Ismāʿīlism is a branch of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imām. Ismailism rose at one point to become the largest branch of Shī‘ism, climaxing as a political power with the Fatimid Caliphate in the tenth through twelfth centuries. Ismailis believe in the oneness of God, as well as the closing of divine revelation with Muhammad, whom they see as "the final Prophet and Messenger of God to all humanity"; the Ismāʿīlī and the Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams. After the death of Muhammad ibn Isma'il in the 8th century CE, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning of the Islamic religion. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic oriented Akhbari and Usuli schools of thought, Shi'i Islam developed into two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismaili group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God, with the "Imām of the Time" representing the manifestation of esoteric truth and intelligible reality, with the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law and the deeds and sayings of Muhammad and the Twelve Imams who were guides and a light to God.
Ismaili thought is influenced by neoplatonism. Though there are several paths within Ismailism, the term in today's vernacular refers to the Nizaris, who recognize Aga Khan IV as the 49th hereditary Imam and are the largest Ismaili group. In recent centuries Ismāʿīlīs have been a Pakistani and Indian community, but Ismailis are found in Bangladesh, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, East Africa, Angola and South Africa, have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Trinidad and Tobago. There are a significant number of Ismāʿīlīs in Central Asia. Ismailism shares its beginnings with other early Shi‘i sects that emerged during the succession crisis that spread throughout the early Muslim community. From the beginning, the Shia asserted the right of Ali, cousin of Muhammad, to have both political and spiritual control over the community; this included his two sons, who were the grandsons of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. The conflict remained peaceful between the partisans of ‘Ali and those who asserted a semi-democratic system of electing caliphs, until the third of the Rashidun caliphs, Uthman was killed, ‘Alī, with popular support, ascended to the caliphate.
Soon after his ascendancy, the third of the Prophet's wives, claimed along with Uthman's tribe, the Ummayads, that Ali should take Qisas from the people responsible for Uthman's death. ‘Ali voted against it as he believed that situation at that time demanded a peaceful resolution of the matter. Both parties could rightfully defend their claims, but due to escalated misunderstandings, the Battle of the Camel was fought and Aisha was defeated but was respectfully escorted to Medina by Ali. Following this battle, the Umayyad governor of Syria staged a revolt under the same pretences. ‘Ali led his forces against Muawiya until the side of Muawiya held copies of the Quran against their spears and demanded that the issue be decided by Islam's holy book. ‘Ali accepted this, an arbitration was done which ended in his favor. A group among Ali's army believed that subjecting his legitimate authority to arbitration was tantamount to apostasy, abandoned his forces; this group was known as the Khawarij and ‘Ali wished to defeat their forces before they reached the cities where they would be able to blend in with the rest of the population.
While he was unable to do this, he nonetheless defeated their forces in subsequent battles. Regardless of these defeats, the Kharijites survived and became a violently problematic group in Islamic history. After plotting an assassination against ‘Ali and the arbitrator of their conflict, only ‘Ali was assassinated in 661 CE, the Imāmate passed on to his son Hasan and later his son Husayn, or according to the Nizari Ismāʿīlī, the Imamate passed temporarily to Hasan, an Entrusted Imam, afterwards to Husayn, the Permanent Imam; the Entrusted Imam is an Imam in the full sense except that the lineage of the Imamate must continue through the Permanent Imam. However, the political caliphate was soon taken over by Muawiya, the only leader in the empire at that time with an army large enough to seize control; some of Ali's early followers regarded him as "an absolute and divinely guided leader who could demand of them the same kind of loyalty that would have been expected for the Prophet." For example, one of Ali's supporters, devoted to the Prophet said to him: "our opinion is your opinion and we are in the palm of your right hand."
The early followers of ‘Ali seem to have taken his guidance as "right guidance" deriving from Divine support. In other words, ‘Ali's guidance was seen to be the expression of God's will and the Qur'anic message; this spiritual and absolute authority of ‘Ali was known as walayah and it was inherited by his successors, the Imams. In the first century after the Prophet, the term sunnah was not defined as "Sunnah of the Prophet" but was used in connection to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and some Umayyad Caliphs; the idea of "Hadith" or traditions ascribed to the Prophet was not mainstream nor was Hadith criticism. The
Khujand, sometimes spelled Khodjent and known as Leninabad in 1936–1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd. Khujand is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia, it is situated on the Syr Darya at the mouth of the Fergana Valley and was a major city along the ancient Silk Road inhabited by ethnic Tajiks. It is proximate to both the Kyrgyzstan borders. Khujand is the site of Cyropolis, established when king Cyrus the Great founded the city during his last expedition against the Saka tribe of Massagetae shortly before his death. Alexander the Great built his furthest Greek settlement near Cyropolis in 329 BC and named it Alexandria Eschate or "Alexandria The Furthest"; the city would form a bastion for the Greek settlers against the nomadic Scythian tribes who lived north of the Syr Darya River. According to the Roman writer Curtius, Alexandria Ultima retained its Hellenistic culture as late as 30 BC; the city became a major staging point on the northern Silk Road.
It became a cultural hub and several famous poets and scientists came from this city. In the early 8th century, Khujand was captured by the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate, under Qutayba ibn Muslim; the city was incorporated into the Umayyad and subsequent Abbasid Caliphates, a process of Islamicization began. In the late 9th century, however, it reverted to local rule of Turkic governors, incorporated for a short period into the Samanid Empire, it came under the rule of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 999 and after the division of Kara Khanids in 1042, it was part of Eastern Kara Khanids, later passed to the western one. Karakhitans conquered it in 1137, but it passed to Khwarazmshahs in 1211. In AD 1220, it resisted the Mongol hordes and was thus laid to waste - around 20,000 Mongol soldiers surrounded the city and besieged it but a local man opened the doors of the city and let the Mongol army in. In the 14th century, the city was part of the Chagatai Khanate until it was incorporated into the Timurid Dynasty' in the late 14th century, under which it flourished greatly.
The Shaybanid dynasty of Bukhara next annexed Khojand, until it was taken over by the Kokand Khanate in 1802, however Bukhara regained it in 1842 until it was lost a few decades to the Russia. In 1866, as most of Central Asia was occupied by Russian Empire, the city became part of the General Governorate of Turkestan, under Tsarist Russia; the threat of forced conscription during World War I led to protests in the city in July 1916, which turned violent when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers. In 1918 when Turkestan ASSR was dismantled, the city became a part of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1929 in order to gain a sufficient number of inhabitants for the newly created Soviet Republic of Tajikistan the city of Khujand, inhabited by ethnic Tajiks, was transferred by Soviet Communists from Uzbek SSR to the Tajik SSR; the city was renamed Leninabad on 10 January 1936 and it remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991. With the independence of Tajikistan, Khujand became the second largest city in the nation.
It reverted to its original name in 1992 after the breakup of the Soviet Union. In 1996 the city experienced the Ashurov protests during which citizens called for the President, Emomali Rakhmonov to step down; the popular protests were followed by a protest from the city's prisoners, many of whom had been sentenced to long jail terms for minor crimes and who were living in poor conditions. The protest led to the Khujand prison riot in which between 150 prisoners were killed. In the early 2000s many residents of Khujand had little to no access to water, what water they did have was unsafe to drink and had to be boiled. In 2004, The Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs and the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development joined to help improve the situation, providing 32,000 water meters for inhabitants and developing improved access to water. Residents pay for their water supply, which in turn helps Khujand's municipal water company to continue to renovate and improve their services.
The project is in its third stage of development, should be completed by 2017. In comparison to other Central Asian projects aiming to improve access to water, this project is considered a success and has been applied to Kyrgyz cities and towns such as Osh, Jalal-Abad and Talas, with a possible extension into the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek. Khujand Airport has scheduled flights to Dushanbe as well as several international destinations. There is a rail connection between Khujand and Samarkand in Uzbekistan on the way to Dushanbe; the city is connected by road to Panjakent in the Zeravshan River Valley as well as Dushanbe via the Anzob Tunnel. As of December 2014 the construction of highway between capital and Khujand has been carrying on. Necessary works like cementation and installation of ventilation equipment are still going on inside the Istiqlol Tunnel, after specialists from the ministry detected an error while analyzing the 40-million-U. S.-dollar project in July. The 5-km tunnel, located 80 km northwest of Dushanbe and built with assistance from Iran, is a transit route between Dushanbe and the Uzbek capital of Tashkent.
After its completion, the Dushanbe-Khujand highway will open for traffic the whole year round and the transit time is expected to be cut by four to five hours. During
Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan
The coeducational Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan was founded in 1992, received World Organization of the Scout Movement recognition on January 16, 2008. In 2011, it had 1,223 members; as far as is known, Scouting was not introduced to the region during the khanate period of the pre-Soviet era. In 1990 a conference of people interested in Scouting was held in Moscow. Viktor Deimund represented Kazakhstan at the Congress; the Congress established the Association of Russian Scouting Renaissance. The homegrown Scout troops within Kazakhstan joined the membership of the Ural Scout Region. Viktor Deimund and Oleg Mozheyko organized the first Scout Troops in Kazakhstan in 1991. Republic-wide newspapers published the first articles on the work of Pavlodar Scout troops. Shortly thereafter, hundreds of letters came to Pavlodar from people asking for help to create Scout units. Pavlodar Scout leaders published and sent out Scouting literature, Scout troops were created in different cities and parts of Kazakhstan.
On December 28, 1992, the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan was registered in the Ministry of Justice, in 1993 Scout leader training courses were made available. An All-Republic Camp "Jasybay's Arrow" was held in the summer at Jasybay, a national camp near Bayanaul National Park, Pavlodar Province, named for a Kazakh mythic hero. 1994 saw both the publication of handbook "Scouting for Everybody" and the participation of Kazakhstan Scouts in a World Scout Committee Informative Council on Scouting in Crimea. During the Council, President Deimund discussed the development of Scouting in Kazakhstan with Doctor Jacques Moreillon, the Secretary General of WOSM. Leaders of Kazakh Scouts took part in the international seminar "Scouting: Youth without Borders" in Morocco. In 1995, Kazakhstan's Scouts were represented at the 18th World Scout Jamboree in the Netherlands by a small group. Since 1994 the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan has received financial and organizational support from the German Scout Association Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder, with which they share an exchange program.
20 Guides and Scouts from the BdP travelled to Kazakhstan for the National Camp in 2002. Every year Guides and Scouts from the OSMK and BdP meet each other in camps or training courses either in Germany or Kazakhstan and learning from each other. In 2006 8 Guides and Scouts from the BdP travelled to Kazakhstan for the National Camp. In 1999, Kazakhstan held the First International Scout Camp "Kakharman-99", in 2003 held WINGS2003, a subcamp for 10 to 14-year-olds. On October 5, 2004, the Internet Access and Training Program brought together 20 Scouts from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for a two-hour online discussion of their activities from the IATP access sites in five cities in Kazakhstan and three in Uzbekistan, aimed to bring together representatives of the Scouting movements from these countries to promote friendship and cooperation. Scouts from Kazakhstan named as their main challenge a lack of funds, the difficulty of building a successful fundraising operation. With the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, it was suggested that the Türkiye İzcilik Federasyonu assist in the creation of Scouting movements in the Turkic Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, but it is uncertain if this plan materialized.
In October 2007, the World Scout Bureau received an application for membership in WOSM from the OSMK. In accordance with the requirements of the WOSM Constitution, the World Scout Committee considered this application at its meeting from September 28 to 30, 2007, recommended that it be accepted; the OSMK was declared a WOSM member on January 16, 2008. In becoming a member of WOSM, OSMK will become a member of the Eurasia Scout Region, if it so desires. If Kazakhstan had chosen not to become a member of the Eurasia Region, they would have been eligible to join the European Region, as Germany was responsible for the support of OSMK; the WOSM constitution contains no obligation for National Scout Organizations to join the regions, but it is expected. Kazakhstan Scouts are expected to hold spiritual values and national loyalty, but the organization does not discriminate by faith or ethnic origin. Scouts are expected to live up to the Scout Oath and Law and to serve their communities, which they accomplish through such activities as working with handicapped children and cleaning natural areas.
The program's goal is to strengthen character and promote healthy minds and spirits in participants. The OSMK presently has no property except a headquarters. OSMK favors youth membership and youth involvement through an active strategy to recruit youth members; the adult policy aims at supporting recruitment of volunteers. OSMK is open to girls and boys and men, in four age sections: Junior Scouts-ages 7 to 10 Scouts-ages 11 to 14 Senior Scouts-ages 15 to 17 Scout leaders are over 18The Scout Motto is Dayyin Bol, translating as Be Prepared in Kazakh, Bud' Gotov, translating in Russian; the noun for a single Scout is Скаут in both languages. Kazakh Scouts wear a dark green uniform; the membership badge of the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan incorporates elements of the flag of Kazakhstan set inside the Rub El Hizb. The National Council, composed of eleven members, includes four men. OSMK has three employed professional staff; the Council Chairman is Victor Georgievich Deimund, the International
Dushanbe is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. Dushanbe means Monday in the local language, it was named this way because it grew from a village that had a popular market on Mondays. As of 2016, Dushanbe had a population of 802,700. A small village, Dushanbe was made the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924; until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe, from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad, named after Joseph Stalin. Situated at the confluence of two rivers and Kofarnihon, Dushanbe is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaeological remnants dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered in the area, there is little to suggest that Dushanbe was more than a small village until the early 20th century, it was at the crossroads, where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe-Bazar from Dushanbe, which means Monday in the Persian language – the second day after Saturday. In the village, there were a population of about 8,000 people. By 1826, the town was called Dushanbe Qurghan Russified as Dyushambe.
The first map showing Dyushambe was drafted in 1875. At that time, the town was a fortress on a steep bank on the left bank of the Varzob River with 10,000 residents. In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara took refuge in Dyushambe after being overthrown by the Bolshevik revolution, he fled to Afghanistan. At the beginning of 1922, the town was taken by Basmachi troops led Enver Pasha, but on 14 July 1922 again came under the power of the Bolsheviks and was proclaimed the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. A Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic separate from the Uzbek SSR was created in 1929, its capital Dyushambe was renamed Stalinabad for Joseph Stalin on 16 October 1929. In the years that followed, the city developed at a rapid pace; the Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan following the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR as part of national delimitation in Central Asia.
On 10 November 1961, as part of de-Stalinization, Stalinabad was renamed back to Dushanbe, the name it retains to this day. Severe rioting occurred in February 1990, after it was rumored that the Soviet government planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan; the Dushanbe riots were fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Mikhail Gorbachev's rule. Dushanbe became the capital of an independent Tajikistan in 1991. In January 2017, Rustam Emomali, current President Emomali Rahmon's son, was appointed Mayor of Dushanbe, a move, seen by some analysts as a step to reaching the top of the government. Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate, with strong continental climate influences; the summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres as moist air is funnelled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring.
Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountains from cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was cold, the temperature dropped to −22 °C. Dushanbe is divided into the following districts: Avicenna Ferdowsi Ismail Samani Shah Mansur Tajikistan National Museum Vahdat Palace Dushanbe Flagpole—It is the second tallest free-standing flagpole in the world, at a height of 165 metres, Dushanbe Zoo Gurminj Museum of Musical Instruments The population of Dushanbe: in 1987 was about 796,000 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks, ethnic Russians, others. Tajik Air had its head office on the grounds of Dushanbe Airport in Dushanbe. Somon Air has its head office in Dushanbe; the city is served by Dushanbe International Airport which as of April 2015, had scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, as well as Delhi, Frankfurt, Kabul, Ürümqi amongst others. Tajikistan's principal railways are in the southern region and connect Dushanbe with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Russia.
The Dushanbe trolleybus system operates public buses in the city. Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country; the Uzbekistan border is about 50 km away and there is a road that links it to the Uzbek town of Denov. Roads to the north link it from there to parts of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan; the road to the south goes to Afghanistan, accessible via the bridge at Panji Poyon 150 km away. As of 2014 many highway and tunnel construction
Afghanistan Scout Association
The Afghanistan Scout Association was founded in 1931 in Afghanistan by a royal decree. The site of Robert Baden-Powell's second posting in 1880, Afghanistan was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1932 until the Afghan government dissolved the Scout Association in 1947. Afghan Scouting was formed again from 1964 to 1978 and recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement; the organization was established during the reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, with 300 members. In 1947 the organization was forbidden by the government, which had accused the Scouts of being fire worshipers, as during a camp they had made music and sung around a campfire. Scouting was reestablished in 1956, rebuilt in the context of the democratization efforts of Mohammed Zahir Shah, who had just become ruler in his own right after thirty years of ceding power to his paternal uncles, Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan and Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan; the organization, named Da Afğānistān Zaranduy Tolanah, was readmitted to the World Scout Conference on June 1, 1964, counting a membership of between 2,000 and 7,000 Scouts, both boys and girls and adult leaders.
The viewpoints of king Zahir Shah at that time were practiced by the organization. The administrators added further obligations to the general principles of the Scout movement, obligation to king and country. Discipline and obligation were welcome educational goals for governing, Scouting was organized tautly and militarily compared with other nations; the government used this organization for the stability of the state. The Federal Republic of Germany provided the uniforms for the Afghan Scout Association. Dr. Eberhard Krüger and Mrs. Rosemarie Jungermann came from Germany in order to train Afghan Scout instructors further; the organization was attached by national authority to the Ministry of Education, under Minister of Education Dr. Omar Wardak and Dr. Ali Ahmad Popal, deputy Minister of Education. A school for the training of Scout group leaders was created in its office. Starting in 1959, women played a large role within the structure of the organization. In the celebrations and independence ceremonies in the 1960s and 1970s, Afghan Scouts of both genders participated with the structure and the organization of cultural events.
Mermon Parwin supported the organization, sang Scout songs and appeared several times in the pavilion of the Scout organization. In 1961 a group of Scouts took part in the 11th World Scout Jamboree at Marathon, held concurrently with the 1963 19th World Scout Conference in Rhodes, Greece. Dr. Said Habib, a deputy president of the Afghan Scout Association, supported the establishment of musician Scout groups. On January 6, 1964, the organization participated in the 4th Asia-Pacific Scout Conference in Malaysia and received the membership document of re-admittance to the World Scout Conference; the youth and woman's work as well as the music and play of Scouting increased in the years from 1964 to 1973. The association, which now had local groups in different parts of the country, created further musician Scout groups, organized camps and accomplished other leisure and educational measures, in which children and young people learned handicrafts and singing. However, most activities of the association were limited to Kabul.
With the 1973 overthrow by pro-Soviet Mohammed Daoud Khan, the Scout association became part of the Ministry of the Interior, took over police tasks and became a part of the Afghan police. Scouting went downhill, as during the years of unrest and war ten million left the country and looked for refuge abroad. At the beginning of the unrest, the privileged social classes left the country, so that such organizations could not exist anymore in the countryside; the communist government banned the Afghanistan Scout Association in 1978, at that date with 11,212 members. By 1981, DAZT was no longer recognized by the 28th World Scout Conference, because of domestic disturbances that deprived Afghanistan of the democratic environment necessary for Scouting to continue; until the Soviet invasion, there were American Boy Scouts in Kabul, serving in Boy Scout Troop 1, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. Several times in the 1990s, again in 2002, political and social changes in Afghanistan opened opportunities for the rebirth of Scouting in Afghanistan.
In early 2002, the Interim Administration of Afghanistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs requested embassies of selected countries to assist in reviving Scouting in Afghanistan, groups began to emerge, led by adults, involved with the program prior to 1978. The new organization is the Afghanistan Scout Association, it is working toward WOSM recognition. Work on the ASA Constitution continues in Dari and English and it is hoped it will be sent to Parliament for approval in late 2008 or early 2009. Scouting falls under the Sports and Scouting branch of the Ministry of Education and occupies space in a sub-office near the Kabul Stadium. A branch reorganization took place in July 2008 and reduced the number of employees to 25 in six sections: National Secretariat, International Relations and Youth, Programs and Plans and the band; the national office tracks about 34,000 Scouts countrywide, all within groups
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the