Italy–Mexico relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Italy and Mexico. Both nations are members of the G20, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations; the first contact between Italy and Mexico was in 1869, just before the end of Italian unification in 1870. An Italian consulate was opened in Mexico in December 1872, diplomatic relations between the two nations were not established until 15 December 1874. In 1875, Mexico opened a diplomatic office in Rome. During World War I, Mexico remained neutral because it was involved in its own revolution during the same time and closed its diplomatic office in Rome, it re-opened its diplomatic office in 1922. In the 1930s, diplomatic relations between the two nations began to deteriorate when Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini invaded and annexed Abyssinia during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1935-1936. Mexico was one of the few countries to vehemently oppose the occupation of Abyssinia by Italian forces.
During World War II, on 22 May 1942, Mexico declared war on the Axis powers due to German U-boat attacks on two Mexican oil tankers in the Gulf of Mexico that same year. Diplomatic relations were re-established on 1 June 1946 and Italy and Mexico signed a Treaty of Peace on 10 February 1947. In 1974, President Luis Echeverría Álvarez became the first Mexican head-of-state to visit Italy. In 1981, President Sandro Pertini became the first Italian head-of-state to visit Mexico. Since the initial visits, there have been numerous visits between leaders of both nations. Both nations have signed several bilateral agreements and have worked on serval projects. In 2014, the Mexican Agency of International Cooperation for Development and the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation have collaborated in funding and coordinating 12 research projects in strategic sectors, such as exact sciences, biomedical sciences and energy, agriculture and agri-food and technologies applied to cultural goods.
Prime Ministerial and Presidential visits from Italy to Mexico President Sandro Pertini Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi Prime Minister Mario Monti Prime Minister Enrico Letta Prime Minister Matteo Renzi President Sergio Mattarella Presidential visits from Mexico to Italy President Luis Echeverría Álvarez President Carlos Salinas de Gortari President Ernesto Zedillo President Vicente Fox President Felipe Calderón President Enrique Peña Nieto Both nations have signed numerous bilateral agreements such as Treaty of General Compulsory Arbitration. There are direct flight between Italy and Mexico with the following airlines: Alitalia, Blue Panorama Airlines and Neos airline. There have been several official visits by presidents of both nations to each other's countries respectively. In 1997, Mexico signed a Free Trade Agreement with the European Union. In 2017, two-way trade between both nations amounted to $7.4 billion USD. Among the products that Mexico exports to Italy are: automobiles and petroleum based products.
Italy exports steel products to Mexico. Today, Italy is Mexico's ninth biggest trading partner in the world. Mexico is Italy's second biggest trading partner in Latin-America. Over 400 Italian multinational companies such as Alfa Romeo, Enel Green Power, Fiat Automobiles, Pirelli operate in Mexico. Mexican multinational companies such as Grupo Bimbo and Mexichem operate in Italy. Italy has an embassy in Mexico City. Mexico has a consulate in Milan. Chipilo Italian immigration to Mexico
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. They were motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and by opposition to Western colonialism and the Christian missionary activity, associated with it, it was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness, known in English as the Boxers, for many of their members had been practitioners of Chinese martial arts referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. The uprising took place against a background that included severe drought and disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence; the original cause of the uprising was the particular jurisdictional status of European legations in Peking, which were not subject to Chinese authorities: robber gangs were formed in the out-buildings of the German legation, spreading outrage in the Chinese locals. As a result, opposition to Western colonialism and Christian missionary activity took place.
After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an armed invasion by allied American, Austro-Hungarian, French, Italian and Russian forces to lift the siege, the hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were detained for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing; the supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu claimed he acted to protect the besieged foreigners.
Many officials refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners in their Mutual Protection of Southeast China, because Qing had lost the First Sino-Japanese War five years before. The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers; the Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in a failed attempt to save the dynasty.
The Righteous and Harmonious Fists arose in the inland sections of the northern coastal province of Shandong, long known for social unrest, religious sects, martial societies. American Christian missionaries were the first to refer to the well-trained, athletic young men as "Boxers", because of the martial arts and weapons training they practiced, their primary practice was a type of spiritual possession which involved the whirling of swords, violent prostrations, chanting incantations to deities. The opportunities to fight back Western encroachment and colonization were attractive to unemployed village men, many of whom were teenagers; the tradition of possession and invulnerability went back several hundred years but took on special meaning against the powerful new weapons of the West. The Boxers, armed with rifles and swords, claimed supernatural invulnerability towards blows of cannon, rifle shots, knife attacks. Furthermore, the Boxer groups popularly claimed that millions of soldiers of Heaven would descend to assist them in purifying China of foreign oppression.
These beliefs are characteristic of millenarian movements of nativist resistance the characteristic magical belief, shared by the Ghost Dancers of North America and the Kartelite Cults of Africa, that the believer could be rendered invulnerable to bullets. In 1895, in spite of ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu, prefect of Caozhou and would become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits; the Big Swords, emboldened by this official support attacked their local Catholic village rivals, who turned to the Church for protection. The Big Swords responded by burning them. "The line between Christians and bandits", remarks one recent historian, "became indistinct." As a result of diplomatic pressure in the capital, Yuxian executed several Big Sword leaders, but did not punish anyone else. More martial secret societies started emerging after this; the early years saw a variety of village activities, not a broad movement with a united purpose. Martial folk religious societies such as the Baguadao prepared the way for the Boxers.
Like the Red Boxing school or the Plum Flower Boxers, the Boxers of Shandong were more concerned with traditional social and moral values, such as filial piety, than with foreign influences. One leader, Zhu Hongdeng (Red Lantern Zh
Relations between the Rome and Iranian states were established c. 96 BC. It was in 69 AD. Commencing as rivalry between the Parthians and Rome, from the 3rd to mid-7th centuries, the Byzantine Empire and its rival Sassanid Persia were recognized as the leading powers in the world; the first direct contact between the Roman Republic and the Parthians was c. 96 BCE, when Lucius Cornelius Sulla, while proconsul in Cilicia, met the Parthian ambassador Orobazus. Plutarch reports that he managed to take the central seat between the Parthian Ambassador and an ambassador from Pontus, concluded a treaty that set the Euphrates as the boundary between the two powers. Orobazus was executed on his return to Parthia for allowing Sulla to outmaneuver him, Sulla himself came under criticism for being too high-handed in his treatment of such a powerful nation; the first time the Romans came into direct military contact with Parthia came when Lucullus invaded Armenia in 69 BCE, leading to diplomatic friction and clashes on the frontier between Armenia and Parthia.
Over the following decades both empires became entangled in each other's civil wars beginning with Crassus’s disastrous invasion of Parthia. Parthia was involved in the civil war after the assassination of Julius Caesar. In 42 BCE, when Antony placed a legion in Syria, Cassius’ envoy Labienus joined forces with king Orodes of Parthia and, led by the Roman general Pacorus, attacked the Levant and the Asia Minor. However, this was not to last as Antony sent his general Publius Ventidius Bassus to recover the lost territory. After some difficulty dealing with local Parthian appointee kings, the Romans subdued the regained province and installed Herod the Great as king. Antony’s forces attempted a crossing of the Euphrates at the city of Zeugma but were held back by Parthian defences and had to settle for annexing the Armenian kingdom after deposing its king. Augustus was loath to seek further conflict with Parthia. However, the coveted standards were still held by the Parthians and this was of great concern to Augustus, forcing him to regain them through a less conventional method.
In 30 BCE, Phraates IV usurped the throne of Tiridates who fled to Syria under the protection of the Romans, whence he launched an attack on his native land. Although this failed, an agreement was made whereby he could live under the Romans as a king in exile if he brokered the return of the Roman standards; the standards were returned to the future emperor Tiberius, who received them on an island in the Euphrates. The next half century saw relations between the two nations antagonistic but not overtly hostile, with the Romans unsuccessfully supporting a series of pretender kings, including Claudius in 49 CE, indicating the extent to which Rome was attempting to influence Parthian politics for its own ends. However, during the reign of Nero, Vologases I invaded Armenia and installed his own brother on the throne, disrupting the balance of influence which had hitherto existed there; the ensuing war was ended by a compromise which allowed the Parthian prince Tiridates and his descendants to reign in Armenia on condition that he and his successors received their crown from the Roman emperor and ruled as his clients.
Strabo described the Parthian Empire as the only rival existing to Rome. During Vespasian’s rule Parthia seemed to make some attempts to strengthening the ties between the two powers, such as asking to form an alliance at the Caucasus against belligerent Sarmatian tribes and offering assistance to Vespasian against the short lived emperor Vitellius once it became clear that Vespasian would rule. However, both of these Vespasian refused. In the 2nd century CE, the balance of power shifted emphatically in favour of the Romans. A series of invasions overran Mesopotamia and sacked the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon, made substantial territorial gains in northern Mesopotamia and benefited from the manipulation of frequent Parthian dynastic civil wars, which undermined the Parthian state. Under Caracalla, an interesting twist in Parthian relations occurred. After submitting a request to marry the daughter of Persian king Artabanus V Caracalla massacred the diplomatic party sent to arrange the marriage and attempted an invasion of Persia in 216.
This was unsuccessful and the Persians soon retaliated, inflicting heavy losses upon the Romans. The replacement of the Parthian Empire by that of the Sassanids in 226 CE, more stable and organised, shifted the balance of power against the Romans; the neighboring rivaling Sasanian Empire and the Roman-Byzantine Empire were recognized as the two leading world powers, for a period of more than 400 years. Frequent Persian aggression during the 3rd century placed Roman defences under severe strain, but the Romans were successful in warding these off and avoiding any territorial losses. Indeed, they made significant gains towards the end of the century, although these were reversed in the mid-4th century. By that time conflicts attained an added religious dimension, it is in this context that the future of Roman–Persian relations would be played out over the remaining centuries, continuing into the Byzantine era. Neither side was able to inflict a decisive and convincing military victory against the other, the movement between hostilities and diplomacy would continue to play out between each power.
According to some sources, two years before his death, Shapur I married a daughter of Aurelian, attempted to further Romanize the city of Gundeshapur, populated by the R
Chile–Italy relations are the bilateral relations between Chile and Italy. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1864 after Chilean President José Joaquín Pérez recognized the new Italian state. Chile broke relations with Italy on January 20, 1943 but they were reestablished following the end of World War II. Chile has an embassy in Rome and a general consulate in Milan. In late 2010 a bomb exploded at the Chilean embassy, wounding the employee who opened the package in which the bomb was hidden. An employee of the Swiss embassy in Rome was wounded by a similar letter bomb on the same day; the Informal Anarchist Federation claimed responsibility for both attacks. Italy has an embassy in Santiago. Both countries are full members of the Latin Union. There are tens of thousands of people of Italian descent living in Chile known as Italian Chileans, one recent study estimated their number at 150,000 including 35,000 Italian citizens. Foreign relations of Chile Foreign relations of Italy Chilean embassy in Rome Italian embassy in Santiago
The Tenshō embassy was an embassy sent by the Japanese Christian Lord Ōtomo Sōrin to the Pope and the king of Spain in 1582. The embassy was led by Mancio Itō, a Japanese nobleman, the first official Japanese emissary to Europe; the idea of sending a Japanese embassy to Europe was conceived by the Jesuit Alessandro Valignano, sponsored by the three Kirishitan daimyōs Ōmura Sumitada, Ōtomo Sōrin, Arima Harunobu. Mancio Itō was chosen to act as a spokesman for the group dispatched by Ōtomo Sōrin, daimyō of the Bungo Province on Kyūshū and a close relative of Mancio's father. On February 20, 1582, Mancio Itō left Nagasaki in company with three other noblemen: Miguel Chijiwa Julião Nakaura Martinho Hara They were accompanied by two servants, their tutor and interpreter Diego de Mesquita, their mentor Valignano, who only accompanied them as far as Goa in Portuguese India, where he was to take up new responsibilities. On their way to Europe, they arrive to Lisbon, in August 1584, they spent nine months visiting the Portuguese territories of Macau and Goa.
From Lisbon, the ambassadors went on to Madrid and to Rome, which were the two main goals of their journey. In Spain they visit Talavera de la Reina, Madrid, where they met with Philip II, king of Spain and Portugal, they visit El Escorial monastry, the Alcalá University and Alicante. In Rome, Mancio Itō became an honorary citizen and taken into the ranks of European nobility with the title Cavaliere di Speron d'oro. During their stay in Europe, they met with King Philip II of Spain; the ambassadors arrived back in Japan on July 21, 1590. On their eight-year-long voyage they had been instructed to take notes; these notes provided the basis for the De Missione Legatorum Iaponensium ad Romanam Curiam, a Macau-based writing by Jesuit Duarte de Sande published in 1590. The four were subsequently ordained as the first Japanese Jesuit fathers by Alessandro Valignano. Mancio Itō died in Nagasaki on November 13, 1612. Martinho Hara was banished from Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1614, acted in Macau.
He died in Macau on October 23, 1629. Miguel Chijiwa left the Society of Jesus before 1601, died in Nagasaki on January 23, 1633. Although he is believed to have abandoned Christianity, the discovery of what appear to be rosary beads in his grave in 2017 place this in some doubt. Julião Nakaura was caught by the Tokugawa shogunate, died a martyr by torture in Nagasaki on November 21, 1633, he was beatified on November 24, 2008. Bernardo the Japanese, the first Japanese to visit Europe, in 1553. Hasekura Tsunenaga, another Japanese embassy to Europe in 1615; the world and Japan: the embassies of Tensho and Keicho, Sendai City Museum, 1995. The Christian Century in Japan 1549–1650 C. R. Boxer, ISBN 1-85754-035-2 Biographical Dictionary of Japanese History Iwao, Seiichi Spiritual saga, the Japanese mission to Europe, by Michael Cooper
The Siberian Intervention or Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan and China to support White Russian forces against Soviet Russia and its allies during the Russian Civil War. The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia after other Allied forces withdrew in 1920. Following the Russian October Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government signed a peace treaty with Germany; the collapse of the Russian front presented a tremendous problem to the Entente powers, since it allowed Germany to shift troops and war material from its eastern front to the west. 50,000 man Czechoslovak Legion, fighting on the side of the Allied Powers, was now behind enemy lines, was attempting to fight its way out through the east to Vladivostok along the Bolshevik-held Trans-Siberian Railway. Faced with these concerns, the United Kingdom and France decided to intervene in the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks.
They had three objectives: to prevent the Allied war material stockpiles in Russia from falling into German or Bolshevik hands to help the Czechoslovak Legion and return it to the European front to resurrect the Eastern Front by installing a White Russian-backed governmentThe British and French asked the United States to furnish troops for both the North Russia Campaign and the Siberian Campaign. In July 1918, against the advice of the United States Department of War, President Wilson agreed to send 5,000 US troops as the American North Russia Expeditionary Force and 10,000 US troops as the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. In the same month, the Beiyang government of the Republic of China accepted an invitation by the Chinese community in Russia and sent 2,000 troops by August; the Chinese occupied Outer Mongolia and Tuva and sent a battalion to the North Russian Campaign as part of their anti-Bolshevik efforts. The British, short on personnel, only deployed 1,500 troops to Siberia; these men came from the 1/9th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment and the 25th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment.
The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley and authorised in August 1918, was sent to Vladivostok to bolster the Allied presence there. Composed of 4,192 soldiers, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919. During this time, the Canadians saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troops proceeding "up country" to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city. At the request of Chinese merchants, 2,300 Chinese troops were sent to Vladivostok to protect Chinese interests there; the Chinese army fought against both Cossacks. The "Corpo di Spedizione Italiano in Estremo Oriente" was made of Alpini troops, supported by 2,500 Italian ex-POWs who had fought in the Austro-Hungarian Army and enrolled in the Legione Redenta; the Italians played a small but important role during the intervention, fighting together with the Czechoslovak Legion and other allied forces using armed and armoured trains to control large sections of the Siberian railway.
The main areas of operation were the Irkutsk and Vladivostok regions. The Japanese were asked in 1917 by the French to intervene in Russia but declined the request. However, the army general staff came to view the Tsarist collapse as an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state; the Japanese government in the beginning refused to undertake such an expedition and it was not until the following year that events were set in motion that led to a change in this policy. In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7,000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops, including an American expeditionary force, planned to support the rescue of the Czechoslovak Legions and securing the Allied war material stockpiles. After heated debate in the Diet, the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition.
Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue and extensive planning for the expedition was conducted. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia was commanded by Major General William S. Graves and totaled 7,950 officers and enlisted men; the AEF Siberia included the U. S. Army's 27th and 31st Infantry Regiments, plus large numbers of volunteers from the 13th and 62nd Infantry Regiments along with a few from the 12th Infantry Regiment. To operate the Trans-Siberian railroad, the Russian Railway Service Corps was formed of US personnel. Although General Graves did not arrive in Siberia until September 4, 1918, the first 3,000 American troops disembarked in Vladivostok between August 15 and August 21, 1918, they were assigned guard duty along segments of the railway between Vladivostok and Nikolsk-Ussuriski in the north. Unlike his Allied counterparts, General Graves believed their mission in Siberia was to provide protection for American-supplied property and to help the Czechoslovak Legions evacuate Russia, that it did not include fighting against the Bolsheviks.
Calling for restraint, Graves was at odds with commanders of British and Japanese forces who wanted the Americans to take a more active part in the military intervention in Siberia. The joint Allied intervention began in August 1918; the Japanese entered through Vladivostok an