Montecatini Terme is an Italian municipality of c. 20,000 inhabitants in the province of Pistoia, central Italy. It is the most important center in Valdinievole; the town is located at the eastern end of Piana di Lucca and has a strong vocation for tourism, as well as industrial and commercial industries related to the spa, which in turn has increased the interest for hotel accommodation in the region. Montecatini Castello, corresponding to the modern Montecatini Alto, grew in the Middle Ages on a hill commanding a marshy area. A spa existed in the village, being mentioned in 1340 document. In 1315 it was the site of the Battle of Montecatini. In 1339 the area was conquered by the Republic of Florence. Cosimo de' Medici built here a bridge to cross the marshes, but had the castle dismantled; the current spa town gew after the land reclamation program of Duke Leopold II in the late 18th century. Peter Grocco, doctor Sirio Maccioni, restaurateur of international fame Luca Cardelli, computer scientistChristian Dior died in a hotel at Montecatini.
Giuseppe Verdi lived for over 10 years in the city, benefiting of the local thermal center. Harrogate, United Kingdom Concepción, Paraguay Locarno, since 1964 Official website Tourism in Montecatini Terme di Montecatini
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of
History of the Italy national football team
The history of the Italy national football team began in 1910, when Italy played its first international match. Since the Italy national team has been one of the most successful football teams, winning four World Cups and one European Championships; the team's first match was held in Milan on 15 May 1910. Italy defeated France by a score of 6–2, with Italy's first goal scored by Pietro Lana; the Italian team played with a system and consisted of: De Simoni. First captain of the team was Francesco Calì; the first success in an official tournament came with the bronze medal in 1928 Summer Olympics, held in Amsterdam. After losing the semi-final against Uruguay, an 11–3 victory against Egypt secured third place in the competition. In the 1927–30 and 1933–35 Central European International Cup, Italy achieved the first place out of five Central European teams, topping the group with 11 points in both editions of the tournament. Italy would later win the gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics with a 2–1 victory in extra time in the gold medal match over Austria on 15 August 1936.
After declining to participate in the first World Cup the Italian national team won two consecutive editions of the tournament in 1934 and 1938, under the direction of coach Vittorio Pozzo and the performance of Giuseppe Meazza, considered one of the best Italian football players of all time by some. Italy hosted the 1934 World Cup, played their first World Cup match in a 7–1 win over the United States in Rome. Italy defeated Czechoslovakia 2–1 in extra time in the final in Rome, with goals by Raimundo Orsi and Angelo Schiavio to achieve their first World cup title in 1934, they achieved their second title in 1938 in a 4–2 defeat of Hungary, with two goals by Gino Colaussi and two goals by Silvio Piola in the World Cup that followed. Rumour has it, before the 1938 finals fascist Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!". However, no record remains of such a telegram, World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true.
He sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never'win or die'." In 1949, 10 of the 11 players in the team's initial line-up were killed in a plane crash that affected Torino, winners of the previous five Serie A titles. Italy did not advance further than the first round of the 1950 World Cup, as they were weakened due to the air disaster; the team had travelled by boat rather than by plane. In the World Cup finals of 1954 and 1962, Italy failed to progress past the first round, did not qualify for the 1958 World Cup due to a 2–1 defeat to Northern Ireland in the last match of the qualifying round. Italy did not take part in the first edition of the European Championship in 1960, was knocked out by the Soviet Union in the first round of the 1964 European Nations' Cup qualifying, their participation in the 1966 World Cup in England was ended by a 0–1 defeat at the hands of North Korea. Despite being the tournament favourites, the Azzurri, whose 1966 squad included Gianni Rivera and Giacomo Bulgarelli, were eliminated in the first round by the semi-professional North Koreans in Middlesbrough.
The Italian team was bitterly condemned upon their return home, while North Korean scorer Pak Doo-ik was celebrated as the David who killed Goliath. Upon Italy's return home, furious fans threw fruit and rotten tomatoes at their transport bus at the airport. In 1968, Italy participated in their first European Championship, hosting the European Championship and winning their first major competition since the 1938 World Cup, beating Yugoslavia in Rome for the title; the match holds the distinction of being the only European Championship or World Cup final to go to a replay. After extra time the final ended in a 1–1 draw, in the days before penalty shootouts, the rules required the match to be replayed a few days later. Italy won the replay 2 -- 0. In the 1970 World Cup, exploiting the performances of European champions' players like Giacinto Facchetti, Gianni Rivera and Luigi Riva and with a new center-forward Roberto Boninsegna, the team were able to come back to a World Cup final match after 32 years.
They reached this result after one of the most famous matches in football history—the "Game of the Century", the 1970 World Cup semifinal between Italy and Germany that Italy won 4–3 in extra time, with five of the seven goals coming in extra time. They were defeated by Brazil in the final 4–1; the cycle of international successes ended in the 1974 World Cup, when the team was eliminated by Grzegorz Lato's Polish team in the first round. In the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina, a new generation of Italian players, the most famous being Paolo Rossi, came to the international stage. Italy were the only team in the tournament to beat the eventual champions and host team Argentina. Second-round games against West Germany and Netherlands led Italy to the third-place final, where the team was defeated by Brazil 2–1. In the match that eliminated Italy from the tournament against the Netherlands, Italian goalkeeper Dino Zoff was beaten by a long-distance shot from Arie Haan, Zoff was criticized for the defeat.
Italy hosted the 1980 UEFA European Football Championship, the first edition to be held between eight teams instead of four, automatically qualifying for the finals as hosts. After two draws with Spain and Belgium and a narrow 1–0 win over England, Italy were beaten by Czechoslovakia in the third-place match on penalties 9–8 after Fulvio Collovati missed his kick
Italy national football team records and statistics
This article lists various football records and statistics of the Italy national football team. As of 26 March 2019, the players with the most appearances for Italy are:Players in bold are still active. Most appearances at the FIFA World Cup Paolo Maldini, 23 Most appearances at the FIFA World Cup qualifiers Gianluigi Buffon, 39 Most appearances at the FIFA World Cup and FIFA World Cup qualifiers Fabio Cannavaro, 50 Most minutes played in FIFA World Cup matches Paolo Maldini, 2216 minutes Most FIFA World Cups part of the squad Gianluigi Buffon, 5 Most FIFA World Cups played in Gianluigi Buffon, Gianni Rivera, Giuseppe Bergomi, Paolo Maldini, Fabio Cannavaro, all at 4 Most appearances at the UEFA European Championship Gianluigi Buffon, 17 Most appearances in UEFA European Championship qualifying Gianluigi Buffon, 41 Most appearances at the UEFA European Championship and UEFA European Championship qualifying Gianluigi Buffon, 58 Most minutes played in European Championship matches Gianluigi Buffon, 1620 minutes Most UEFA European Championships played in Gianluigi Buffon and Alessandro Del Piero, 4 Most appearances at the FIFA Confederations Cup Gianluigi Buffon, Giorgio Chiellini, Riccardo Montolivo, all at 8 Most FIFA Confederations Cups played in Gianluigi Buffon, Giorgio Chiellini, Daniele De Rossi, Andrea Pirlo, Riccardo Montolivo, Alberto Gilardino, all at 2 Most appearances at the Central European International Cup Giuseppe Meazza, 16 Most appearances at the Olympics Adolfo Baloncieri, 11 Most appearances as a substitute Alessandro Del Piero, 30 Most appearances as a substitute at the FIFA World Cup Alessandro Del Piero, 7 Most appearances as a substitute at the UEFA European Championship Alessandro Del Piero, 6 Most appearances for Italy wearing the number 10 shirt Giancarlo Antognoni Most FIFA World Cup matches won Paolo Maldini, 14 Oldest player Dino Zoff, 41 years 89 days, 29 May 1983, 0–2 vs. Sweden Youngest player Renzo De Vecchi, 16 years 112 days, 26 May 1910, 6–1 vs. Hungary Youngest outfield player to feature in a match post-World War II Giuseppe Bergomi, 18 years 113 days, 14 April 1982, 0–1 vs.
East Germany Youngest unofficial player to feature in a match Rodolfo Gavinelli, 16 years 98 days, 9 April 1911, 2–2 vs. France Youngest forward to start in a match Eugenio Mosso, 18 years 238 days, 5 April 1914, 1–1 vs. Switzerland Youngest unofficial forward to start in a match Rodolfo Gavinelli, 16 years 98 days, 9 April 1911, 2–2 vs. France Oldest debutant Emiliano Moretti, 33 years 160 days, 18 November 2014, 1–0 vs. Albania Oldest player to feature at the FIFA World Cup Dino Zoff, 40 years 133 days, 11 July 1982, 3–1 vs. West Germany Youngest player to feature at the FIFA World Cup Giuseppe Bergomi, 18 years 195 days, 5 July 1982, 3–2 vs. Brazil Oldest player to feature at a FIFA World Cup Final Dino Zoff, 40 years 133 days, 11 July 1982, 3–1 vs. West Germany Youngest player to feature at a FIFA World Cup Final Giuseppe Bergomi, 18 years 201 days, 11 July 1982, 3–1 vs. West Germany Youngest goalkeeper to feature in a match Gianluigi Donnarumma, 17 years 189 days, 1 September 2016, 1–3 vs.
France Youngest goalkeeper to start a match Gianluigi Donnarumma, 18 years 31 days, 28 March 2017, 2–1 vs. Netherlands Most FIFA World Cup titles Giovanni Ferrari, Giuseppe Meazza, Eraldo Monzeglio, all at 2 Most Central European International Cup titles Giuseppe Meazza, Eraldo Monzeglio, Alfredo Pitto, all at 2 Only player to win both the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship Dino Zoff Only players to win both the FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Gold Medal Sergio Bertoni, Alfredo Foni, Ugo Locatelli, Pietro Rava Longest career Gianluigi Buffon, 29 October 1997–23 March 2018, 20 years, 145 days As of 26 March 2019, the players with the most goals for Italy are:Players in bold are still active. First goal Pietro Lana, 15 May 1910, 6–2 vs. France Most goals at the FIFA World Cup Christian Vieri, Paolo Rossi, Roberto Baggio, all at 9 Most goals at a single FIFA World Cup Paolo Rossi and Salvatore Schillaci, both at 6 Most goals at the FIFA World Cup and FIFA World Cup qualifiers Luigi Riva, 17 Most FIFA World Cups scored in Roberto Baggio, 3 Most goals in FIFA World Cup qualifiers Luigi Riva, 14 First goal in a FIFA World Cup match Angelo Schiavio, 27 May 1934, 7–1 vs. United States First goal in a FIFA World Cup qualifier match Anfilogino Guarisi, 25 March 1934, 4–0 vs.
Greece Most goals at the UEFA European Championship Mario Balotelli and Antonio Cassano, both at 3 Most goals at a single UEFA European Championship Mario Balotelli, 3 Most goals at the UEFA European Championship and the UEFA European Championship qualifying Filippo Inzaghi, 14 Most goals in UEFA European Championship qualifying Filippo Inzaghi, 12 First goal in a UEFA European Championship match Angelo Domenghini, 8 June 1968, 1–1 vs. Yugoslavia First goal in a UEFA European Championship qualifying match Gianni Rivera, 2 December 1962, 6–0 vs. Turkey Most goals at the FIFA Confederations Cup Mario Balotelli, Giuseppe Rossi and Daniele De Rossi, all at 2 Most goals at a single FIFA Confederations Cup Mario Balotelli and Giuseppe Rossi, both at 2 First goal in a FIFA Confederations Cup match Giuseppe Rossi, 15 June 2009, 3–1 vs. United States Most goals at the Central European International Cup Giuseppe Meazza, 8 First goal in a Central European International Cup match Julio Libonatti, 23 October 1927, 2–2 vs. Czechoslovakia Most goals at the Olympics Adolfo Baloncieri, 8 First goal in an Olympic match Franco Bontadini, 29 June 1912, 2–3 vs. Finland Most goals in Friendlies Giuseppe Meazza, 20 Fastest goal Emanuele Giaccherini, 19 seconds, 11 June 2013, 2–2 vs. Haiti Fastest goal at the FIFA World Cup Pietro Ferraris, 5 June 1938, 2–1 vs. Norway, Bruno Mora, 7 June 1962, 3–0 vs. Switzerland, both in the 2nd minute of play Fastest goal by
1954 FIFA World Cup
The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July. Switzerland was chosen as hosts in July 1946; the tournament set a number of all-time records for goal-scoring, including the highest average number of goals scored per game. The tournament was won by West Germany, who defeated Hungary 3–2 in the final, giving them their first title. Switzerland was awarded the tournament unopposed on 22 July 1946, the same day that Brazil was selected for the 1950 World Cup, in Luxembourg City; the hosts and the defending champions qualified automatically. Of the remaining 14 places, 11 were allocated to Europe, two to the Americas, one to Asia. Scotland and South Korea made their World Cup debuts at this tournament. South Korea became the first independent Asian country to qualify for the World Cup. Austria appeared for the first time since 1934. Turkey would not participate at a finals again until the 2002 competition, while South Korea's next appearance would be in 1986.
The third and fourth place teams from 1950, Sweden and Spain, both failed to qualify. In a shock result, Spain was eliminated by Turkey: after the two countries had tied a three-game series, Turkey progressed by drawing of lots by a blindfolded Italian boy. German teams as well as Japan were allowed to qualify again, after having been banned from the 1950 FIFA World Cup. West Germany qualified against fellow Germans from the Saarland, while East Germany had not entered, cancelling international football games after the East German uprising of 1953. Argentina declined to participate for the third World Cup in succession; the following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. The 1954 tournament used a unique format; the sixteen qualifying teams were divided into four groups of four teams each. Each group contained two unseeded teams. Only four matches were scheduled for each group, each pitting a seeded team against an unseeded team; this contrasts with the usual round-robin in which every team plays every other team: six matches in each group.
Another oddity was that extra time, which in most tournaments is not employed at the group stage, was played in the group games if the score was level after 90 minutes, with the result being a draw if the scores were still level after 120 minutes. Two points were awarded for one for a draw; the two teams with the most points from each group progressed to the knockout stage. If the first and second placed teams were level on points, lots were drawn to decide which team would top the group. However, if the second and third placed teams were level on points, there was a play-off to decide which team would progress to the next stage, it turned out that two of the four groups required play-offs, the other two required drawing of lots between the two top teams. The play-offs were between Switzerland and Italy, Turkey and West Germany: in both matches the unseeded teams repeated earlier victories against the seeds to progress. In the other two groups, lots were drawn to determine the first-place teams, resulting in Uruguay and Brazil finishing above Austria and Yugoslavia, respectively.
A further unusual feature of the format was that the four group-winning teams were drawn against each other in the knockout stages to produce one finalist, the four second-placed teams played against each other to produce the second finalist. In subsequent tournaments it has become customary to draw group winners against second-placed teams in the first knockout round. In any knockout game tied after 90 minutes, 30 minutes of extra time were played. If the scores had still been level after extra time, in any knockout game other than the final, lots would have been drawn to decide which team progressed. However, if the final had been tied after extra time, it would have been replayed, with lots deciding the winner only if the replay was tied after extra time. In the event, all the knockout games were decided in either normal time or extra time, with no replays or drawing of lots being required. Before qualification was complete, the eight seeded teams were determined by FIFA based on world rankings.
They were Austria, England, Hungary, Italy and Uruguay. These seedings were thrown into disarray when, in an unexpected result, Turkey eliminated Spain in qualification. FIFA resolved this situation by giving Turkey the seeding, allocated to Spain. West Germany, reinstated as full FIFA members only in 1950 and were unseeded, convincingly won the first of two encounters with the seeded Turkish side at Wankdorf stadium in Berne; the South Koreans, the other unseeded team, lost 7–0 and 9–0, with West Germany being denied the chance to play such an easy opponent. Sepp Herberger, the West German coach, gambled against the seeded team of Hungary by sending in a reserve side, lost 8–3. Hungary's team captain Ferenc Puskás, considered by many as the best player in the world in that time, was injured by West German defender Werner Liebrich, had to miss Hungary's next two matches. Puskás played for Hungary despite still being in a questionable condition. In the quarter-finals, the favourites Hungary beat Brazil 4–2 in one of the most violent matches in football history, which became infamous as the Battle of Berne.
Meanwhile, the World Cup holders Uruguay sent England out of the tournament by 4–2. West Germany dispatched Yugoslavia 2–0, Austria beat the host nation Switzerland in the game that saw the most goals in
The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years, between nations around or close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe and Asia meet. The games are under the auspices of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games; the idea was proposed at the 1948 Summer Olympics by Muhammed Taher Pasha, chairman of the Egyptian Olympic Committee and vice-president of the International Olympic Committee, assisted by the Greek member of the I. O. C. Ioannis Ketseas. In 1949 an unofficial event was held in Istanbul, Turkey but the first official Mediterranean Games were held in Egypt in 1951; the Games were inaugurated in October 1951, in Alexandria, Egypt, in honour of Muhammed Taher Pasha, with contests being held in 13 sports along with the participation of 734 athletes from 10 countries. In 1955, in Barcelona, during the II Games, the set up was decided of a Supervisory and Controlling Body for the Games, a kind of Executive Committee; the decisions were materialized on 16 June 1961, the said Body was named, upon a Greek notion, ICMG.
Twelve countries were hosted for Mediterranean Games - four from Africa: Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The first 11 games took place always one year preceding the Summer Olympic Games. However, from 1993 on, they were held the year following the Olympic games; this transition meant that the only time the Mediterranean Games were not held four years after the previous Games was in 1993, when Languedoc-Roussillon in France hosted the Games just two years after Athens. The Mediterranean Games, in terms of the preparation and composition of the National Delegation, are held under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee and the Hellenic Olympic Committee. However, their establishment too must be credited to the HOC, for it held a leading part in their being founded despite all difficulties. Athens is the permanent seat of the ICMG and the Committee’s General Secretary is Greek; this comes as a further tribute to Greece, highlighting its leading role with regard to the function and strengthening of the institution.
Except that Greece bailed out of its 2013 Mediterranean Games commitment when the two cities of Volos and Larissa were supposed to host the 2013 edition of the Games. But because of Greece's financial troubles, they had to give that up and the 2013 honors went instead to Turkey, with the city of Mersin rescuing the 2013 edition of the Games instead; the logo of the games referred to as the "Mediterranean Olympics", is composed of three white rings symbolically representing Africa and Europe — the three continents that border the Mediterranean Sea. This logo has been used since the Split games in 1979, for which it was devised and afterwards accepted for the whole Games. During the closing ceremony, the flag of the games is transferred to the country of the city chosen for the organization of the next Mediterranean Games. At present, 26 countries participate in the games: Africa: Algeria, Libya and Tunisia Asia: Lebanon and Syria. Europe: Albania, Andorra and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Monaco, North Macedonia, San Marino, Slovenia and Turkey.
Kosovo was accepted as a member of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games in October 2015 and participated for the first time in the 2018 Mediterranean Games in Tarragona, Spain. Of all the National Olympic Committees within the Olympic Movement bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Palestine have not participated in the games, nor has Great Britain who represents the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. In the case of Israel, Allen Guttman in The Games Must Go On argued that Israel's exclusion is both antisemitic and politically motivated due to antagonism towards Israel by the participating Arab nations; the IOC's Avery Brundage was not supportive of Israel's desire to compete, saying: "I cannot understand why anyone wants to go where he is not wanted". The International Amateur Athletics Federation pushed the issue at the 1959 Mediterranean Games in Beirut by refusing to grant permission to hold an athletics competition unless Israel were allowed to compete. Lebanese games organizer Gabriel Gemayel conceded to this, but sidestepped the ruling by holding a parallel Lebanese Games comprising athletics events between the present nations alongside the official Mediterranean Games competitions.
There are countries not bordering the Mediterranean Sea which nonetheless participate: Portugal, Kosovo, San Marino and North Macedonia. The Hellenic Olympic Committee has suggested that nine more countries that do not satisfy geographic criteria could be allowed to participate, such as Bulgaria, some Arab countries such as Jordan and Iraq. Portugal competed in the 2018 Mediterranean Games after a decision which approved Portugal as effective National Olympic Committee; the symbol of the Mediterranean Games consists of three rings representing Asia and Europe, the three continents involved in this competition. The rings dissolve in a wavy line in their lower part, as if they were immersed in the Mediterranean Sea. During the closing ceremony, the flag is transferred to the country of the city chosen to host the next Mediterranean Games. No inland city has hosted the games. All but one of the host cities to date have been situated on the Mediterranean coast; the International Mediterranean Games Committee held a