Cairns is a city in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is on the east coast of Far North Queensland; the city is the 5th-most-populous in ranks 14th overall in Australia. Cairns was founded in 1876 and named after William Wellington Cairns, Governor of Queensland from 1875 to 1877, it was formed to serve miners heading for the Hodgkinson River goldfield, but declined when an easier route was discovered from Port Douglas. It developed into a railhead and major port for exporting sugar cane and other metals and agricultural products from surrounding coastal areas and the Atherton Tableland region; the population of the Cairns urban area at the 2016 Census was 144,787. Based on 2015 data, the associated local government area has experienced an average annual growth rate of 2.3% over the last 10 years. Cairns is a popular tourist destination because of its tropical climate and access to both nearby tropical rainforest and the Great Barrier Reef, one of the seven natural wonders of the world. Prior to British settlement, the Cairns area was inhabited by the Gimuy Walubara Yidinji people, who still claim their Native Title rights.
The area is known in the local Yidiny language as Gimuy. From 1770 to the early 1870s the area was known to the British as Trinity Bay; the arrival of beche de mer fishermen from the late 1860s saw the first European presence in the area. On the site of the modern-day Cairns foreshore, there was a large native well, used by these fishermen. A violent confrontation occurred in 1872 between local Yidinji people and Phillip Garland, a beche de mer fisherman, over the use of this well; the area from this date was subsequently called Battle Camp. In 1876, hastened by the need to export gold mined from the Hodgkinson goldfields on the tablelands to the west, closer investigation by several official expeditions established its potential for development into a port. Brinsley G. Sheridan surveyed the area and selected a place further up Trinity Inlet known to the diggers as Smith's Landing for a settlement which he renamed Thornton. However, after Native Police officers Alexander Douglas-Douglas and Robert Arthur Johnstone opened a new track from the goldfields to Battle Camp, this more coastal site became preferable.
Battle Camp was renamed Cairns in late 1876 in honour of the Governor of Queensland, William Cairns. The site was sand ridges. Labourers cleared the swamps, the sand ridges were filled with dried mud, sawdust from local sawmills, ballast from a quarry at Edge Hill. Debris from the construction of a railway to Herberton on the Atherton Tableland, a project which started in 1886, was used; the railway opened up land used for agriculture on the lowlands, for fruit and dairy production on the Tableland. The success of local agriculture helped establish Cairns as a port, the creation of a harbour board in 1906 supported its economic future. On 25 April 1926, the Cairns Sailors and Soldiers War Memorial was unveiled by Alexander Frederick Draper, the mayor of the City of Cairns. During World War II, the Allied Forces used Cairns as a staging base for operations in the Pacific, with United States Army Air Forces and Royal Australian Air Force operational bases, as well as a major military seaplane base in Trinity Inlet, United States Navy and Royal Australian Navy bases near the current wharf.
Combat missions were flown out of Cairns in support of the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942. Edmonton and White Rock south of Cairns were major military supply areas and U. S. Paratroopers trained at the Goldsborough Valley. A Special Forces training base was established at the old "Fairview" homestead on Munro's Hill, Mooroobool; this base was known as the Z Experimental Station, but referred to informally as "The House on the Hill". After World War II, Cairns developed into a centre for tourism; the opening of the Cairns International Airport in 1984 helped establish the city as a desirable destination for international tourism. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 144,787 people in Cairns. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.9% of the population. 67.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.0%, New Zealand 3.1%, Papua New Guinea 1.5%, Philippines 1.2% and Japan 1.1%. 76.9% of people only spoke English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Japanese 1.6%, Mandarin 0.8%, Italian 0.7%, Korean 0.7% and German 0.6%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 32.1%, Catholic 22.4% and Anglican 13.2%. Cairns is located on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula on a coastal strip between the Coral Sea and the Great Dividing Range; the northern part of the city is located on Trinity Bay and the city centre is located on Trinity Inlet. To the south of the Trinity Inlet lies the Aboriginal community of Yarrabah; some of the city's suburbs are located on flood plains. The Mulgrave River and Barron River flow within the greater Cairns area but not through the CBD; the city's centre foreshore is located on a mud flat. Cairns is a provincial city, with a linear urban layout that runs from the south at Edmonton to the north at Ellis Beach; the city is 52 km from north to south. The Northern Beaches consist of a number of beach communities extending north along the coast. In general, each beach suburb is at the end of a spur road extending from the Captain Cook Highway.
From south to north, these are Machans Beach, Holloways Beach, Yorkeys Knob, Trinity Park, Trinity B
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found
Material culture is the aspect of social reality grounded in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes the usage, consumption and trade of objects as well as the behaviors and rituals that the objects create or take part in; some scholars include other intangible phenomena that include sound and events, while some consider language and media as part of it. The term is most used in archaeological and anthropological studies, to define material or artifacts as they are understood in relation to specific cultural and historic contexts and belief systems. Material cultural can be described as any object that humans use to survive, define social relationships, represent facets of identity, or benefit peoples' state of mind, social, or economic standing; the scholarly analysis of material culture, which can include both human made and natural or altered objects, is called material culture studies. It is an interdisciplinary field and methodology that tells of the relationships between people and their things: the making, history and interpretation of objects.
It draws on both theory and practice from the social sciences and humanities such as art history, anthropology, historic preservation, archival science, literary criticism and museum studies, among others. Research in several areas looked into the reasons for perceiving an object with meaning. Common reasons for valuing material lie in their sentimental value. A well-known related theory is Kahneman's endowment effect theory. According to Kahneman, people evaluate objects they own with higher value than the same object if they do not own it; the endowment effect was found to increase over time. Another way in which material can hold meaning and value is by carrying communication between people, just like other communication forms such as speech and gesture. An object can mediate messages between both between people who are not together. A work of art, for example, can transfer a message from the creator to the viewer and share an image, a feeling, or an experience. Material can contain memories and mutual experiences across time and influence thoughts and feelings.
A study found that couples who have more items that were jointly acquired and more favorite items among them had higher-quality relationships. Researchers from the fields of sociology and anthropology have been fascinated by gift-giving, a universal phenomenon that holds emotional meaning using material culture. According to Schieffelin, "gift-giving is a vehicle of social obligation and political maneuver." Mauss defines the gift as creating a special bond between the receiver. According to Mauss, the giver never leaves the gift but becomes part of the receiver's future by inserting the gift into their life. A gift leads at some point to another gift in response, which creates a special reciprocal bond between people. Material culture studies as an academic field grew along the field of anthropology and so began by studying non-Western material culture. All too it was a way of putting material culture into categories in such a way that marginalized and hierarchized the cultures from which they came.
During the "golden age" of museum-going, material cultures were used to show the supposed evolution of society from the simple objects of non-Westerners to the advanced objects of Europeans. It was a way of showing that Europeans were at the end of the evolution of society, with non-Westerners at the beginning. Scholars left the notion that culture evolved though predictable cycles, the study of material culture changed to have a more objective view of non-Western material culture; the field of material culture studies as its own distinct discipline dates to the 1990s. The Journal of Material Culture began publishing in 1996. Collecting habits date back hundreds of years. Leslie White was an American anthropologist, known for his advocacy of theories of cultural evolution, sociocultural evolution, neoevolutionism and for his role in creating the department of anthropology at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor, he was president of the American Anthropological Association. He wrote The Science of Culture in 1949 in which he outlined schema of the world as divided into cultural and physical levels of phenomenon.
White believed that the development of culture rested on technology and that the history of human technology could be understood through the study of human-produced materials. American anthropologist James Deetz, known for his work in the field of historical archaeology, wrote the book "In Small Things Forgotten" in 1977 and published a revised and expanded version in 1996, he pioneered there the ideas of using neglected substances such as trash pits and soil stains to reveal human actions. By analyzing objects in association with their location, the history of that location, the objects they were found with, not singling out the most valuable or rarest ones, archaeologists can create a more accurate picture of daily life. Deetz looks at the long view of history and investigates the impact of European culture on other cultures across the globe by an analysis of the spread of everyday objects. Ian M. G. Quimby's Material Culture and the Study of American Life, written in 1978, tried to bridge the gaps between the museum world and the university and between curator and historian.
Quimby posits that objects in museums are understood through an intellectual framework that uses non-traditional sources. He describes the benefits of work on exhibit design as a vehicle for education. Thomas Schlereth, Professor Emeritus of American Studies at the Universi
Barka River flows from the Eritrean Highlands to the plains of Sudan. With a length of over 640 km, it rises just outside Asmara and flows in a northwestern direction through Agordat; the river merges with the Anseba River near the border with Sudan. In Sudan, the Barka flows seasonally near the town of Tokar. List of rivers of Eritrea List of rivers of Sudan
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care and use of animals such as cattle, goats, llamas, reindeer and sheep. "Pastoralism" has a mobile aspect but this can take many forms and be at different scales. Sedentary pastoralism is becoming more common as the hardening of political borders, expansion of crop agriculture, building of fences reduces ability to move. Mobile pastoralism includes moving herds distances in search of fresh pasture and water, something that can occur daily or within a few hours, to transhumance, where animals are moved seasonally, to nomadism, where pastoralists and families move with the animals year-round. In sedentary pastoralism, or pastoral farming, pastoralists grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock. One example is a savanna area where pastoralists and their animals gather when rainwater is abundant and the pasture is rich scatter during the drying of the savanna.. Another is the movement of livestock from summer pastures in lowlands, to montane pastures in the summer where grass is green and plentiful during the dry season.
Grazing in woodlands and forests may be referred to as silvopastoralism. Pastoralist herds interact with their environment, mediate human relations with the environment as a way of turning uncultivated plants like wild grass into consumable, high quality, food. In many places, grazing herds on savannas and woodlands can help maintain the biodiversity of the savannas and prevent them from evolving into dense shrublands or forests. Grazing and browsing at the appropriate levels can increase biodiversity in Mediterranean climate regions. Pastoralists may use fire to make ecosystems more suitable for grazing and browsing animals. For instance, the Turkana people of northwest Kenya use fire to prevent the invasion of the savanna by woody plant species. Biomass of the domesticated and wild animals was increased by a higher quality of grass. Pastoralism is found in many variations throughout the world where enviornmental charactersitics such as aridity, poor soils, cold or hot temperature, lack of water make crop growing difficult or impossible.
Pastoralism remains a way of life in Africa, the Tibetan plateau, the Eurasian steppes, the Andes, the Pampas and other many other places. Composition of herds, management practices, social organization and all other aspects of pastoralism vary between areas and between social groups. Many traditional practices have had to adapt to the changing circumstance of the modern world, including climatic conditions affecting the availability of grasses and the loss of mobility over large landscapes. Ranches of the United States and sheep stations and cattle stations of Australia are seen by some as modern variations. One theory is. Bates and Lees proposed that it was the incorporation of irrigation into farming which ensued in specialization. Advantages of mixed farming include reducing risk of failure, spreading labour, re-utilizing resources; the importance of these advantages and disadvantages to different farmers differs according to the sociocultural preferences of the farmers and the biophysical conditions as determined by rainfall, soil type, disease.
The increased productivity of irrigation agriculture led to an increase in population and an added impact on resources. Bordering areas of land remained in use for animal breeding; this meant. Specialization occurred as a result of the increasing importance of both intensive agriculture and pastoralism. Both agriculture and pastoralism developed with continuous interactions. There is another theory that suggests pastoralism evolved from gathering. Hunters of wild goats and sheep were knowledgeable about the needs of the animals; such hunters followed the herds on their seasonal rounds. Undomesticated herds were chosen to become more controllable for the proto-pastoralist nomadic hunter and gatherer groups by taming and domesticating them. Hunter-gatherers' strategies in the past have been diverse and contingent upon the local environment conditions, like those of mixed farmers. Foraging strategies have included hunting or trapping big game and smaller animals, collecting shellfish or insects, gathering wild plant foods such as fruits and nuts.
These diverse strategies for survival amongst the migratory herds could provide an evolutionary route towards nomadic pastoralism. Pastoralism occurs in uncultivated areas. Wild animals eat the forage from the marginal lands and humans survive from milk and meat of the herds and trade by-products like wool and milk for money and food. Pastoralists do not exist at basic subsistence. Pastoralists compile wealth and participate in international trade. Pastoralists have trade relations with agriculturalists, horticulturalists, other groups. Pastoralists are not extensively dependent on milk and meat of their herd. McCabe noted that when common property institutions are created, in long-lived communities, resource sustainability is much higher, evident in the East African grasslands of pastoralist populations. However, it needs to be noted that the property rights structure is only one of the many different parameters that affect the sustainability of resources, common or private property per se, does not lead to sustainability.
Some pastoralists supplement herding with hunting and gathering, fishing and/or small-scale farming or pastoral farming. Mobility allows pastoralists to adapt to the environment, which opens up the poss
In geomorphology a river is said to be rejuvenated when it is eroding the landscape in response to a lowering of its base level. The process is a result of a sudden fall in sea level or the rise of land; the disturbance enables a rise in the river's potential energy, increasing its riverbed erosion rate. The erosion occurs as a means for the river to adjust to its new base level. River Rejuvenation can lead to a number of changes in landscape; these include the formation of waterfalls and rapids, Knick points, River Terraces and increased meanders. Rejuvenated terrains have complex landscapes because remnants of older landforms are locally preserved. Parts of floodplains may be preserved as terraces along the downcutting stream channels. Meandering streams become entrenched, so a product of older river systems is found with steep pronounced "V" shaped valleys - seen with younger systems. One example of rejuvenation is the Nile, rejuvenated when the Mediterranean Sea dried up in the late Miocene.
Its base level dropped from sea level to over 2 miles below sea level. It cut its bed down to several hundred feet below sea level at Aswan and 8000 feet below sea level at Cairo. After the Mediterranean re-flooded, those gorges filled with silt. Rejuvenation may result from causes which are eustatic or isostatic in nature. All of these cause the river to erode its bed vertically faster as it gains gravitational potential energy; that causes effects such as incised meanders, steps where the river starts flowing faster, fluvial terraces derived from old floodplains. A region may be uplifted at any stage; this streams begin active downward erosion again. Dynamic rejuvenation may be caused by the epeirogenic uplift of a land mass. Warping or faulting of a drainage basin will steepen the stream gradient followed by the downcutting; the effect of seaward tilting can be felt only when the direction of that stream is parallel to the direction of tilting. Eustatic rejuvenation results from worldwide decrease in sea level, two types of such rejuvenation are recognized.
Diastrophic eustatism is the change in sea level due to variation in capacity of ocean basins, whereas glacio-eustatism is the change in sea level due to withdrawal or return of water into the oceans, due to the accumulation or melting of successive ice sheets. Eustatic rejuvenation relocates the mouth of the stream. Regrading of a stream toward a new lower base level will proceed upvalley; the result may be an interrupted profile with the point of intersection of the old and new base levels. Three changes may bring static rejuvenation, to the stream. Decrease in load increase in runoff because of increased rainfall increase in stream volume through acquisition of newRejuvenation due to decrease in load took place during post-glacial times along many valleys that received large quantities of glacial outwash. With change to no glacier conditions stream load decreased and valley deepening ensued. Rejuvenation may result in a "knickpoint", as it appears on a river profile, which appears as a rapids or a waterfall.
An example is Seljalandsfoss in southern Iceland, where isostatic uplift has occurred as a result of both construction and deglaciation. Static rejuvenation may occur, in rare instances, when a downstream knickpoint erodes its way upstream to a lake which establishes base level for its tributaries; when the knickpoint reaches the lake, the lake drains, the base level of upstream waters lowers from that of the lake to that of the river downstream of the knickpoint. At some point in the future, a quite dramatic example will appear when Niagara Falls cuts its way back to Lake Erie. Canyons and gorges are in the initial phase of valley development and are considered some of the most interesting valley forms; these forms result from accelerated entrenchment caused by recent tectonic activity such as vertical uplift. The uplift creates high-standing plateaus and as a result, perpetuates the downward erosive power of existing rivers. A knickpoint is an area in the landscape where there is an unexpected irregularity in the gradient of the river profile.
An example of a visible knickpoint would be a waterfall. However, some knickpoints can be concealed In the landscape. It’s important to note that while there are other contributing factors to such features in the landscape, rejuvenation is one of the major influences; as mentioned, when a river rejuvenates, it gains more energy and erodes vertically to meet its new base level. This change in profile is visible at the knickpoint where it is the area where the old base level connects to the new. A terrace is the product of an old floodplain that remains at a higher altitude precedent river rejuvenation; the newly formed terrace begins to form a valley. This valley widens through lateral erosion; the process continues and if rejuvenation occurs new terraces form as well, resulting in a step like profile around a river
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock. A clast is a fragment of geological detritus and smaller grains of rock broken off other rocks by physical weathering. Geologists use the term clastic with reference to sedimentary rocks as well as to particles in sediment transport whether in suspension or as bed load, in sediment deposits. Clastic sedimentary rocks are rocks composed predominantly of broken pieces or clasts of older weathered and eroded rocks. Clastic sediments or sedimentary rocks are classified based on grain size and cementing material composition, texture; the classification factors are useful in determining a sample's environment of deposition. An example of clastic environment would be a river system in which the full range of grains being transported by the moving water consist of pieces eroded from solid rock upstream. Grain size varies from clay in claystones; the Krumbein phi scale numerically orders these terms in a logarithmic size scale.
Siliciclastic rocks are clastic noncarbonate rocks that are composed exclusively of silicon, either as forms of quartz or as silicates. The composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks includes the chemical and mineralogical components of the framework as well as the cementing material that make up these rocks. Boggs divides them into four categories. Major minerals can be categorized into subdivisions based on their resistance to chemical decomposition; those that possess a great resistance to decomposition are categorized as stable, while those that do not are considered less stable. The most common stable mineral in siliciclastic sedimentary rocks is quartz. Quartz makes up 65 percent of framework grains present in sandstones and about 30 percent of minerals in the average shale. Less stable minerals present in this type of rocks are feldspars, including both potassium and plagioclase feldspars. Feldspars comprise a lesser portion of framework grains and minerals, they only make up about 15 percent of framework grains in 5 % of minerals in shales.
Clay mineral groups are present in mudrocks but can be found in other siliciclastic sedimentary rocks at lower levels. Accessory minerals are associated with those whose presence in the rock are not directly important to the classification of the specimen; these occur in smaller amounts in comparison to the quartz, feldspars. Furthermore, those that do occur are heavy minerals or coarse grained micas. Rock fragments occur in the composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and are responsible for about 10–15 percent of the composition of sandstone, they make up most of the gravel size particles in conglomerates but contribute only a small amount to the composition of mudrocks. Though they sometimes are, rock fragments are not always sedimentary in origin, they can be metamorphic or igneous. Chemical cements are predominantly found in sandstones; the two major types, are silicate carbonate based. The majority of silica cements are composed of quartz but can include, opal and zeolites. Composition includes the chemical and mineralogic make-up of the single or varied fragments and the cementing material holding the clasts together as a rock.
These differences are most used in the framework grains of sandstones. Sandstones rich in quartz are called quartz arenites, those rich in feldspar are called arkoses, those rich in lithics are called lithic sandstones. Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are composed of silicate particles derived by the weathering of older rocks and pyroclastic volcanism. While grain size and cementing material composition, texture are important factors when regarding composition, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are classified according to grain size into three major categories; the term clay is used to classify particles smaller than.0039 millimeters. However, term can be used to refer to a family of sheet silicate minerals. Silt refers to particles that have a diameter between.0039 millimeters. The term mud is used when silt particles are mixed in the sediment. Furthermore, particles that reach diameters between.062 and 2 millimeters fall into the category of sand. When sand is cemented together and lithified it becomes known as sandstone.
Any particle, larger than two millimeters is considered gravel. This category includes pebbles and boulders. Like sandstone, when gravels are lithified they are considered conglomerates. Conglomerates are coarse grained rocks dominantly composed of gravel sized particles that are held together by a finer grained matrix; these rocks are subdivided into conglomerates and breccias. The major characteristic that divides these two categories is the amount of rounding; the gravel sized particles that make up conglomerates are well rounded while in breccias they are angular. Conglomerates are common in stratigraphic successions of most, if not all ages but only make up one percent or less, by weight of the total sedimentary rock mass. In terms or origin and depositional mechanisms they are similar to sandstones; as a result, the two categories contain the same sedimentary structures. Sandstones are medium-grained rocks composed of rounded or angular fragments of sand size, that often