Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus Carya. The genus includes 17 to 19 species. Five or six species are native to China and India, as many as 12 are native to the United States, four are found in Mexico, two to four are from Canada. A number of hickory species are used for products like edible nuts or wood. Hickories are deciduous trees with large nuts. Hickory flowers are small, yellow-green catkins produced in spring, they are self-incompatible. The fruit is a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm long and 1.5–3 cm diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk, which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, thin in a few, notably the pecan. Beaked hickory is a species classified as Carya sinensis, but now adjudged in the monotypic genus Annamocarya. In the APG system, genus Carya has been moved to the order Fagales. AsiaCarya sect. Sinocarya – Asian hickories Carya dabieshanensis M. C. Liu – Dabie Shan hickory Carya cathayensis Sarg. – Chinese hickory Carya hunanensis W.
C. Cheng & R. H. Chang – Hunan hickory Carya kweichowensis Kuang & A. M. Lu – Guizhou hickory Carya poilanei Leroy - Poilane's hickory Carya tonkinensis Lecomte – Vietnamese hickoryNorth AmericaCarya sect. Carya – typical hickories Carya floridana Sarg. – scrub hickory Carya glabra Sweet – pignut hickory, sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, broom hickory Carya laciniosa K. Koch – shellbark hickory, shagbark hickory, bigleaf shagbark hickory, big shellbark, bottom shellbark, thick shellbark, western shellbark Carya myristiciformis Nutt. – nutmeg hickory, swamp hickory, bitter water hickory Carya ovalis Sarg. – red hickory, spicebark hickory, sweet pignut hickory Carya ovata K. Koch – shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. ovata – northern shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. australis – Southern shagbark hickory, Carolina hickory Carya pallida Engl. & Graebn. – sand hickory Carya texana Buckley – black hickory Carya tomentosa Nutt. – mockernut hickory †Carya washingtonensis - Manchester extinct Miocene Carya sect.
Apocarya – pecans Carya aquatica Nutt. – bitter pecan or water hickory Carya cordiformis K. Koch – bitternut hickory Carya illinoinensis K. Koch – pecan Carya palmeri W. E. Manning – Mexican hickory Hickory is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; these include: Luna moth Brown-tail Coleophora case-bearers, C. laticornella and C. ostryae Regal moths, whose caterpillars are known as hickory horn-devils Walnut sphinx The bride Hickory tussock moth The hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera uses the hickory tree as a food source. Phylloxeridae are related to aphids and have a complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls form around the developing insects. Phylloxera galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls for the protein content or because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels; the pecan gall curculio is a true weevil species found feeding on galls of the hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera.
The banded hickory borer is found on hickories. Some fruits are difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts and walnuts in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes. Hickory wood is hard, stiff and shock resistant. There are woods that are stronger than hickory and woods that are harder, but the combination of strength, toughness and stiffness found in hickory wood is not found in any other commercial wood, it is used for tool handles, wheel spokes, drumsticks, lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts, the bottom of skis, walking sticks, for punitive use as a switch, as a cane-like hickory stick in schools and use by parents. Paddles are made from hickory; this property of hickory wood has left a trace in some Native American languages: in Ojibwe, hickory is called mitigwaabaak, a compound of mitigwaab "bow" and the final -aakw "hardwood tree". Baseball bats were made of hickory, but are now more made of ash. Hickory is replacing ash. Hickory was extensively used for the construction of early aircraft.
Hickory is highly prized for wood-burning stoves and chimineas because of its high energy content. Hickory wood is a preferred type for smoking cured meats. In the Southern United States, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory is sometimes used for wood flooring due to its durability in resisting character. Hickory wood is not noted for rot resistance. A bark extract from shagbark hickory is used in an edible syrup similar
Falls City, Nebraska
Falls City is a city and county seat of Richardson County, United States. The population was 4,325 at the 2010 census, down from 4,671 in 2000. Falls City was founded in the summer of 1857 by James Lane, John Burbank, J. E. Burbank, Isaac L. Hamby; the town is located in the southeast corner of the state. The river in 1857 had banks and bed of stone; the town was located near where the river flowed over a four-foot rock ledge called the "Falls of Nemaha", for which the town was named. Over time the river has changed to the extent; the town was a stop on the Underground Railroad for escaping slaves during the struggles resulting from the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Early in the city's history, it won a prolonged process to become the county seat of Richardson County; the county selected Salem, Nebraska to be the county seat, but due to Salem's lack of a suitable building site, a new election was held which Falls City tied in the vote. In a third election in 1860, Falls City was declared the permanent site of the county seat.
Falls City grew in the late 19th century due the arrival of the Atchison & Nebraska Railroad in 1871 and the Missouri Pacific in 1882, for which Falls City was designated as a division point in 1909. The population of the city peaked at 6,200 citizens in 1950. In the summer of 1966, Braniff Airlines Flight 250 crashed near Falls City due to bad weather, killing all 42 on board; the BAC One-Eleven aircraft was on the Kansas City to Omaha leg of a multi-stop flight from New Orleans to Minneapolis on Saturday night, August 6. In 1993, Brandon Teena, a transgender person who had arrived in Falls City, was murdered by two acquaintances who, upon discovering that he was physically female, had beaten and raped him about a week previously. Brandon had reported the rape to the police, but the Richardson County sheriff had failed to take steps to protect him. Learning that the rape had been reported, the two tracked Brandon to a farmhouse near Humboldt, where they killed him and two others. Brandon's mother subsequently sued the sheriff and the county for negligence, wrongful death, intentional infliction of emotional distress.
Briefs were filed in the case by thirty-four civil-rights groups, including the Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. The episode was dramatized in a 1999 film titled. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.06 square miles, of which, 3.05 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Under the Köppen climate classification, Falls City is categorized as having a hot summer humid continental climate; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,325 people, 1,931 households, 1,127 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,418.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,190 housing units at an average density of 718.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.1% White, 0.3% African American, 3.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 1,931 households of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.6% were non-families.
36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 44.4 years. 23.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,671 people, 2,008 households, 1,218 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,784.9 people per square mile. There were 2,271 housing units at an average density of 867.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.20% White, 0.13% African American, 2.33% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. There were 2,008 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families.
35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 24.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.0 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $26,773, the median income for a family was $40,523. Males had a median income of $26,908 versus $17,482 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,254. About 5.1% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. Falls City's public school system consists
Asimina triloba, the papaw, paw paw, or paw-paw, among many regional names, is a small deciduous tree native to the eastern United States and Canada, producing a large, yellowish-green to brown fruit. It belongs to the genus Asimina in the same plant family as the custard-apple, sweetsop, ylang-ylang and soursop; the pawpaw is a patch-forming understory tree found in well-drained, fertile bottom-land and hilly upland habitat, with large, simple leaves. Pawpaw fruits are the largest edible fruit indigenous to the United States. Pawpaw fruits have a sweet, custardish flavor somewhat similar to banana and pineapple, are eaten raw, but are used to make ice cream and baked desserts; this plant's scientific name is Asimina triloba. The genus name Asimina is adapted from the Native American name assimin or rassimin through the French colonial asiminier; the epithet triloba in the species' scientific name refers to the flowers' three-lobed calices and doubly three-lobed corollas, the shape not unlike a tricorne hat.
The common name of this species is variously spelled pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, papaw. It derives from the Spanish papaya, an American tropical and sub-tropical fruit sometimes called "papaw" because of the superficial similarity of their fruits and the fact that both have large leaves; the name pawpaw or papaw, first recorded in print in English in 1598 meant the giant herb Carica papaya or its fruit. Daniel F. Austin's Florida Ethnobotany states that: The original "papaw"... is Carica papaya. By 1598, English-speaking people in the Caribbean were calling these plants "pawpaws" or "papaws"... the temperate Americas they found another tree with a aromatic, sweet fruit. It reminded them of the "papaya", which had become "papaw", so, what they called these different plants... By 1760 the names "papaw" and "pawpaw" were being applied to A. triloba. Yet Asimina triloba has had numerous local common names, many of which compare it to a banana rather than to pawpaw/papaya; these include: wild banana, prairie banana, Indiana banana, Hoosier banana, West Virginia banana, Kansas banana, Michigan banana, Missouri banana, the poor man's banana, Ozark banana and Kentucky banana, as well as asimoya, Quaker delight and hillbilly mango.
Several tribes of Native Americans have terms for the pawpaw such as riwahárikstikuc, tózhaⁿ hu, umbi. Asimina triloba is a large shrub or small tree growing to a height of 35 feet as tall as 45 feet, with trunks 8–12 inches or more in diameter; the large leaves of pawpaw trees are clustered symmetrically at the ends of the branches, giving a distinctive imbricated appearance to the tree's foliage. The leaves of the species are simple and spirally arranged, deciduous, obovate-lanceolate, 10–12 inches long, 4–5 inches broad, wedge-shaped at the base, with an acute apex and an entire margin, with the midrib and primary veins prominent; the petioles are stout, with a prominent adaxial groove. Stipules are lacking; the expanding leaves are conduplicate, covered with rusty tomentum beneath, hairy above. When bruised, the leaves have a disagreeable odor similar to a green bell pepper. In autumn the leaves are a rusty yellow, which make spotting pawpaw groves possible from a long distance. Pawpaw flowers are perfect, about 1–2 inches across, rich red-purple or maroon when mature, with three sepals and six petals.
They are borne singly on stout, axillary peduncles. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as or before the new leaves appear, have a faint fetid or yeasty smell; the fruit of the pawpaw is a large, yellowish-green to brown berry, 2–6 inches long and 1–3 inches broad, weighing from 0.7–18 ounces, containing several brown/black seeds 1⁄2–1 inch in diameter embedded in the soft, edible fruit pulp. The conspicuous fruits begin developing after the plants flower; when mature, the heavy fruits bend the weak branches down. Other characteristics: Calyx: Sepals three, valvate in bud, acuminate, pale green, downy. Corolla: Petals six, in two rows, imbricate in the bud. Inner row acute, nectariferous. Outer row broadly ovate, reflexed at maturity. Petals at first are green brown, become dull purple or maroon and conspicuously veiny. Stamens: Indefinite, densely packed on the globular receptacle. Filaments short. Pollen: shed as permanent tetrads. Pistils: Several, on the summit of the receptacle, projecting from the mass of stamens.
Ovary one-celled. Branchlets: light brown, tinged with red, marked by shallow grooves. Winter buds: Small, of two kinds, the leaf buds pointed and appressed to the twigs, the flower buds round and fuzzy. Bark: Light gray, sometimes blotched with lighter gray spots, sometimes covered with small excrescences, divided by shallow fissures. Inner bark tough, fibrous; the bark with a disagreeable odor when bruised. Wood: Pale, greenish yellow, sapwood lighter.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north, it is the only triply landlocked U. S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles with a population of 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln, its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River. Indigenous peoples, including Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota tribes, lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration; the state is crossed including that of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867, it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Great Plains; the Dissected Till Plains region consist of rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities and Lincoln. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing.
Nebraska has two major climatic zones. The eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate; the western half of the state has a semi-arid climate. The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, variations that decrease moving south in the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur during spring and summer and sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state in the winter and early spring. Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced, or the Omaha Ní Btháska, meaning "flat water", after the Platte River that flows through the state. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration; the historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota, some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region.
In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720; the party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain; this left Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U.
S. Army post west of the Missouri River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun; the army abandoned the fort in 1827. European-American settlement was scarce until the California Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. In the 1860s, after the U. S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government; because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood.
Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster renamed Lincoln after the assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux. During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents; the first was. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area; the second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population
An arboretum in a general sense is a botanical collection composed of trees. More a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum. Other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta; the term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardener's Magazine but the concept was long-established by then. Related collections include a viticetum. Egyptian Pharaohs cared for them. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt returned bearing thirty-one live frankincense trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage, it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, the term has been applied retrospectively as it did not come into use until the eighteenth century.
Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds. Of course there are many tree collections that are much older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world; the most important early proponent of the arboretum in the English-speaking transatlantic world was the prolific landscape gardener and writer, John Claudius Loudon who undertook many gardening commissions and published the Gardener's Magazine, Encyclopaedia of Gardening and other major works. Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, 8 vols. is the most significant work on the subject in British history and included an account of all trees and shrubs that were hardy in the British climate, an international history of arboriculture, an assessment of the cultural and industrial value of trees and four volumes of plates. Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places.
He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the latter part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. Commenting on Loddiges' famous Hackney Botanic Garden arboretum, begun in 1816, a commercial nursery that subsequently opened free to the public, for educational benefit, every Sunday, Loudon wrote: "The arboretum looks better this season than it has done since it was planted... The more lofty trees suffered from the late high winds, but not materially. We walked round the two outer spirals of this coil of shrubs. There is no garden scene about London so interesting". A plan of Loddiges' arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of 1834 edition. Leaves from Loddiges' arboretum and in some instances entire trees, were studiously drawn to illustrate Loudon's encyclopaedic book Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum which incorporated drawings from other early botanic gardens and parklands throughout the United Kingdom. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, near Dubrovnik in Croatia.
The date of its founding is unknown, but it was in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed. The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family, it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, IndiaThe arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees, it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The micro watershed area leading to Ooty lake where the arboretum is now located, had been neglected and the feeder line feeding water to Ooty was contaminated with urban waste and agricultural chemicals; the area is the natural habitats of both indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a footpath, other infrastructure facilities.
Both indigenous and exotic tree species are included. The following tree species were planted: Celtis tetrandra, Dillenia pentagyna, Elaeocarpus ferrugineus, Elaeocarpus oblongus, Evodia lunuankenda, Glochidion neilgherrense, Ligustrum perrotetti, Litsaea ligustrina, Litsaea wightiana, Meliosma arnotiana, Meliosma wightii, Michelia champaca, Michelia nilagirica, Pygeum gardneri, Syzygium amothanum, Syzygium montanum, Alnus nepalensis, Viburnum erubescens, Podocarpus wallichianus, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Rapanea wightiana, Ternstroemia japonica, Microtropis microc
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre