bureau, the AFL–CIO and 22 trade unions, the National Consumers League, over a hundred associations representing industries throughout the economy which claim that they are being harmed by online piracy. Opponents argued that the proposed legislation threatened free speech and innovation, enabled law enforcement to block access to entire Internet domains due to infringing content posted on a single blog or webpage, they stated that SOPA would bypass the "safe harbor" protections from liability presently afforded to websites by the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Some library associations claimed that the legislation's emphasis on stronger copyright enforcement would expose libraries to prosecution.
Other opponents claimed that requiring search engines to delete domain names violated the First Amendment and could begin a worldwide arms race of unprecedented Internet censorship. On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia, an estimated 7,000 other smaller websites coordinated a service blackout, in protest against the bill. Wikipedia said. Other protests against SOPA and PIPA included petition drives, with Google stating it collected over seven million signatures, boycotts of companies and organizations that support the legislation, an opposition rally held in New York City. In response to the protest actions, the Recording Industry Association of America stated, "It's a dangerous and troubling development when the platforms that serve as gateways to information intentionally skew the facts to incite their users and arm them with misinformation", "it's difficult to counter the misinformation when the disseminators own the platform." Access to websites of several pro-SOPA organizations and companies such as RIAA, CBS.com, others was impeded or blocked with denial-of-service attacks which started on January 19, 2012.
Self-proclaimed members of the "hacktivist" group Anonymous claimed responsibility and stated the attacks were a protest of both SOPA and the United States Department of Justice's shutdown of Megaupload on that same day. Some opponents of the bill support the Online Protection and Enforcement of Digital Trade Act as an alternative. On January 20, 2012, House Judiciary Committee Chairman Smith postponed plans to draft the bill: "The committee remains committed to finding a solution to the problem of online piracy that protects American intellectual property and innovation... The House Judiciary Committee will postpone consideration of the legislation until there is wider agreement on a solution." Bill 3261 or H. R. 3261, was a proposed law, introduced in the United States House of Representatives on October 26, 2011, by House Judiciary Committee Chair Representative Lamar S. Smith and a bipartisan group of 12 initial co-sponsors. Presented to the House Judiciary Committee, it builds on the similar PRO-IP Act of 2008 and the corresponding Senate bill, the PROTECT IP Act.
The proposed bill would allow the United States Department of Justice, as well as copyright holders, to seek court orders against websites outside U. S. jurisdiction accused of facilitating copyright infringement. A court order requested by the DOJ could include barring online advertising networks and payment facilitators from conducting business with websites found to infringe on federal criminal intellectual-property laws, barring search engines from linking to such sites, requiring Internet service providers to block access to such sites; the bill establishes a two-step process for intellectual property-rights holders to seek relief if they have been harmed by a site dedicated to infringement. The rights holder must first notify, in writing, related payment facilitators and ad networks of the identity of the website, who, in turn, must forward that notification and suspend services to that identified website, unless that site provides a counter notification explaining how it is not in violation.
The rights holder can sue for limited injunctive relief against the site operator, if such a counter notification is provided, or if the payment or advertising services fail to suspend service in the absence of a counter notification. The second section covers penalties for streaming video and for selling counterfeit drugs, mil