São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. As the richest Brazilian state and a major industrial complex dubbed the "locomotive of Brazil", the state is responsible for 33.9% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo has the second highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita, the fourth lowest infant mortality rate, the third highest life expectancy, the third lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil, being by far, the safest state in the country; the homicide rate is 3.8 per 100 thousand as of 2018 1/4 of the Brazilian rate. São Paulo alone is richer than Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia combined. If São Paulo were an independent country, its nominal GDP would be ranked among the top 20 in the world; the economy of São Paulo State is the most developed in Brazil. With more than 45 million inhabitants in 2017, São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state, the most populous national subdivision in the Americas, the third most populous political unit of South America, surpassed only by the rest of the Brazilian Federation and Colombia.
The local population is one of the most diverse in the country and descended from Italians, who began immigrating to the country in the late 19th century. In addition, Germans, Japanese and Greeks are present in the ethnic composition of the local population; the area that today corresponds to the state territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples from 12,000 BC. In the early 16th century, the coast of the region was visited by Portuguese and Spanish explorers and navigators. In 1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa would establish the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas—the village of São Vicente, in the Baixada Santista. In the 17th century, the paulistas bandeirantes intensified the exploration of the interior of the colony, which expanded the territorial domain of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire in South America. In the 18th century, after the establishment of the Province of São Paulo, the region began to gain political weight. After independence in 1820, São Paulo began to become a major agricultural producer in the newly constituted Empire of Brazil, which created a rich regional rural oligarchy, which would switch on the command of the Brazilian government with Minas Gerais's elites during the early republican period in the 1880s.
Under the Vargas Era, the state was one of the first to initiate a process of industrialization and its population became one of the most urban of the federation. The city of São Paulo, the homonymous state capital, is ranked as the world's 12th largest city and its metropolitan area, with 20 million inhabitants, is the 9th largest in the world and second in the Americas, after Greater Mexico City. Regions near the city of São Paulo are metropolitan areas, such as Campinas, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos; the total population of these areas coupled with the state capital—the so-called "Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo"—exceeds 30 million inhabitants, i.e. 75 percent of the population of São Paulo statewide, the first macro-metropolis in the southern hemisphere, joining 65 municipalities that together are home to 12 percent of the Brazilian population. In pre-European times, the area, now São Paulo state was occupied by the Tupi people's nation, who subsisted through hunting and cultivation.
The first European to settle in the area was João Ramalho, a Portuguese sailor who may have been shipwrecked around 1510, ten years after the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. He became a settler. In 1532, the first colonial expedition, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa of Portugal, landed at São Vicente. De Sousa added Ramalho's settlement to his colony. Early European colonisation of Brazil was limited. Portugal was more interested in Asia, but with English and French raiding privateer ships just off the coast, the territory had to be protected. Unwilling to shoulder the burden of naval defence himself, the Portuguese ruler, King Joao III, divided the coast into "captaincies", or swathes of land, 50 leagues apart, he distributed them among well-connected Portuguese. The early port and sugar-cultivating settlement of São Vicente was one rare success connected to this policy. In 1548, João III brought Brazil under direct royal control. Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior.
Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town in 1553; the history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga. In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades. By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 household
Jânio da Silva Quadros was a Brazilian lawyer and politician who served as 22nd President of Brazil from 31 January to 25 August 1961, when he resigned from office. He served as the 24th and 36th mayor of São Paulo, the 18th governor of the state of São Paulo. Quadros was known for his populist style of government and his eccentric behavior; as president, he attempted to root out corruption. He pursued an independent foreign policy, trying to balance relations between the United States and the Eastern Bloc. Although he was elected by a huge margin, his term was marked by uncertainty and political instability culminating in his resignation; this unexpected move caused national chaos, with the presidency being assumed by João Goulart. Quadros was born in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul on January 25th 1917, to Gabriel Quadros and Leonor da Silva Quadros, he attended the University of São Paulo, funding his education by teaching geography and Portuguese, graduated in 1939 with a degree in Law. He subsequently practiced law and taught at the Dante Alighieri Institute until 1945, when he became involved in politics.
In 1947, Quadros was elected to the city council of São Paulo, of which he was a member until 1950. He was active in this role, introducing more legislation than any other member. Quadros ran for mayor of the city of São Paulo in 1953, he defeated the well-funded establishment candidate Francisco Cardoso and served as mayor until 1955. During his time as mayor he gained a reputation for innovation, he visited the poor neighborhoods of São Paulo and listened to the complaints of the residents, which made him popular with the working class. He succeeded in balancing the city's budget in under a year, adding to his formidable reputation. In 1955, Quadros resigned, he defeated the experienced politician Adhemar de Barros, his longtime rival, by a margin of 1 percent. He served as governor until 1959. Quadros' meteoric career can be attributed to his widespread use of populist rhetoric and his extravagant behavior, he appealed to popular frustration with the government by making his campaign symbol a broom, symbolic of his pledge to "sweep away corruption".
He was a charismatic leader who proved adept at gaining the trust of the public. Prior to the 1960 election, Quadros was nominated by several opposition parties, forming a coalition of his National Labor Party, the Christian Democratic Party and the largest opposition party, the National Democratic Union. Although he was not an enthusiastic supporter of the UDN, the party supported his candidacy because they lacked a viable alternative. Throughout the campaign, Quadros' clashed with the UDN, his trip to communist Cuba in March 1960 demonstrated a clear disregard for the party's preferred foreign policy. Despite this, Quadros enjoyed widespread popularity with the Brazilian electorate; the ruling coalition, composed of the PSD and PTB, nominated Henrique Lott, Marshal of the Brazilian Army. However, Lott was a flawed candidate, whose stubbornness and bluntness cost him potential supporters. Quadros won, his 15.6 percent margin of victory would be the largest margin for a presidential election held by popular vote until Fernando Henrique Cardoso won by 27 points in 1994.
Quadros' share of the popular vote was larger than any previous president. Despite this success, the separate race for vice president was won by João Goulart, Lott's running mate; the election marked a historic moment in Brazilian history. When Quadros took office on January 31, 1961, it was the first time in 31 years that the presidency was not held by an heir to the legacy of Getúlio Vargas. After his victory in the 1960 election, Quadros spent the three months before his inauguration traveling in Europe and refrained from discussing what he would do as president, his absence was criticized by many of his allies, who wanted him to take a more active role in preparing the administration to govern. Quadros took office on January 31, 1961. In his inaugural speech, he emphasized the issues of government inefficiency and debt. Quadros laid the blame for the country's high rate of inflation on his predecessor, Juscelino Kubitschek, berated the former president for nepotism and corruption, he replaced most incumbent ministers with members of the UDN and other parties that had supported him.
However, the Movimento Popular Jânio Quadros was denied influence in the new government despite its support for Quadros and its prominent role in the campaign. Despite his political skills, Quadros' ability to govern was hampered throughout his presidency by his inexperience with party politics and his small staff. At the beginning of Quadros presidency, Brazil was faced with high inflation and large debts to foreign countries, his government announced an anti-inflation program in March which simplified exchange rates and cut public spending. These reforms gained the approval of the IMF, allowing Quadros to renegotiate debts with the United States and Europe Brazil received a total of 1.64 billion dollars of new loans mitigating the debt crisis that it had been facing. This represented a major breakthrough for the Quadros administration, as several previous Brazilian presidents had failed to renegotiate the debt. In addition to his campaign against inflation, Quadros attempted to reduce bureaucratic inefficiency and corru
São Roque, São Paulo
São Roque is a city in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba; the population is 86,515 in an area of 306.91 km². The city is at an altitude of 771 m. São Roque is connected by two main highways: Rodovia Raposo Tavares and Rodovia Castelo Branco, it is located 60 km west from the state capital. Some of the neighboring municipalities are Cotia, Vargem Grande Paulista, Ibiúna, Mairinque and Aluminio. São Roque maintains itself as a lush ecological paradise, it has a good climate with a wonderful countryside. The Serra do Mar mountains cover the southeast, it has an excellent infrastructure well-developed for wine production. In the 19th century, immigrants from Italy and Portugal arrived in São Roque to work in vineyards. Tourism is a significant part of the economy, it holds the largest artificial ski park in the Ski Mountain Park. Juca de Oliveira, actor http://www.guiasaoroque.com.br Website about São Roque http://www.saoroque.sp.gov.br São Roque on citybrazil.com.br
Greater São Paulo
The Greater São Paulo is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A defined specific term, Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, one definition for Metropolitan São Paulo, consists of 39 municipalities, including the state capital, São Paulo; the RMSP of São Paulo is known as a financial and economic centre of Brazil, with a total population of 23,455,256 inhabitants. The largest municipalities are São Paulo, with a population of 12,138,175, Guarulhos with a population of 1,337,087 people, plus several municipalities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, such as São Bernardo do Campo and Santo André in the ABC Region; the ABC Region in the south of Grande São Paulo is an important location for industrial corporations, such as Volkswagen and Ford. It represents the "core" cities of the greater region; the extended metropolitan area of São Paulo is an agglomeration of five contiguous metropolitan areas that have grown into one another and three microregions, dominated by São Paulo.
It has more than 33 million inhabitants, 75% of the population of the entire state of São Paulo, consists of the contiguous entities: Territorial area: 7,947 km2 Urban area: 2,139 km2 Population: 23,455,256 GDP: R$628 billion Latitude: 23 533S Longitude: 46 617W São Paulo Guarulhos São Bernardo do Campo Santo André Osasco Mauá Mogi das Cruzes Diadema Carapicuíba Itaquaquecetuba Suzano Taboão da Serra Barueri Embu das Artes Cotia Itapevi Ferraz de Vasconcelos Itapecerica da Serra Francisco Morato São Caetano do Sul Franco da Rocha Poá Ribeirão Pires Santana de Parnaíba Jandira Caieiras Arujá Mairiporã Cajamar Embu-Guaçu Santa Isabel Vargem Grande Paulista Rio Grande da Serra Biritiba-Mirim Juquitiba Guararema São Lourenço da Serra Salesópolis Pirapora do Bom Jesus Being the most industrialized region of the country as well as the most populated, the transportation plays an important role. The main highways of the area are: Rodovia Anhangüera Rodovia dos Imigrantes Rodovia Anchieta Rodovia dos Bandeirantes Rodovia Presidente Dutra Rodovia Ayrton Senna Rodovia Castelo Branco Rodovia Fernão Dias Rodovia Raposo Tavares Rodovia Régis Bittencourt Rodoanel Mário CovasThe São Paulo Metro and the Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos provide rail-based transit within the metropolitan area.
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Santana de Parnaíba
Santana de Parnaíba is a city and municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo; the population is 126,574 in an area of 179.95 km². It was founded in 1625 near the Tietê River by an important Bandeirante wife; the word Parnaíba means rocky river. The municipality contains and administers the 367 hectares Tamboré Biological Reserve, a protected conservation unit; the city is headquarters of Rede Xistv
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University