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Italian art

Since ancient times, Greeks and Celts have inhabited the south and north of the Italian peninsula respectively. The numerous Rock Drawings in Valcamonica go to 8,000 BC, there are rich remains of Etruscan art from thousands of tombs, as well as rich remains from the Greek colonies at Paestum and elsewhere. Ancient Rome emerged as the dominant Italian and European power; the Roman remains in Italy are of extraordinary richness, from the grand Imperial monuments of Rome itself to the survival of exceptionally preserved ordinary buildings in Pompeii and neighbouring sites. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages Italy the north, remained an important centre, not only of the Carolingian art and Ottonian art of the Holy Roman Emperors, but for the Byzantine art of Ravenna and other sites. Italy was the main centre of artistic developments throughout the Renaissance, beginning with the Proto-Renaissance of Giotto and reaching a particular peak in the High Renaissance of Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, whose works inspired the phase of the Renaissance, known as Mannerism.

Italy retained its artistic dominance into the 17th century with the Baroque, into the 18th century with Neoclassicism. In this period, cultural tourism became a major prop to Italian economy. Both Baroque and Neoclassicism spread to all Western art. Italy maintained a presence in the international art scene from the mid-19th century onwards, with movements such as the Macchiaioli, Metaphysical, Novecento Italiano, Arte Povera, Transavantgarde. Italian art has influenced several major movements throughout the centuries and has produced several great artists, including painters and sculptors. Today, Italy has an important place in the international art scene, with several major art galleries and exhibitions. Italy is home to 55 the largest number of any country in the world. Etruscan bronze figures and a terracotta funerary reliefs include examples of a vigorous Central Italian tradition which had waned by the time Rome began building her empire on the peninsula; the Etruscan paintings that have survived to modern times are wall frescoes from graves, from Tarquinia.

These are the most important example of pre-Roman figurative art in Italy known to scholars. The frescoes consist of painting on top of fresh plaster, so that when the plaster is dried the painting becomes part of the plaster and an integral part of the wall, which helps it survive so well. Colours were made from stones and minerals in different colours that ground up and mixed in a medium, fine brushes were made of animal hair. From the mid 4th century BC chiaroscuro began to be used to portray volume. Sometimes scenes of everyday life are portrayed, but more traditional mythological scenes; the concept of proportion does not appear in any surviving frescoes and we find portrayals of animals or men with some body-parts out of proportion. One of the best-known Etruscan frescoes is that of Tomb of the Lioness at Tarquinia; the Etruscan were responsible for constructing Rome's earliest monumental buildings. Roman temples and houses were based on Etruscan models. Elements of Etruscan influence in Roman temples included the podium and the emphasis on the front at the expense of the remaining three sides.

Large Etruscan houses were grouped around a central hall in much the same way as Roman town Large houses were built around an atrium. The influence of Etruscan architecture declined during the republic in the face of influences from elsewhere. Etruscan architecture was itself influenced by the Greeks, so that when the Romans adopted Greek styles, it was not a alien culture. During the republic there was a steady absorption of architectural influences from the Hellenistic world, but after the fall of Syracuse in 211 BC, Greek works of art flooded into Rome. During the 2nd century BC, the flow of these works, more important, Greek craftsmen, thus decisively influencing the development of Roman architecture. By the end of the republic, when Vitruvius wrote his treatise on architecture, Greek architectural theory and example were dominant. With the expansion of the empire, Roman architecture spread over a wide area, used for both public buildings and some larger private ones. In many areas elements of style were influenced by local tastes decoration, but the architecture remained recognizably Roman.

Styles of vernacular architecture were influenced to varying degrees by Roman architecture, in many regions Roman and native elements are found combined in the same building. By the 1st century AD, Rome had become the most advanced city in the world; the ancient Romans came up with new technologies to improve the city's sanitation systems and buildings. They developed a system of aqueducts that piped freshwater into the city, they built sewers that removed the city's waste; the wealthiest Romans lived in large houses with gardens. Most of the population, lived in apartment buildings made of stone, concrete, or limestone; the Romans developed new techniques and used materials such as volcanic soil from Pozzuoli, a village near Naples, to make their cement harder and stronger. This concrete allowed them to build large apartment buildings called insulae. Wallpaintings decorated the houses of the wealthy. Paintings sho

Henry Haven Windsor

Henry Haven Windsor, American author, magazine editor, publisher, was the founder and first editor of Popular Mechanics. He was succeeded as editor by his son, Henry Haven Windsor, Jr. Windsor published Cartoons Magazine from 1912 to 1922. Windsor was born in a log cabin in Mitchell, the son of Rev. William D. D. Windsor and Harriet Butler Windsor, he attended Iowa College, graduating in 1884. On June 25, 1889, he married Lina B. Jackson in Illinois. From 1879 to 1880, he served as city editor of Iowa Times-Republican. During 1881–82 he was private secretary to officials of the Northern Pacific Railway in Saint Paul, Minnesota. From 1883 to 1891, he was secretary of the Chicago City Railway. In 1892 he founded the magazine Street Railway Review, serving as president, he founded Brick and Rural Free Delivery News. Beginning in 1901, he was president of the magazine Popular Mechanics; as of 1922, Windsor maintained homes in Illinois. His office address was 6 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago. Windsor gave his political affiliation as Republican and his religious affiliation as Congregationalist.

He was a member of several clubs, including the Press Club, Chicago Athletic Club, South Shore Country Club, Chicago Yacht Club, National Press Club in Washington, D. C, University Club in Evanston, Atlantic Yacht Club, the Camden Yacht Club in Camden, Maine, he was a member of the first board of directors of the Hamilton Club. Windsor is buried in Rosehill Mausoleum in Chicago. Lancaster, Paul, "Crazy about Invention,"American Heritage Invention and Technology Whittaker, Wayne. "The Story of Popular Mechanics". Popular Mechanics. Pp. 127–132, 366–380. Derby and White, James Terry, The National Cyclopædia of American Biography vol. 15 p. 55 Works by Henry Haven Windsor at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Haven Windsor at Internet Archive Henry Haven Windsor at Find a Grave

List of people on the postage stamps of Ecuador

This is a list of people on stamps of Ecuador. The date their effigy appeared on a stamp follows their name. Abayuba Tribal Chief - Uruguay General Eloy Alfaro President Jaime Roldós Aguilera President Salvador Allende Chilean President Anacaona Tribal Chief - Haiti Professor Luciano Andrade Carlos J. Arosemena Tola President Otto Arosemena Gomez President Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río President Atahualpa Inca ruler Atlacatl Tribal Chief - El Salvador Isidro Ayora Cueva President Alfredo Baquerizo President Simón Bolívar Antonio Borrero President José Plácido Caamaño President Calarcá Tribal Chief - Colombia Francisco Campos scientist Jerónimo Carrión President Benjamín Carrión Writer Caupolicán Tribal Chief - Chile Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Cmarao Tribal Chief - Brazil Christopher Columbus Luis Cordero Crespo President Cuauhtémoc Tribal Chief - Mexico Segundo Cueva Celi musician Charles Darwin Sixto Maria Duran musician Camilo Ponce Enríquez President Enriquillo Tribal Chief - Dominican Republic Javier Espinosa President Juan José Flores President Garabito Tribal Chief - Costa Rica Gabriel García Moreno President Guaycaypuro Tribal Chief - Venezuela Hatuey Tribal Chief - Cuba Hubert Humphrey US Vice-President Isabella I of Spain Queen Pio Jaramillo Alvarado writer Pope John-Paul II Juan Carlos of Spain King John F. Kennedy US President Robert Kennedy US politician Martin Luther King US civil rights leader Lambaré Tribal Chief - Paraguay Lempira Tribal Chief - Honduras Elia Luit aviator Juan de Dios Martínez Mera President Mater Dolorosa Gabriela Mistral Chilean poet Richard Nixon as US Vice-President Diego Noboa President Christobal Ojeda Davila musician José Joaquín de Olmedo President Carlos Ortega newspaper editor Jorge Ortega newspaper editor Carlos Amable Ortiz musician José Peratta writer Philip II of Spain King Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Pope Pius XII Galo Plaza President (1952 Leónidas Plaza President Paul Rivet, French anthropologist Francisco Robles, President Vicente Rocafuerte, President Guillermo Rodríguez Lara, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, US President Ruminahui, Tribal chief - Ecuador Sequoyah Tribal Chief - United States Queen Sofía of Spain Tacun-Uman Tribal Chief - Guatemala Tehuelche Tribal Chief - Argentina Harry S Truman US President Tupaj Katri Tribal Chief - Bolivia Urraca Tribal Chief - Panama José María Urvina President Luis Alberto Valencia musician Marco Varea botanist Honorato Vazquez statesman José María Velasco Ibarra President Father Juan de Velasco Jesuit priest, writer George Washington USA President Teodoro Wolf German naturalist that worked in Ecuador List of Ecuadorians Postage stamps and postal history of Ecuador

Felipe Amoedo

Felipe Amoedo was an Argentine politician, who served as juez de paz, president of the municipality, intendant of Quilmes. Felipe Amoedo Canaveri was born in May 1, 1828 in Buenos Aires, was baptized on May 7, of the same year in the Church of the Immaculate Conception, being the eighth child of Hilario Amoedo Garazatúa, an apothecary born in Galicia and Juana Josefa Canaveris Esparza, belonging to a distinguished Creole family of European descent, his maternal grandfather Don Juan Canaveris, was a French-Italian official, owner of lands in Quilmes by 1800s. He had been one of the neighbors who attended the open Cabildo of 1810. After receiving his title of pharmacist at the University of Buenos Aires, Felipe opened a pharmacy located in calle Buen Orden, 536 neighborhood of Monserrat. In 1874, he settled in the town of Quilmes, where he occupied different political positions of the local municipality. Felipe Amoedo was married to Eduarda Dupuy Morel, daughter of José María Dupuy, killed by the Mazorca, Indalecia Morel, sister of painter Carlos Morel.

The Dupuy family was descended from Luis Dupuy Ezquerra, settled in Buenos Aires in 1750. His granddaughter, Amalia Amoedo Vilaró, was married to José Antonio Terry Costa son José Antonio Terry and Leonor Quirno Costa.

Beit Yehoshua

Beit Yehoshua is a moshav in central Israel. Located in the coastal plain near Netanya, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hof HaSharon Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 1,054; the Beit Yehoshua Railway Station is adjacent to the moshav. The village was established as a kibbutz on 17 August 1938 by gar'in of the Bnei Akiva and HaNoar HaTzioni movements as part of the tower and stockade settlement programme. According to the Jewish National Fund, the original settlers were orthodox and were engaged in intensive farming and citrus, it was named after a Galician Zionist leader. By 1947 it had a population of about 150. In 1950 it became a moshav shitufi, a moshav ovdim. Official website

Merchants' National Bank

The Merchants' National Bank building is a historic commercial building located at 833 Fourth Avenue in Grinnell, Iowa. It is one of a series of small banks designed by Louis Sullivan in the Midwest between 1909 and 1919. All of the banks are built of brick and for this structure he employed various shades of brick, ranging in color from blue-black to golden brown, giving it an overall reddish brown appearance, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976 for its architecture. In 1991 it was listed as a contributing property in the Grinnell Historic Commercial District. Merchants' National Bank was built in 1914 and had its grand opening on January the first, in 1915, along with the Purdue State Bank in Indiana designed by Sullivan. Structurally the building is a rectangular box, with a magnificent main facade and a windowed side facade. Although this building is smaller than either his Owatonna or Cedar Rapids banks it appears just as monumental; this is due to the oversized cartouche that surrounds a circular window on the Fourth Street facade.

Light is introduced into the interior by a series of stained glass windows that alternate with structural posts down the side of the building and through the colored glass skylight that comprises much of the ceiling. While the bank housed the structure and its location, the small town of Grinnell did not warrant national attention, yet the unveiling of the Louis Sullivan building was given national coverage in the architectural press of the day. The Merchants' Bank was thus featured in an eleven-page spread in The Western Architect's February 1916 edition; as he did in his banks in Cedar Rapids and Sidney, Sullivan used lions, or at least a grotesque, winged version of a lion, as figurative decoration. This creature is one of the few figurative elements that can be found in the architect's designs; some of the plans and the designs of the ornament were done by Sullivan's draftsman Parker N. Berry, shortly thereafter to fall victim to the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic. In the 1970s or early 1980s, a city beautification project sponsored the planting of several trees in front of the bank.

Gebhard calls this an "unbelievable decision" for the growing plants would obscure more and more of the amazing facade. These plantings can be seen in the gallery pictures, taken in 1985; these trees were removed as of 2013. In 2007, the city remodeled its downtown sidewalks and streets so the intersections of the square had the "Jewelbox" appearance to them; the city put Planters at the four corners of the crossings which have the "Jewelbox" engraved in them. Between 2008 and 2009, one of the lions in front of the building was damaged. Both lions have now been replaced. Farmers and Merchants Bank, Wisconsin Henry Adams Building, Iowa Home Building Association Company, Ohio National Farmer's Bank, Minnesota People's Federal Savings and Loan Association, Ohio Peoples Savings Bank, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Purdue State Bank, West Lafayette, Indiana List of National Historic Landmarks in Iowa National Register of Historic Places listings in Poweshiek County, Iowa Brooks, H. Allen, The Prairie School: Frank Lloyd Wright and His Contemporaries, University of Toronto Press, Ontario, 1972 Elia, Mario Manieri, Louis Henry Sullivan, Princeton Architectural Press, Princeton NY, 1996 Gebhard, David & Gerald Mansheim, Building of Iowa, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993 Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, The Louis Sullivan Pilgrimage, unpublished manuscript Morrison, Hugh, "Louis Sullivan: Prophet of Modern Architecture", W.

W. Norton and Company, New York, 1963 Twombly, Louis Sullivan: His Life and Work, Elizabeth Sifton Books - Viking, New York, 1986 Wilson, Richard Guy and Sidney K. Robinson, The Prairie School in Iowa, Iowa State University Press, Iowa, 1977