Arturo Lupoli is an Italian footballer who plays as a forward for Fermana. His former clubs include Parma and Derby County, where he spent the 2006–07 season on loan. From Frattamaggiore, Lupoli began his footballing career with Italian side Parma. During his Allievi season he scored 45 goals in 22 games, one of the best tallies recorded in Italian youth history. However, by mid-2004 his contract had expired. Lupoli signed an Arsenal contract by way of a scholarship, the Gunners paid Parma £200,000 training compensation. Lupoli's debut in the Arsenal first-team was in a match against Manchester City in the League Cup on 27 October 2004, his next match, against Everton in the same competition, brought him his first goals for the club, two of Arsenal's three goals in the 3–1 victory on 9 November. He played in the match against Manchester United which saw Arsenal's exit from the competition, he was Arsenal's top scorer at youth/reserve level in 2004–05, with 27 goals in 32 appearances. That season he started Arsenal's FA Cup fifth round replay against Sheffield United.
Arsenal went on to win the cup that year but Lupoli was left out of their final squad. Lupoli scored prolifically at youth/reserve team level during the 2005–06 season, alongside Nicklas Bendtner, he figured in the Gunners' 2005–06 League Cup campaign, winning the League Cup New Talent Award. He scored his third and final Arsenal goal in the 3–0 win over Reading in this campaign, it was during this season that he made his only league appearance for the Gunners, in a 1–0 loss at Blackburn. Lupoli moved to Derby County on a season-long loan on 18 August 2006, debuted for Derby in the 0–0 draw at home to Norwich City the following day, he got a brace against Colchester United in a game which Derby lost 4–3. On 6 January 2007, Lupoli scored Derby County's first hat-trick for over a decade in a 3–1 victory third round FA Cup tie against Wrexham. Lupoli was linked with a transfer to either of the two Milan based football giants. C. Milan and Internazionale. However, Pierpaolo Marino, General Manager of Napoli, announced he had Lupoli's word he'd come to Napoli when his contract with Arsenal had expired, since it was his dream to play for his home city club.
Despite this, on 26 February 2007, Lupoli signed a pre-contract with Fiorentina. Lupoli stressed, that he would do his absolute best for Derby for the remainder of the season, in his first match for Derby after confirming the Fiorentina move, scored a goal and provided an assist. Lupoli completed his move to ACF Fiorentina on 1 July 2007, signing a five-year deal with the Viola in a free transfer. However, he never made his debut with the Tuscan side after joining Treviso F. B. C. 1993 on loan for a period. On 22 July 2008, Lupoli moved to Championship side Norwich City on loan for the 2008–09 season. Manager Glenn Roeder's connections with Arsène Wenger are believed to have been behind the club's interest in the player. Following the finalisation of his loan move to the Canaries, Arturo told the club's official website "I am happy to be here and hope to contribute for a great season for Norwich City and to be successful. I spoke to the Manager and I feel that he wants me here. I know a lot about Norwich City – I was with Arsenal when they and my teammate David Bentley were in the Premier League and have followed their progress."
He took the squad number 18, made his competitive debut for the club against Coventry City in a 2–0 loss. His first goals for the club came on 23 August 2008 versus Cardiff City at Ninian Park, as Norwich came from two goals behind to draw 2–2, Lupoli scoring both late on. After spending a long time out of favour with manager Glenn Roeder, Lupoli publicly stated that he would leave the club in January if not given a run in the team. In the following game, an FA Cup tie against Charlton Athletic at The Valley, he proved his worth by coming off the bench to score Norwich's equaliser after fans chanted his name throughout the match. However, after getting frustrated at a lack of first team football Lupoli's loan was terminated on 2 February 2009. On 2 February 2009, Lupoli joined Sheffield United on loan until the end of the 2008/09 season, he made his debut for The Blades a few days when he was given a starting role in the Steel City Derby against local rivals Sheffield Wednesday. He needed only five minutes on the pitch to find the net but despite scoring on his debut he was unable to prevent United's loss to their bitter rivals.
Although suggesting he wished to stay at Bramall Lane beyond the length of his loan deal he returned to Fiorentina after the Blades failed to clinch promotion having made eleven appearances and scoring two goals in a disappointing loan spell. On 25 June 2009, Lupoli transferred to Ascoli in a co-ownership deal. In July 2011, after two seasons at Ascoli, Lupoli transferred fellow Serie B side Grosseto on a free transfer. In July 2013, after two years at Grosseto, Lupoli moved to another Serie B team on a free transfer, this time Varese. On 21 February 2014, Lupoli joined Budapest Honvéd. On 2 February 2015 he was signed by Frosinone. In summer 2015 Lupoli was signed by A. C. Pisa 1909. On 1 February 2016 he was signed by Lega Pro club Calcio Catania in a temporary deal, he returned to Pisa at the end of season. On 27 January 2017, Lupoli signed a one-and-a-year contract with Lega Pro club Südtirol after being released by Pisa. Carling Cup: New Talent Award-2005–06 A. ^ Soccerbase's stats for the match between Derby County and Birmingham City on 9 March 2007 fail to include appearances by substitutes for either side, one of whom was Lupoli.
Therefore and unless they correct it, he should have one more appearance for Derby than given on his Soccerbase page. Arturo Lupoli at Soccerbase FootballDatabase.com Pr
Grottammare is a town and comune on Italy's Adriatic coast, in the province of Ascoli Piceno, Marche region. The town is crossed by the 43rd parallel north. Economy is based on summer tourism. Pope Sixtus V, born here Pericle Fazzini, created the bronze sculpture La Resurrezione at Paul VI Audience Hall in Vatican City Naples, Italy Sal, Cape Verde Gjirokastër, Albania Itiúba, Brazil Sant'Agata de' Goti, Italy Riviera delle Palme Red Pepper, August 2004, "Local Democracy Italian style"
ACF Fiorentina referred to as Fiorentina, is an Italian professional football club based in Florence, Tuscany. Founded by a merger in August 1926, refounded in August 2002 following bankruptcy, Fiorentina have played at the top level of Italian football for the majority of their existence. Fiorentina has won two Italian Championships, in 1955–56 and again in 1968–69, as well as six Coppa Italia trophies and one Supercoppa Italiana. On the European stage, Fiorentina won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1960–61 and lost the final one year later, they finished runners-up in the 1956–57 European Cup, losing against Real Madrid, came close to winning the 1989–90 UEFA Cup, finishing as runners-up against Juventus after losing the first leg in Turin and drawing in the second one in Avellino. Fiorentina is one of the fourteen European teams that played the finals in all three major continental competitions: the Champions League, the UEFA Cup Winners and the UEFA Cup. Since 1931, the club have played at the Stadio Artemio Franchi, which has a capacity of 43,147.
The stadium has undergone several renovations. Fiorentina are known by the nickname Viola, a reference to their distinctive purple colours. Associazione Calcio Fiorentina was founded in the autumn of 1926 by local noble and National Fascist Party member Luigi Ridolfi, who initiated the merger of two older Florentine clubs, CS Firenze and PG Libertas; the aim of the merger was to give Florence a strong club to rival those of the more dominant Italian Football Championship sides of the time from Northwest Italy. Influential was the cultural revival and rediscovery of Calcio Fiorentino, an ancestor of modern football, played by members of the Medici family. After a rough start and three seasons in lower leagues, Fiorentina reached the Serie A in 1931; that same year saw the opening of the new stadium named after Giovanni Berta, a prominent fascist, but now known as Stadio Artemio Franchi. At the time, the stadium was a masterpiece of engineering, its inauguration was monumental. To be able to compete with the best teams in Italy, Fiorentina strengthened their team with some new players, notably the Uruguayan Pedro Petrone, nicknamed el Artillero.
Despite enjoying a good season and finishing in fourth place, Fiorentina were relegated the following year, although they would return to Serie A. In 1941, they won their first Coppa Italia, but the team were unable to build on their success during the 1940s because of World War II and other troubles. In 1950, Fiorentina started to achieve consistent top-five finishes in the domestic league; the team consisted of great players such as well-known goalkeeper Giuliano Sarti, Sergio Cervato, Francesco Rosella, Guido Gratton, Giuseppe Chiappella and Aldo Scaramucci but above all, the attacking duo of Brazilian Julinho and Argentinian Miguel Montuori. This team won Fiorentina's first scudetto in 1955–56, 12 points ahead of second-place Milan. Milan beat Fiorentina to top spot the following year, but more Fiorentina became the first Italian team to play in a European Cup final, when a disputed penalty led to a 2–0 defeat at the hands of Alfredo Di Stéfano's Real Madrid. Fiorentina were runners-up again in the three subsequent seasons.
In the 1960–61 season, the club won the Coppa Italia again and was successful in Europe, winning the first Cup Winners' Cup against Scottish side Rangers. After several years of runner-up finishes, Fiorentina dropped away in the 1960s, bouncing from fourth to sixth place, although the club won the Coppa Italia and the Mitropa Cup in 1966. While the 1960s did result in some trophies and good Serie A finishes for Fiorentina, nobody believed that the club could challenge for the title; the 1968–69 season started with Milan as frontrunners, but on matchday 7, they lost to Bologna and were overtaken by Gigi Riva's Cagliari. Fiorentina, after an unimpressive start moved to the top of the Serie A, but the first half of their season finished with a 2–2 draw against Varese, leaving Cagliari as outright league leader; the second half of the season was a three-way battle between the three contending teams, Milan and Fiorentina. Milan fell away, instead focusing their efforts on the European Cup, it seemed that Cagliari would retain top spot.
After Cagliari lost against Juventus, Fiorentina took over at the top. The team won all of their remaining matches, beating rivals Juve in Turin on the penultimate matchday to seal their second, last, national title. In the European Cup competition the following year, Fiorentina had some good results, including a win in the Soviet Union against Dynamo Kyiv, but they were knocked out in the quarter-finals after a 3–0 defeat in Glasgow to Celtic. Viola players began the 1970s decade with Scudetto sewed on their breast, but the period was not fruitful for the team. After a fifth-place finish in 1971, they finished in mid-table every year flirting with relegation in 1972 and 1978; the Viola did win the Anglo-Italian League Cup in 1974 and won the Coppa Italia again in 1975. The team consisted of young talents like Vincenzo Guerini and Moreno Roggi, who had the misfortune to suffer bad injuries, above all Giancarlo Antognoni, who would become an idol to Fiorentina's fans; the young average age of the players led to the team being called Fiorentina Ye-Ye.
In 1980, Fiorentina was bought by Flavio Pontello. He changed the team's anthem and logo, leading to some complaints
Lorenzo De Silvestri
Lorenzo De Silvestri is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a defender for Torino. He is an offensive full-back with an imposing physique. Born in Rome, De Silvestri is a product of the successful Lazio youth system, he was promoted to the senior team during the 2006–07 season, during which he made his first two league appearances. His first senior appearance was a match in the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 2005 at the age of 17, his debut in Italian competition came a year during a 4–0 Coppa Italia victory over Rende, scoring the fourth goal of the match. De Silvestri made his Serie A debut coming on as a substitute, in a 1–0 home loss to Fiorentina, on 22 April 2007, he made his first start in the penultimate match of the season at the Stadio Olimpico against Parma. During the 2007–08 season, De Silvestri established himself as a regular in the Lazio side with several impressive performances as an attacking right-back, he made 24 league appearances, as well as six in the UEFA Champions League, three as a starter and three as a substitute.
As a 19-year old home grown player, a boyhood Lazio fan, De Silvestri became a fans' favourite, with many considering him a potential successor of former Lazio captain Alessandro Nesta. In 2007, he signed a contract renewal with the club believed to be worth around €350,000, keeping him at Formello until 2010. On 19 November 2007, English football magazine World Soccer included De Silvestri in their list of the 50 most promising talents, he and Andrea Russotto were the only Italians to make the list. On 19 December 2007, just over a year after his debut goal against Rende, De Silvestri scored again in the Coppa Italia, this time against Napoli, he dedicated his goal to his close friend and fellow Lazio fan Gabriele Sandri, shot dead by a policeman at a service area near Arezzo. Since making his debut, De Silvestri has continued to improve the technical and tactical aspects of his game under the guidance of manager Delio Rossi; however a number of disagreement between De Silvestri and his club arose, most notably regarding difficult talks regarding the extension to his contract with Lazio.
He endured a frustrating 2008–09 season playing deputy to new signing Stephan Lichtsteiner and started in only 13 league matches. Due to the contract wrangles and his failure to dislodge Lichtsteiner, led to him being put on sale during the 2009 summer transfer window. On 26 August 2009, ACF Fiorentina signed the right-back from S. S. Lazio on a five-year deal, he was presented to the press in Florence on 27 August. After an injury that prevented him from appearing in the early weeks of the season, De Silvestri became a regular under head coach Cesare Prandelli and completed the 2009–10 campaign with a total 27 appearances. Under new Fiorentina boss Siniša Mihajlović, De Silvestri was confirmed as a regular, but successively lost his place as a starter in favour of Gianluca Comotto after the poor performance the team. However, he re-took the starting position after the winter break, he played the last matches before the winter break as starting left-back to replace the unavailable Manuel Pasqual.
On 16 July 2012, De Silvestri was loaned to Sampdoria for the 2012–13 season, with Sampdoria having the option to sign him in full following the season. He made his début as a second-half substitute for Gianni Munari against Napoli on 30 September 2012. On 8 May 2013, De Silvestri scored his first goal for Sampdoria by opening the scores in the 1–1 draw against Catania. Following the end of the season, his loan spell was extended for a further season on 12 July 2013. On 18 June 2014, Sampdoria acquired 50% registration rights of De Silvestri. On 25 June 2015 Sampdoria acquired him outright. On 18 August 2016, De Silvestri was signed by Serie A rivals Torino for a reported transfer fee of €3.6 million plus bonuses. De Silvestri made his international debut at the U-16 level in June 2003, the team was consist of born 1987 players aiming for 2004 UEFA European Under-17 Football Championship, he made his U-21 debut on 11 September 2007 against Albania. He was the youngest player in the squad for Italy's victorious 2008 Toulon Tournament campaign, subsequently, at the 2008 Summer Olympics.
Although he played in several of the 2009 European Championship qualifiers, he did not make the 23-man squad for the tournament. After the tournament, he was appointed captain, he was suspended in the playoffs against Belarus in 2011 season. On 7 September 2010, he made his debut with the Italy national team in a qualification match against Faroe Islands. Italy won the game with 5–0. De Silvestri played the full 90 minutes. On 12 June 2015, he sustained an injury in a 1–1 away draw against Croatia, in a UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying match; as of match played 26 December 2018 As of 29 March 2016. Lazio Coppa Italia: 2008–09 Italy U-21 Toulon Tournament: 2008 Profile at ACF Fiorentina official site National Team statistics on FIGC official website
U.S. Città di Palermo
Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo referred to as Palermo, is an Italian football club based in Palermo, playing in Serie B. Formed in 1900 as Anglo Palermitan Athletic and Football Club, the club had various names before assuming its current form in 1987, is the top-ranked football club from the island of Sicily. During its history, Palermo has played in all the professional ranks of Italy, took part in several Serie A seasons during the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s finishing as Coppa Italia runners-up twice during that period. Following its return to Serie A in 2004, the club became one of the most prominent in Italy, providing four players to the Italian team that won the 2006 FIFA World Cup, it gained a UEFA Cup place for three consecutive seasons, narrowly missing UEFA Champions League qualification in 2007 and 2010, losing its third Coppa Italia final in 2011. The official team colours are black; the colours give rise to the team's nickname rosanero. US Città di Palermo plays its home games at Stadio Renzo Barbera, which has had a capacity of 36,349 people since 2007.
It was built in 1932, was renovated in the late 1980s. The club was founded in November 1900, it is the oldest football team in Sicily, the second in South Italy after Lazio, founded in January 1900. There is some debate about the exact date; some authorities think it may have been as early as 1898 due to the existence of papers addressed to Joseph Whitaker, English consul in Palermo and believed to be first club president, about a Palermitan football team founded in the month of April of that year. There is a probable misinterpretation of some sources: in April 1897, the future founders of Palemo Calcio founded the association Sport Club; the most common and stated foundation date is 1 November 1900, as the Anglo Palermitan Athletic and Football Club. The club is thought to have been founded by Ignazio Majo Pagano, a young Palermitan colleague of Whitaker who had discovered football while at college in London in the UK, where the modern game of football originated; the initial staff comprised three Englishmen and nine natives of Palermo, with Whitaker as honorary chairman, Edward De Garston as inaugural president and with red and blue as the original team colours.
The first recorded football match, played by the team on 30 December 1900, ended in a 5–0 defeat to an unidentified amateur English team. The first official match, played on 18 April 1901 against Messina Football Club, ended in a 3–2 win to the Palermitan side. In 1907, the club changed its name to Palermo Foot-Ball Club, the team colours were changed to the current pink and black. From 1908 until the final event in 1914, Palermo was featured in the Lipton Challenge Cup, organised by Scottish businessman Sir Thomas Lipton; the competition saw. After a gap during World War I, the club was refounded in 1919 as Unione Sportiva Palermo, by a committee of young university students and sportsmen. During the early 1920s, the club competed in the Campionato Lega Sud, a football league in Southern Italy, reaching the semi-finals in 1924 before being knocked out by Audace Taranto, Alba Roma and Internaples; the club was dissolved in 1927 due to financial problems, but was reformed one year following a merger with Vigor Palermo under the name Palermo FootBall Club.
Admitted to Prima Divisione, the equivalent of today's Serie C1, the team was promoted into Serie B in 1930 and reached Serie A in 1932. From its debut season in Italy's top division, Palermo relocated to a new home, the Stadio Littorio in the Favorita neighbourhood, today known as Stadio Renzo Barbera; the club played Serie A until 1936, when they were relegated to Serie B and first played Catania in the Sicilian derby. In 1936, Palermo was forced by the fascist regime to change its strip to yellow and red, after the official colours of the local municipality. Meanwhile, economic difficulties arose, in 1940 they were expelled by the Italian Football Federation because of financial problems. A merger with Unione Sportiva Juventina Palermo brought the foundation of Unione Sportiva Palermo-Juventina, which joined Serie C in 1941 and Serie B in 1942; the club could not finish the 1942–43 season due to the arrival of WWII. At the same time the pink-and-black colors were chosen because Sicily became a "war zone".
After the conflict, the club changed its name to US Palermo. After World War II, the team returned to Serie A by winning the Serie B championship of 1947–48; the new Palermo squad featured players such as Czechoslovakian legend Čestmír Vycpálek who signed from Juventus alongside Conti, Carmelo Di Bella and Pavesi. Palermo played Serie A until they were relegated in 1954. Massive changes in the board, as well as the manager's job and the squad, proved successful and the club returned to Serie A in 1956. Palermo became a "yo-yo club", bouncing down between the top two Italian leagues. Several stars played for Palermo during this period, such as Argentine striker Santiago Vernazza, goalkeepers Roberto Anzolin and Carlo Mattrel, Giuseppe Furino and Franco Causio. Palermo marked its best campaign in 1961–62 season, finishing in eighth place in Serie A. In 1963, they were relegated to Serie B, where they played for five seasons. Palermo played again in Serie A between 1968 and 1970. In 1970, Renzo Barbera took over the club as the new chairman.
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of
In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap. An early illustration of the first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, the English wearing a variety of school caps; the practice was first approved on 10 May 1886 for association football after a proposal made by N. Lane Jackson, founder of the Corinthians: That all players taking part for England in future international matches be presented with a white silk cap with red rose embroidered on the front; these to be termed International Caps. The act of awarding a cap is applied to other sports.
Although in some sports physical caps may not now always be given the term "cap" for an international or other appearance has been retained as an indicator of the number of occasions on which a sportsperson has represented a team in a particular sport. Thus, a "cap" is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, for the team, is said to have been capped x times or have won x caps; the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a player's debut or for national teams, a commemorative cap may be awarded after a player reaches the 100th cap; as an example, the England men's association football teams still awards physical caps. Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament, they are given a single cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. For example, when David Beckham made his one hundredth appearance for England, because a number of his appearances had been at World Cup and European Championship final tournaments for which he received only one cap, he received only his 85th physical cap.
The world record holder for the highest number of international caps as of 5 November 2010 is retired American player Kristine Lilly, who has 354 caps. In men's association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt; the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of England's Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England, 90 of them. FIFA rules state that any club that refuses to release a player for national team duty is barred from using the player for two matches, a rule, intended to discourage clubs from pretending that the player is injured. However, it is a player's choice to refuse to retire from his or her national team; some current leading holders of association football caps are: 184 – Ahmed Hassan, Egypt 178 – Hossam Hassan, Egypt 178 – Mohamed Al-Deayea, Saudi Arabia 177 – Claudio Suárez, Mexico 178 in Mexican records 169 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italy 168 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuador 167 – Iker Casillas, Spain 166 – Vitālijs Astafjevs, Latvia 164 – Cobi Jones, United States 163 - Sergio Ramos, Spain 163 – Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi, Saudi Arabia 161 – Adnan Al-Talyani, United Arab Emirates 158 – Bader Al-Mutawa, Kuwait 157 – Landon Donovan, United States 354 – Kristine Lilly, United States World record holder 311 – Christie Rampone, United States 275 – Mia Hamm, United States 272 – Julie Foudy, United States 259 - Christine Sinclair, Canada 256 – Abby Wambach, United States 239 – Joy Fawcett, United States 231 – Heather O'Reilly, United States 214 – Birgit Prinz, Germany 214 – Therese Sjögran, SwedenBold denotes players active in international football.
In cricket, there are two types of caps. Firstly, there is the international type; some countries award a domestic type known as a "county cap". The latter system is most applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance. Indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without winning a cap; the world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has, over the course of a 22-year career, collected 200. Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union, 35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012. Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, caps are awarded; the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps.
Players still active at Test level are in bold type. Richie McCaw, New Zealand — 148 Brian O'Driscoll, Ireland — 141 George Gregan, Australia — 139 Gethin Jenkins, Wales, 131 — Ronan O'Gara, Ireland — 130 Keven Mealamu, New Zealand — 125 Victor