Satan known as the Devil, is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin or falsehood. In Christianity and Islam, he is seen as either a fallen angel or a jinn, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but rebelled against God, who allows him temporary power over the fallen world and a host of demons. In Judaism, Satan is regarded as a metaphor for the yetzer hara, or "evil inclination", or as an agent subservient to God. A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the Tanakh as a heavenly prosecutor, a member of the sons of God subordinate to Yahweh, who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer. During the intertestamental period due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God. In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees, Yahweh grants the satan authority over a group of fallen angels, or their offspring, to tempt humans to sin and punish them.
In the Synoptic Gospels, Satan tempts Jesus in the desert and is identified as the cause of illness and temptation. In the Book of Revelation, Satan appears as a Great Red Dragon, defeated by Michael the Archangel and cast down from Heaven, he is bound for one thousand years, but is set free before being defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire. In Christianity, Satan is known as the Devil and, although the Book of Genesis does not mention him, he is identified as the serpent in the Garden of Eden. In the Middle Ages, Satan played a minimal role in Christian theology and was used as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. During the early modern period, Satan's significance increased as beliefs such as demonic possession and witchcraft became more prevalent. During the Age of Enlightenment, belief in the existence of Satan became harshly criticized. Nonetheless, belief in Satan has persisted in the Americas. In the Quran, Shaitan known as Iblis, is an entity made of fire, cast out of Heaven because he refused to bow before the newly-created Adam and incites humans to sin by infecting their minds with waswās.
Although Satan is viewed as evil, some groups have different beliefs. In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a deity, either worshipped or revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is a symbol of virtuous characteristics and liberty. Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible, since the ninth century, he has been shown in Christian art with horns, cloven hooves, unusually hairy legs, a tail naked and holding a pitchfork; these are an amalgam of traits derived from various pagan deities, including Pan and Bes. Satan appears in Christian literature, most notably in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, variants of the Faust legend, John Milton's Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, the poems of William Blake, he continues to appear in film and music. The original Hebrew term sâtan is a generic noun meaning "accuser" or "adversary", used throughout the Hebrew Bible to refer to ordinary human adversaries, as well as a specific supernatural entity; the word is derived from a verb meaning "to obstruct, oppose".
When it is used without the definite article, the word can refer to any accuser, but when it is used with the definite article, it refers to the heavenly accuser: the satan. Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew Bible: Job ch. 1–2 and Zechariah 3:1–2. Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version: 1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" or "And there standeth up an adversary against Israel" Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" or "let an accuser stand at his right hand." The word "satan" does not occur in the Book of Genesis, which mentions only a talking serpent and does not identify the serpent with any supernatural entity. The first occurrence of the word "satan" in the Hebrew Bible in reference to a supernatural figure comes from Numbers 22:22, which describes the Angel of Yahweh confronting Balaam on his donkey: "Balaam's departure aroused the wrath of Elohim, the Angel of Yahweh stood in the road as a satan against him."
In 2 Samuel 24, Yahweh sends the "Angel of Yahweh" to inflict a plague against Israel for three days, killing 70,000 people as punishment for David having taken a census without his approval. 1 Chronicles 21:1 repeats this story, but replaces the "Angel of Yahweh" with an entity referred to as "a satan". Some passages refer to the satan, without using the word itself. 1 Samuel 2:12 describes the sons of Eli as "sons of Belial". In 1 Samuel 16:14-23 Yahweh sends a "troubling spirit" to torment King Saul as a mechanism to ingratiate David with the king. In 1 Kings 22:19-25, the prophet Micaiah describes to King Ahab a vision of Yahweh sitting on his throne surrounded by the Host of Heaven. Yahweh asks the Host. A "spirit", whose name is not specified, but, analogous to the satan, volunteers to be "a Lying Spirit in the mouth of all his Prophets"; the satan appears in the Book of Job, a poetic dialogue set within a prose framework, which may have been written around the time of the Babylonian captivity.
In the text, Job is a righteous man favored by Yahweh. Job 1:6-8 describes the "sons of God" (bənê hāʼĕ
Morrill Land-Grant Acts
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U. S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales. The Morrill Act of 1862 was enacted during the American Civil War and the Morrill Act of 1890 expanded this model. For 20 years prior to the first introduction of the bill in 1857, there was a political movement calling for the creation of agriculture colleges; the movement was led by Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner of Illinois College. For example, the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school", though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, known today as Michigan State University, which served as a model for the Morrill Act. On February 8, 1853, the Illinois Legislature adopted a resolution, drafted by Turner, calling for the Illinois congressional delegation to work to enact a land-grant bill to fund a system of industrial colleges, one in each state.
Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois believed it was advisable that the bill should be introduced by an eastern congressman, two months Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont introduced his bill. Unlike the Turner Plan, which provided an equal grant to each state, the Morrill bill allocated land based on the number of senators and representatives each state had in Congress; this was more advantageous to the more populous eastern states. The Morrill Act was first proposed in 1857, was passed by Congress in 1859, but it was vetoed by President James Buchanan. In 1861, Morrill resubmitted the act with the amendment that the proposed institutions would teach military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. Aided by the secession of many states that did not support the plans, this reconfigured Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862; the previous day Lincoln signed a bill financing the transcontinental railroad with land grants. Less than two months earlier he signed the Homestead Act encouraging western settlement.
Together these actions, taken at a time when the Union Army was poorly performing, did much to define post–Civil War America. The purpose of the land-grant colleges was: without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life. Under the act, each eligible state received a total of 30,000 acres of federal land, either within or contiguous to its boundaries, for each member of congress the state had as of the census of 1860; this land, or the proceeds from its sale, was to be used toward establishing and funding the educational institutions described above. Under provision six of the Act, "No State while in a condition of rebellion or insurrection against the government of the United States shall be entitled to the benefit of this act," in reference to the recent secession of several Southern states and the contemporaneously raging American Civil War.
After the war, the 1862 Act was extended to the former Confederate states. If the federal land within a state was insufficient to meet that state's land grant, the state was issued scrip which authorized the state to select federal lands in other states to fund its institution. For example, New York selected valuable timber land in Wisconsin to fund Cornell University.p. 9 The resulting management of this scrip by the university yielded one third of the total grant revenues generated by all the states though New York received only one-tenth of the 1862 land grant.p. 10 Overall, the 1862 Morrill Act allocated 17,400,000 acres of land, which when sold yielded a collective endowment of $7.55 million.p. 8On September 12, 1862, the state of Iowa was the first to accept the terms of the Morrill Act which provided the funding boost needed for the fledgling State Agricultural College and Model Farm. The first land-grant institution created under the Act was Kansas State University, established on February 16, 1863, opened on September 2, 1863.
Before the Civil War, American engineers were educated at West Point. While the Congressional debate associated with the Morrill Act was focused on benefits to agriculture, the mechanic arts were included. After the Civil War, as the German University model began to replace the English College, with the encouragement of the Morrill Act, the engineering discipline was defined; because the Morrill Act excluded spending on buildings, engineering specific infrastructure such as textbooks and laboratories were developed. In 1866, there were around 300 American men with engineering degrees and six reputable colleges granting them. By 1911 the United States was graduating 3000 engineers a year, had a total of 38,000 degreed engineers; the Morrill Act coincided with the establishment of engineering in the American university. With a few exceptions, nearly all of the land-grant colleges are public. To mainta
Justin Smith Morrill
Justin Smith Morrill was a Representative and a Senator from Vermont, most remembered today for the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act that established federal funding for establishing many of the United States' public colleges and universities. He was one of the founders of the Republican Party. Born in Strafford, Morrill attended the common schools, Thetford Academy and Randolph Academy, he was trained for a business career by working as a merchant's clerk in Strafford and Portland, Maine. He was a merchant in Strafford, the partnership in which he participated with Judge Jedediah H. Harris grew to own and operate four stores throughout the state. Morrill served in local offices including Town Auditor and Justice of the Peace. One of Judge Harris's daughters married Portus Baxter, who served in Congress. Baxter and Morrill became close friends as a result of the connection to Judge Harris, with Morrill referring to Baxter as "one of nature's noblemen" and Baxter consciously patterning his business and political career on Morrill's.
Morrill invested in several successful ventures, including banks and real estate. By the late 1840s he was financially secure enough to retire, he became a gentleman farmer. In addition to farming, Morrill became active in the Whig Party, including serving as Chairman of the Orange County Whig Committee, a member of the Vermont State Whig Committee, a Delegate to the 1852 Whig National Convention. In 1854 Morrill was elected to the Thirty-fourth Congress as a Whig, he was a founder of the Republican Party, won reelection five times as a Republican, serving from March 4, 1855 to March 3, 1867. He served as chairman of the Committee on Means in the Thirty-ninth Congress, he served on the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, which drafted the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In 1866 Morrill was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Union Republican, he was reelected as a Republican in 1872, 1878, 1884, 1890, 1896, served from March 4, 1867, until his death thirty-one years. He served as chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds where he played a vital role in obtaining the current Library of Congress main building through his work on the Joint Select Committee on Additional Accommodations for the Library.
He served as chairman of the Committee on Finance. In addition, Morrill was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution from 1883 to 1898 and a trustee of the University of Vermont from 1865 to 1898; the Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a protective tariff law adopted on March 2, 1861. Passed after anti-tariff southerners had left Congress during the process of secession, Morrill designed it with the advice of Pennsylvania economist Henry C. Carey, it was one of the last acts signed into law by James Buchanan, replaced the Tariff of 1857. Additional tariffs Morrill sponsored were passed to raise revenue during the American Civil War. Morrill is best known for sponsoring the Morrill Act known as the Land Grant College Act; this act was signed into law by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, established federal funding for higher education in every state of the country. In his own words: This bill proposes to establish at least one college in every State upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but to the sons of toil, where all of needful science for the practical avocations of life shall be taught, where neither the higher graces of classical studies nor that military drill our country now so appreciates will be ignored, where agriculture, the foundation of all present and future prosperity, may look for troops of earnest friends, studying its familiar and recondite economies, at last elevating it to that higher level where it may fearlessly invoke comparison with the most advanced standards of the world.
He authored the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act of 1862, which targeted The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, based on the then-existing practice of plural marriage. It imposed a five-hundred dollar fine and up to five years imprisonment for the crime of polygamy. On January 6, 1879, in Reynolds v. United States the Supreme Court, upheld the Anti-Bigamy Act's ban on plural marriage. A second Land Grant College Act in 1890 targeted the former Confederate states and led to the creation of several black colleges and universities; the Land Grant College Acts led to the founding of 106 colleges including many state universities, polytechnic colleges, agricultural and mechanical colleges. In 1851, Morrill married Ruth Barrell Swan of Massachusetts, they had two children. Justin Harris Morrill died in childhood. James Swan Morrill graduated from the University of Vermont in 1880 and Columbian College Law School in 1882, he was a lawyer and farmer and served in a variety of offices including as a member of the Vermont House of Representatives.
He wrote Self-Consciousness of Noted Persons, published in 1886. Morrill died in Washington, D. C. on December 28, 1898. He was buried at Strafford Cemetery. At the time of Morrill's death his 43 years and 299 days of continuous Congressional service was the longest in U. S. history. He has since been surpassed, but still ranks 18th as of March 2014; the Justin Smith Morrill Homestead in Strafford is a National Historic Landmark. Many colleges established under the Morill Act created a'Morrill Hall' in his honor. Morrill was initiated into the Delta Upsilon fraternity as an honorary member in 1864, he received honorary degrees from the University of Vermont, University of
Garden of Eden
The Garden of Eden called Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God" described in the Book of Genesis and the Book of Ezekiel. Genesis 13:10 refers to the "garden of God", the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31; the Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms refer to trees and water without explicitly mentioning Eden. The name derives from the Akkadian edinnu, from a Sumerian word edin meaning "plain" or "steppe" related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered". Another interpretation associates the name with a Hebrew word for "pleasure"; the Hebrew term is translated "pleasure" in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis 18:12. Like the Genesis flood narrative, the Genesis creation narrative and the account of the Tower of Babel, the story of Eden echoes the Mesopotamian myth of a king, as a primordial man, placed in a divine garden to guard the Tree of Life; the Hebrew Bible depicts Adam and Eve as walking around the Garden of Eden naked due to their innocence. The location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis as the source of four tributaries.
The Garden of Eden is considered to be mythological by most scholars. Among those that consider it to have been real, there have been various suggestions for its location: at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea; the second part of the Genesis creation narrative, Genesis 2:4-3:24, opens with YHWH-Elohim creating the first man, whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in Eden". "And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree, pleasant to the sight, good for food. Last of all, the God made a woman from a rib of the man to be a companion for the man. In chapter three, the man and the woman were seduced by the serpent into eating the forbidden fruit, they were expelled from the garden to prevent them from eating of the tree of life, thus living forever. Cherubim were placed east of the garden, "and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way of the tree of life". Genesis 2:10–14 lists four rivers in association with the garden of Eden: Pishon, Gihon and Phirat.
It refers to the land of Cush—translated/interpreted as Ethiopia, but thought by some to equate to Cossaea, a Greek name for the land of the Kassites. These lands lie north of Elam to the east of ancient Babylon, unlike Ethiopia, does lie within the region being described. In Antiquities of the Jews, the first-century Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Pishon as what "the Greeks called Ganges" and the Geon as the Nile. According to Lars-Ivar Ringbom the paradisus terrestris is located in Shiz in northeastern Iran. In Ezekiel 28:12–19 the prophet Ezekiel the "son of man" sets down God's word against the king of Tyre: the king was the "seal of perfection", adorned with precious stones from the day of his creation, placed by God in the garden of Eden on the holy mountain as a guardian cherub, but the king sinned through wickedness and violence, so he was driven out of the garden and thrown to the earth, where now he is consumed by God's fire: "All those who knew you in the nations are appalled at you, you have come to a horrible end and will be no more.".
According to Terje Stordalen, the Eden in Ezekiel appears to be located in Lebanon. "t appears that the Lebanon is an alternative placement in Phoenician myth of the Garden of Eden", there are connections between paradise, the garden of Eden and the forests of Lebanon within prophetic writings. Edward Lipinski and Peter Kyle McCarter have suggested that the Garden of the gods, the oldest Sumerian version of the Garden of Eden, relates to a mountain sanctuary in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges; the Garden of Eden is considered to be mythological by most scholars. However, there have been suggestions for its location: at its source of the rivers, while others have looked at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea. British archaeologist David Rohl locates it in Iran, in the vicinity of Tabriz, but this suggestion has not caught on with scholarly sources; the location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis, chapter 2, verses 10–14: And a river departed from Eden to water the garden, from there it divided and became four tributaries.
The name of the first is Pishon, the circumnavigator of the land of Havilah where there is gold. And the gold of this land is good, and the name of the second river is Gihon, the circumnavigator of the land of Cush. And the name of the third is Chidekel, that which goes to the east of Ashur. Dilmun in the Sumerian story of Enki and Ninhursag is a paradisaical abode of the immortals, where sickness and death were unknown; the garden of the Hesperides in Greek mythology was somewhat similar to the Christian concept of the Garden of Eden, by the 16th century a larger intellectual association was made in the Cranach painting. In this painting, only the action that takes place there identifies the setting as distinct from the
Soria is a municipality and a Spanish city, located on the Douro river in the east of the autonomous community of Castile and León and capital of the province of Soria. Its population is 43.7 % of the provincial population. The municipality has a surface area of 271,77 km2, with a density of 144.13 inhabitants/km2. Situated at about 1063 metres above sea level, Soria is the second highest provincial capital in Spain. Although there are remains of settlements from the Iron Age and Celtiberian times, Soria itself enters history with its repopulation between 1109 and 1114, by the Aragonese king Alfonso I the Battler. A strategic enclave due to the struggles for territory between the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, Soria became part of Castile definitively in 1134, during the reign of Alfonso VII. In Soria was born Alfonso VIII, Alfonso X had his court established when he received the offer to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. In Soria, the deposed king James IV of Mallorca died, John I of Castile married.
Booming during the Late Middle Ages thanks to its border location and its control over the bovine industry, Soria went into a slow decline over the next few centuries. It was damaged during the Peninsular War; the city is home to the Numantine Museum. Today, its population of 38,881 makes Soria the least populated provincial capital of Castile and León and the second least populated in Spain. Important in its economy is the agri-food industry, while an increasing number of tourists are attracted by its cultural heritage. Soria was mentioned by UNESCO as a good example when including the Mediterranean diet in its Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, it is claimed that in Roman times there was a castle called Oria, purportedly named after a Greek knight called Doricus. Based on this folk etymology, some historians guessed that the first inhabitants of this city might have been the Dorians. Archaeology has not confirmed that story. Instead it has suggested that the first inhabitants were the Suebi, whose kings established one of their courts there.
These two hypotheses have been abandoned because of lack of evidence. It seems more that the name Soria may have its origin in the word dauria from the river Durius; the shield of Soria has the following heraldic description: In a field of gules, a castle, of argent, crenellated with three battlements, lined up and marbled with sabre, rinsed with azure and a king's bust crowned with gold and with its attributes coming out of his homage, in its colour. The king in the coat of arms is Alfonso VIII, born in Soria, the red field represents the blood shed by the Sorians in the battles of Alarcos, Navas de Tolosa and Aljubarrota; the oldest preserved example of the coat of arms is found in the high-medieval bell of San Gil, today the church of Santa María de la Mayor, which reflected the city's motto. Unlike the current official coat of arms, the king who now appears on the bust of the castle's keep on the castle's bell tower, is represented in the bell of San Gil with his entire body at the foot of the castle, leaving through its door.
The area of Soria was inhabited by the Iberians, who merged with the Celts to form the Celtiberians around the 4th century BC. During the Roman conquest of Iberia, Soria was besieged and its population committed a collective suicide in order to escape slavery. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the rebuilt city was occupied by the Suebi. After the Arab conquest of Spain, it grew in importance due to its proximity to the border of the Christian lands, which in the 8th century had settled along the Duero river. In 869 Soria was the centre of the rebellion of Suleyman ibn-Abus against the emir of Córdoba, who sent his son Hakan to quench it. In the early 12th century the city was conquered by Alfonso I the Battler, being absorbed into the Kingdom of León in 1134. Due to its strategic placement at the borders of the Kingdoms of Castile, Navarre and León, Soria in the Middle Ages was at the centre of several conflicts between them. Alfonso VIII of Castile, in reward for its support, gave the city several privileges which it maintained until modern times.
In 1195 the town was stormed by Sancho VII of Navarre, but recovered and continued to develop its splendour and trades held by a community of Jews. Soria lost most of its importance after the unification of Aragón and Castile in 1479, above all after the decree of exile issued against the Jews in 1492. In the War of Spanish Succession, Soria sided for Philip V. In 1808 it was set on fire by the French troops; the economical and social crisis of Spain in the early 20th century, the Spanish Civil War with Francisco Franco's dictatorship which followed, had negative effects on Soria and its neighborhood, which became depopulated due to strong emigration. The policy of the current authorities aims to strengthen the local economy pivoting on Soria's tourism potential, has launched a programme of reconstruction for the neighbouring villages; the poet Antonio Machado spent five years in Soria teaching French in a secondary school, before moving to the neighbouring town of Segovia. These years proved significant in his literary development.
He married and lost his wife there and discovered much ab
Evelyn De Morgan
Evelyn De Morgan, was an English painter whose works were influenced by the style of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. She was a follower of Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Burne-Jones, her paintings exhibit spirituality. She was born Mary Evelyn Pickering at 6 Grosvenor Street, to upper middle-class parents Percival Pickering QC, the Recorder of Pontefract, Anna Maria Wilhelmina Spencer Stanhope, the sister of the artist John Roddam Spencer Stanhope and a descendant of Coke of Norfolk, an Earl of Leicester. Evelyn was educated at home and started drawing lessons when she was 15. On the morning of her seventeenth birthday, Evelyn recorded in her diary, "Art is eternal, but life is short…" "I will make up for it now, I have not a moment to lose." She went on to persuade her parents to let her go to art school. At first they discouraged it, she was granted a scholarship at Slade. However, since the scholarship required that she draw nudes using charcoal and she did not care for this technique, she declined it.
She was a pupil of her uncle John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, a great influence on her works. Beginning in 1875, Evelyn visited him in Florence where he lived; this enabled her to study the great artists of the Renaissance. This influenced her to move away from the classical subjects favored by the Slade school and to make her own style, she first exhibited in 1877 at the Grosvenor Gallery in London and continued to show her paintings thereafter. In August 1883, Evelyn met the ceramicist William De Morgan, on 5 March 1887, they married, they spent their lives together in London. De Morgan, a pacifist, expressed her horror at the First World War and South African War in over fifteen war paintings including The Red Cross and S. O. S. Relative to artistic pursuits, money was unimportant to the De Morgans. Two years after his death in 1917, she died on 2 May 1919 in London and was buried in Brookwood Cemetery, near Woking, Surrey. In August 1875 De Morgan sold the Angel, her first exhibited painting, St Catherine of Alexandria was shown at the Dudley Gallery in 1876.
In 1877, De Morgan exhibited two works at Dudley Gallery and was invited to exhibit at the first Grosvenor Gallery exhibition. In October 1991, sixteen canvases were destroyed in a fire at Bourlet's warehouse. Tobias and the Angel Cadmus and Harmonia Ariadne at Naxos Aurora Triumphans, Russell-Cotes Museum, Bournemouth Night and Sleep Goddess of Blossoms & Flowers The Grey Sisters Phosphorus and Hesperus By the Waters of Babylon Sleep and Death, the Children of the Night Salutation or The Visitation, Love's Passing Dryad Luna The Sea Maidens Hope in a Prison of Despair The Soul's Prison House Love, the Misleader, private collection Medea, Williamson Art Gallery, Birkenhead Angel of Death, private collection The Garden of Opportunity Life and Thought Emerging from the Tomb, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool Flora Eos, Columbia Museum of Art, South Carolina The Undiscovered Country, Columbia Museum of Art, South Carolina Lux in Tenebris Boreas and Oreithyia Earthbound Angel of Death, private collection Helen of Troy Cassandra The Valley of Shadows The Storm Spirits The Poor Man who Saved the City The Love Potion The Cadence of Autumn Queen Eleanor & Fair Rosamund Death of a Butterfly Demeter Mourning for Persephone Port after Stormy Seas The Hour-Glass The Prisoner Our Lady of Peace The Worship of Mammon Death of the Dragon The Vision, private collection The Red Cross The Gilded Cage Deianera The Kingdom of Heaven Suffereth Violence Her works are held in Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
Drawmer, Lois Jane. The impact of science and spiritualism on the works of Evelyn De Morgan 1870-1919. Buckinghamshire New University. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Harris, Lynda ‘Evelyn De Morgan: Symbolist and Mystic’, published on internet site Talisman Fine Art and Talisman Symbolist Studies, London-Cornwall. Marsh, Jan. Women Artists and the Pre-Raphaelite Movement. Virago. ISBN 978-0-86068-065-9. Marsh, Jan. Pre-Raphaelite women artists. Manchester City Art Galleries. P. 139. ISBN 978-0-901673-55-8. Official website "Evelyn De Morgan" at The Bridgeman Art Library Grave of Evelyn and William De Morgan Portraits of Evelyn De Morgan at the National Portrait Gallery, London 8 paintings by or after Evelyn De Morgan at the Art UK site Endless Digressions on Evelyn De Morgan by Kirsty Walker, Victorian Historian
In Abrahamic religions, fallen angels are angels who were expelled from heaven. The term "fallen angel" appears neither in the Bible nor in other Abrahamic scriptures, but is used of angels who were cast out of heaven, or angels who sinned; such angels tempt humans to sin. The idea of fallen angels derived from the Book of Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraph, or the assumption that the "sons of God" mentioned in Genesis 6:1–4 are angels. In the period preceding the composition of the New Testament, some sects of Judaism, as well as many Christian Church Fathers, identified the "sons of God" of Genesis 6:1–4 as fallen angels. Rabbinic Judaism and Christian authorities after the third century rejected the Enochian writings and the notion of an illicit union between angels and women producing giants. Christian doctrine states that the sins of fallen angels start before the beginning of human's history. Accordingly, fallen angels became identified with angels who were led by Satan in rebellion against God and equated with demons.
However, during the intertestamental period, demons were not thought of as the fallen angels themselves, but as the surviving souls of their monstrous offspring. According to this interpretation, fallen angels have intercourse with human women, giving existence to the Biblical giants. To purge the world from these creatures, God sends their bodies are destroyed. However, their spiritual parts survive, henceforth roaming the earth as demons. Although sometimes denied by some scholars, many classical Islam scholars accepted the existence of fallen angels. Evidence for the motif of fallen angels can be traced back to reports attributed to some of the companions of Muhammad, such as Ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Masud. At the same time, some Islamic scholars opposed the assumption of fallen angels by stressing out the piety of angels supported by verses of Quran, such as 16:49 and 66:6. One of the first opponents of fallen angels was the early and influential Islamic ascete Hasan of Basra. To support the doctrine of infallible angels, he pointed at verses which stressed the piety of angels, while reinterpreting verses which might imply acknowledgement of fallen angels.
For that reason, he read the term mala'ikah in reference to Harut and Marut in 2:102 as malikayn, depicting them as ordinary men and not as angels and Iblis as a jinn. Scholars who accepted fallen angels estimated the degree of fallibility of angels. According to a common assertion, only the messengers among angels are impeccable. Academic scholars have discussed whether or not the Quranic jinn are identical to the Biblical fallen angels. Although the different types of spirits in the Quran are sometimes hard to distinguish, the jinn in Islamic traditions seem to differ in their major characteristics from fallen angels; the concept of fallen angels is found in works dated to the Second Temple period between 530 BCE and 70 CE: in the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees and the Qumran Book of Giants. A reference to heavenly beings called "Watchers" originates in Daniel 4, in which there are three mentions, twice in the singular, once in the plural, of "watchers, holy ones"; the Ancient Greek word for watchers is ἐγρήγοροι translated as "wakeful".
Some scholars consider it most that the Jewish tradition of fallen angels predates in written form, the composition of Gen 6:1–4. In the Book of Enoch, these Watchers "fell" after they became "enamored" with human women; the Second Book of Enoch refers to the same beings of the Book of Enoch, now called Grigori in the Greek transcription. Compared to the other Books of Enoch, fallen angels play a less significant role in 3 Enoch. 3 Enoch mentions only three fallen angels called Azazel and Uzza. Similar to The first Book of Enoch, they taught sorcery on earth. Unlike the first Book of Enoch, there is no mention of the reason for their fall and, according to 3 Enoch 4.6, they later appear in heaven objecting to the presence of Enoch. According to 1 Enoch 7.2, the Watchers become "enamoured" with human women and have intercourse with them. The offspring of these unions, the knowledge they ware giving, corrupt human beings and the earth 1 Enoch 10.11–12. Eminent among these angels are Shemyaza, their leader, Azazel.
Like many other fallen angels mentioned in 1 Enoch 8.1-9, Azazel introduces men to "forbidden arts", it is Azazel, rebuked by Enoch himself for illicit instructions, as stated in 1 Enoch 13.1. According to 1 Enoch 10.6, God sends the archangel Raphael to chain Azazel in the desert Dudael as punishment. Further, Azazel is blamed for the corruption of earth:1 Enoch 10:12: "All the earth has been corrupted by the effects of the teaching of Azazyel. To him therefore ascribe the whole crime." An etiological interpretation of 1 Enoch deals with the origin of evil. By shifting the origin of mankind's sin and their misdeeds to illicit angel instruction, evil is attributed to something supernatural from without; this motif, found in 1 Enoch, differs from that of Jewish and Christian theology. According to a paradigmatic interpretation, 1 Enoch might deal with illicit marriages between priests and women; as evident from Leviticus 21:1-15, priests were prohibited to marry impure woman. Accordingly, the fallen angels in 1 Enoch are the priests counterpart, who defile themselves by marriage.
Just like the angels are expelled from heaven, the priests are excluded from their service at the altar. Unlike most other apocalyptic writings, 1 Enoch reflects a growing dissatisfaction with the priestly establishments in Jerusal