A close-up or closeup in filmmaking, television production, still photography, the comic strip medium is a type of shot that frames a person or object. Close-ups are one of the standard shots used with medium and long shots. Close-ups display the most detail. Moving toward or away from a close-up is a common type of zooming. Most early filmmakers—such as Thomas Edison and Louis Lumière and Georges Méliès—tended not to use close-ups and preferred to frame their subjects in long shots, similar to the stage. Film historians disagree as to. One of the best claims is for George Albert Smith in Hove, who used medium close-ups in films as early as 1898 and by 1900 was incorporating extreme close-ups in films such as As Seen Through a Telescope and Grandma's Reading Glass. In 1901, James Williamson working in Hove, made the most extreme close-up of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. D. W. Griffith, who pioneered screen cinematographic techniques and narrative format, is associated with popularizing the close up with the success of his films.
For example, one of Griffith's short films, The Lonedale Operator, makes significant use of a close-up of a wrench that a character pretends is a gun. Lillian Gish remarked on Griffith's pioneering use of the close-up: The people in the front office got upset, they came down and said:'The public doesn’t pay for the head or the arms or the shoulders of the actor. They want the whole body. Let’s give them their money’s worth.’ Griffith stood close to them and said: ‘Can you see my feet?’ When they said no, he replied: ‘That’s what I’m doing. I am using what the eyes can see.' Close-ups are used for many reasons. They are employed as cutaways from a more distant shot to show detail, such as characters' emotions, or some intricate activity with their hands. Close cuts to characters' faces are used far more in television than in movies. For a director to deliberately avoid close-ups may create in the audience an emotional distance from the subject matter. Close-ups are used for distinguishing main characters.
Major characters are given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups. There is a long-standing stereotype of insecure actors desiring a close-up at every opportunity and counting the number of close-ups they received. An example of this stereotype occurs when the character Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard, announces "All right, Mr. DeMille, I'm ready for my close-up" as she is taken into police custody in the film's finale. Close-up shots do not show the subject in the broad context of its surroundings. If overused, they may leave viewers uncertain as to. Close-ups are done with wide-angle lenses, because perspective causes objects in the center of the picture to be unnaturally enlarged; this may convey a sense of intoxication, or other unusual mental state. There are various degrees of close-up depending on; the terminology varies between countries and different companies, but in general these are: Medium Close Up: Halfway between a mid shot and a close-up.
Covers the subject's head and shoulders. Close Up: A certain feature, such as someone's head, takes up the whole frame. Extreme Close Up: The shot is so tight that only a detail of the subject, such as someone's eyes, can be seen. Lean-In: when the juxtaposition of shots in a sequence in a scene of dialogue, starts with medium or long shots, for example, ends with close-ups. Lean-Out: the opposite of a lean-in, moving from close-ups out to longer shots. Lean: when a lean-in is followed by a lean-out; when the close-up is used in shooting, the subject should not be put in the middle of the frame. Instead, it should be located in the frame according to the law of golden section. Macro photography Micrograph Shot Notes Bibliography Bordwell, David. Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-331027-1. Media related to Close-up shots at Wikimedia Commons'
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Parokya ni Edgar
Parokya ni Edgar is a Filipino band formed in 1993. The band is known for its original rock novelty songs and satirical covers of popular songs both foreign and local; the band is adept at playing in various musical genres. Parokya ni Edgar has been referred to by local media outlets and numerous award-giving bodies as "Pambansang Banda ng Pilipinas". Despite having "Edgar" in the band's name, none of the members are named Edgar. Named Comic Relief, the band's initial members were a group of high school students composed of vocalists Chito Miranda, Jeric Estaco, Vinci Montaner, along with guitarists Mikko Yap and Gab Chee Kee, all hailing from Ateneo de Manila University, they were regulars in after-school jam sessions, before performing an opening number for an Eraserheads concert. This served as their break in the music industry and prompted them to add a drummer and bassist – schoolmate Dindin Moreno and Buwi Meneses, respectively. Around the same time they changed the band's name to Parokya ni Edgar.
After high school and Jeric withdrew from the band to pursue other interests. Soon after, the remaining band members invited their friend Darius Semaña to take the role of lead guitar; the band name's origin had been a subject of debate among fans as the band members had never given full confirmation. It was not until 2013 that Chito Miranda addressed it through a post on their Facebook page; the title "Parokya Ni Edgar" came from a joke a classmate named Bambi Cuna made during one of their high school classes. Sources state; when the teacher asked Cuna where Jose Rizal's fictional hero, Crisostomo Ibarra was educated, it was said that Cuna made up a daft answer, "sa Parokya ni Edgar". Vocalist Jeric Estaco decided on impromptu to introduce the band as "Parokya ni Edgar" in their first live performance. From there, the band name just stuck. By the late 1990s, PNE became regular performers in Club Dredd, a popular club in Manila at the time; the band gained popularity during the height of the Filipino rock explosion, with the local rock community welcoming the influence of foreign grunge acts such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam and Soundgarden.
The late managing director of Universal Records, Bella Dy Tan, signed them as contract artists after witnessing one of their Club Dredd performances. Soon, their initial recordings "Buloy", "Trip" and "Lutong Bahay" gained radio airplay, their first album, Khangkhungkherrnitz became a triple platinum hit in the Philippines, having sold 120,000 units. The next albums were equal successes - Buruguduystunstugudunstuy was awarded triple platinum, Jingle Balls Silent Night Holy Cow with gold, Gulong Itlog Gulong with triple platinum; this included one of the most popular songs in their career. "Halaga" was such a hit in the country that it further boosted PNE's career, cementing their name into OPM history. After a five-year hiatus, they released their junior studio album Edgar Edgar Musikahan in 2002. On July 14, 2003, they released the studio album Bigotilyo, with the main single "Mr. Suave". "Mr. Suave" proved to be just as popular as its predecessors and stayed on the music charts for more than a year.
The song became so popular in the Philippines that a few commercials and political campaigns borrowed stanzas from it. Same Year in 2003, Parokya celebrated their 10th Year Anniversary with new gigs and concerts in various shows in the Philippines and around the world like Hong Kong, Canada such as Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario & more canadian provinces tour were performed for PNE, the United States such as New York, New Jersey, Arizona and among other U. S. States. Were performed by PNE. 2004 was the year of release of Inuman Sessions Vol. 1, PNE's first compilation DVD album celebrating their 11th anniversary. The DVD showcased the band's prerecorded live studio performance of their hit songs to a selected audience; the DVD album met success in sales nationwide. They released their 9th studio album, Middle-Aged Juvenile Novelty Pop Rockers in 2010 with the single "Paki-usap Lang"; the album was met with moderate success in both sales. In 2011, PNE joined the roster of Tanduay's First Five and RockFest replacing long running Tanduay endorser 6cyclemind.
The following year, PNE released their 2nd compilation DVD album Inuman Sessions Vol. 2 - a follow up to their Inuman Sessions Vol. 1. That same year, Montaner left the band on good terms with both the members and crew. 2013 marked PNE's 20th anniversary in the OPM industry. The band launched their 13th album Bente as commemoration, as this was a milestone, Vinci Montaner temporarily reunited with the band for the album's cover art and signings. In 2014, PNE was awarded with the MYX Magna Award for their artistic contribution to OPM Rock History & celebrating their 20th anniversary of their opm rock band of the mid 90's, they are the 2nd OPM Rock Band to receive this award after Eraserheads in 2009. All throughout 2015, the band toured selected cities in the United States; that same year, the band began recording for their next album and contained the tracks "Sing" and "Lagi Mong Tatandaan", the former featuring Rico Blanco. The album is entitled Pogi Years Old; the cover album was revealed on September 2, 2016 through their Facebook page and expected to be released by 2016.
Former member Vinci Montaner will appear on the album as a featured artist. On September 9, 2016, the band held a free surprise show at the Bonifacio Shrine in Manila; the album wa
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran
Eleandre "Ely" Basiño Buendia is a Filipino musician and director who gained fame as guitarist and lead vocalist of the popular Filipino rock band Eraserheads. Regarded as one of the most respected music icons in the country, his compositions gained massive commercial success and universal critical acclaim, topping various music charts and leaving a legacy in Philippine popular culture, he performs as guitarist and lead vocalist for Apartel. Ely Eleandre Basiño Buendia was born in his parents' home in Naga City at 6:20 am on November 2, 1970, he is the second child of Lisetta Ruiz Basiño. His parents were married on October 1964 in Ragay, Camarines Sur, he first learned Kundiman from his mother while he started playing the guitar at the age of 7 years old. Buendia graduated from Elementary in Pasig Catholic College in 1983 in Pasig City and High School in University of Perpetual Help Rizal. During Elementary, Buendia won in a singing contest where he sang "Ang Huling El Bimbo" by Rico J. Puno.
Buendia enrolled to University of the Philippines Diliman where he formed his bands Bluidie Tryste, Sunday School and Eraserheads. Buendia has two children, Una Aurea, with his first wife, Vicky Cayago, Eon Drake, with Pupil co-manager Diane Ventura, he had a relationship with Andi Trinidad of Mega Magazine and also used to date TV5 news anchor and model Shawn Yao. In December 1989, Ely Buendia, Raimund Marasigan, Marcus Adoro and Buddy Zabala formed the band Eraserheads in their collegiate school, the University of the Philippines Diliman, where Buendia was a Film major at the College of Mass Communications; the band found that they weren't good at covering other people's hits, so they concentrated on writing their own material instead. In 1991, Buendia explained, "After all, if we committed a mistake no one would recognize it since they don't know the song, right?" Performing their original songs live soon earned them a cult following in the University, which spread outside the campus. One of the songs, a pop song entitled "Pare Ko", which Buendia wrote, became popular because of the lyrics which included a few swear words.
Eraserheads signed a three-year deal with BMG Pilipinas. Their debut album Ultraelectromagneticpop! Featured no less than Pare Ko and a host of other novelty pieces that had people listening and discovering more about the quartet; the album brought the underground college rock scene into public awareness. 1993 saw the emergence of "Eraserheadsmania" because of successive hit singles, sold-out concerts and thousands of fans. Buendia continued to write songs for the band, many of which became classics. Eraserheads lasted for ten years before breaking up with Buendia and Adoro's departure. During those 10 years, the band produced eight studio albums along with other singles, their gigs took them out with tours in the United States and other countries. One album, Aloha Milkyway, was released in the Asian region. Eraserheads were the first Filipino artists to receive the "Moon Man" trophy for winning the 1997 MTV Asia Viewer's Choice Award for the video of their song, "Ang Huling El Bimbo"; this hit was written by Buendia, like many others that the band produced.
Eraserheads went onstage for their reunion concert on August 30, 2008 at the Fort Open Field, Taguig City, cut short unexpectedly. The continuation of the concert was held at the SM Mall of Asia Concert Grounds on March 7, 2009. After weeks of speculation, it was confirmed that Buendia had left the band in mid-March 2002 for "reasons unknown". However, in subsequent interviews, Buendia referred to business matters as the cause of the band's break-up. In an interview, Marasigan said he was eating in SM Megamall, a local shopping mall, when he heard of the news, he said he was "semi-surprised" and wondered if Zabala knew about it. Adoro told of the story now famous among Eraserheads fans about Buendia's cryptic text message, he said Buendia stated in the text message that it's time to graduate. Adoro quipped in the same interview that Buendia being the first to graduate was natural, since he was in batch 1987 in their school, while they were in batch 1988. Zabala confesses in an interview, he said that there were so many occasions where they could have disbanded but they did not.
Adoro expressed the belief of some people that the band was getting too old and that it was "selfish" for the band to continue referring to comments about how it's time for other bands besides Eraserheads to shine. The band made it clear, that Buendia's departure from the band wasn't in any way violent and there was no shouting or any confrontation. Without giving up, the three remaining original Eraserheads decided to continue on. Within just a few weeks, the "new" Eheads debuted at Hard Rock Cafe in Makati City on April 19 featuring a female singer-guitarist, Kris Gorra-Dancel from the band, Fatal Posporos. However, after a few months, Adoro quit the band; the remaining members of Eraserheads added Diego Mapa and Ebe Dancel to their lineup and renamed their band, "Cambio". After Ely left Eraserheads, he would invite musicians and jam together, he had no definite line-up at that time. I have two drummers, two bass players..." according to Ely in an interview with Martin Nievera. This jamming together with friends would evolve into The Mongols.
It was composed of
Pinoy rock, or Filipino rock, is the brand of rock music produced in the Philippines or by Filipinos. It has become as diverse as the rock music genre itself, bands adopting this style are now further classified under more specific genres or combinations of genres like alternative rock, post-grunge, new wave, pop rock, punk rock, reggae, heavy metal and indie; because these genres are considered to fall under the broad rock music category, Pinoy rock may be more defined as rock music with Filipino cultural sensibilities. In the early 1960s, as electric instruments and new technology became available, instrumental American and British bands like The Shadows and The Ventures flourished. In 1963, during the British Invasion, bands such as The Beatles rose to mainstream audiences worldwide, their widespread popularity and their embrace of the counterculture injected the possibility of socio-political lyrics with mature comments on real life into popular music. Immensely influenced by this new breed of British artists, many Filipino bands began adopting similar musical styles.
One of the first popular Filipino balladeers was Bobby Gonzales, whose major hit was "Hahabul-Habol". Eddie Mesa, another teen idol from the period, became known as the "Elvis Presley of the Philippines". Back many Filipinos referred to rock bands as "combos", many of which used nontraditional instruments like floor-bass bongos and gas tanks. Into the early 1970s, Filipino music was growing more nationalistic and socio-political in nature, as well as using Tagalog more often. Pop music still dominated the airwaves with disco and funk bands such as the APO Hiking Society and Hotdog. Songs like Hotdog's "Ikaw ang Miss Universe ng Buhay Ko" combined Filipino and English within the same song; this helped innovate the so-called "Manila Sound". OPM became popular. However, emerging social and political consciousness somehow creeped into the industry with the traditional allied genres that are folk and rock music. Folk musicians and bands included Freddie Aguilar, Heber Bartolome and Florante. Asin, an ethnic-folk band, was the first commercial band to bring a pro-environment song to the airwaves with "Masdan Mo ang Kapaligiran".
Famous for providing subtle rebellious and peace messages behind its skillful vocal harmonizing, Asin gave the masses hits such as "Bayan Kong Sinilangan" and "Balita". Juan de la Cruz Band, a garage and blues-rock influenced group consisting of drummer Joey "Pepe" Smith, bassist Mike Hanopol, lead guitarist Wally Gonzales, are credited for ushering in the first "rock & roll revolution" in the Philippines that lasted from the late'60s to the late'70s. Being influenced by the counterculture, the bands of the'70s were known to have never been sidelined commercially and sometimes took the center stage by storm; the radio station DZRJ the AM weekend "Pinoy Rock and Rhythm" show hosted by the ex-Fine Arts student from Philippine Women's University named Dante David, a.k.a. Howlin' Dave, provided the much-needed publicity to Pinoy rock during this era. In the early to mid-1980s, groups like RP, with Goff Macaraeg and Bob Aves, Sinaglahi, UP Sintunado, Patatag and soloists like the nationalist folk rock singers Paul Galang and Jess Santiago, the progressive folk duo Inang Laya, the progressive Pinoy rock band The Jerks, Noel Cabangon were a hit on street concerts and campus tours.
These groups of artists reunited and formed Buklod, which Rom Donggeto of Sinaglahi, Noel Cabangon and Rene Bongcocan of Lingkod Sining took as their new band name when it disbanded after the EDSA Revolution. The Dawn is another Pinoy rock band; the Dawn released their independently released single "Enveloped Ideas" in 1986. Many music journalists and enthusiasts, as well as musicians themselves, attributed the flourishing in the mid-'80s of new wave and post-punk influenced bands to DWXB-FM, which began playing independently released singles of unsigned local bands. Other bands emerged including Dean's December, Ethnic Faces, Identity Crisis and Violent Playground, all of which were able to record and release their respective albums in the years that followed. Another band named; the group was established in July 1983. Guevara and Bobby Wuds Balingit were sing-along home boys that were born and bred in the streets of a tough Manila neighborhood. Before forming the group and Balingit had first created an acoustic folk singing group called Think God, playing covers of James Taylor and Crosby and Nash songs at various Shakey's Pizza parlors in the Philippines.
They changed their name to The Woods. Bobby Wuds continues to perform. During the start of the decade, The Hayp and AfterImage were among the prominent bands enjoying mainstream recognition. An underground music scene was burgeoning in some unknown bars in Manila. Red Rocks, together
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh