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Vanessa Lytton

Vanessa Lytton is a fictional character from the BBC medical drama Holby City, portrayed by actress Leslie Ash. The character first appeared on-screen on 13 October 2009 in the episode "The Spirit Dancing" - series eleven, episode fifty-two of the programme, her role in the show is that of Chief Executive Officer of the Holby City Hospital Primary Care Trust, making her the only regular character, not a medic by profession. Vanessa was created by Holby City's executive producer Tony McHale as a replacement for former CEO Jayne Grayson. Ash was cast in the role after a five-year break from acting, due to complications arising from MSSA; as Ash is disabled, Vanessa walks with the aid of a walking stick. Ash has praised Holby City producers for their willingness to cast a disabled actress, though faced some media criticism for accepting the role, as she had received £5 million compensation for loss of earnings from the hospital at which she contracted MSSA. Vanessa is a "scheming", "conniving and calculated" executive, whose storylines have seen her clash with several members of the hospital's senior staff.

Vanessa was created in 2009 by Holby City's executive producer Tony McHale, as a replacement for former CEO Jayne Grayson, who departed from the show during its eleventh series. It was first announced on 18 May 2009 that actress Leslie Ash had been cast in the role, after a five-year break from acting due to complications arising from MSSA. Ash commented that the role was the first she had had to audition for since the age of nineteen, although nervous: "I am so pleased and happy they've given me this chance, they are brave to have taken on a disabled actress. I can't wait to be back on set. It's the last piece of the jigsaw in my recovery. I'm back to where I was." McHale commented: "We're thrilled to have Leslie join us at Holby. We know she's going to be a terrific asset to the show and her character will bring another dimension to our strong cast, her stories are going to have our viewers guessing all the way." Her first scenes were filmed in June 2009, for broadcast in October 2009. Asked how long she saw herself staying in Holby City, Ash replied: "At the moment I’m happy, so as long as they want me!

I want it to go well. I know there are lots of women out there who love this show and I don’t want them to be disappointed. I want them to say,'She looks great!'". Ash was not a regular viewer of Holby City prior to her casting, but started that: "I'm quite surprised by the powerful women in the show and proud to be one; the scripts are brilliant and it’s fast moving. It's a joy going to work every morning." She admitted to being nervous about her on-screen appearance prior to the broadcast of her first scenes, as she faced media ridicule in 2002 when an allergic reaction to collagen lip implants left her with a swollen mouth. She commented: "I'm nervous about when it goes out on screen for the first time - I'm worried that people will think,'She doesn't look good and she looks old'."Ash's casting as Vanessa aroused some media criticism, as in 2008 she sued Chelsea and Westminster NHS Trust for £5 million in damages for loss of earnings after contracting MSSA, arguing that her resulting disability meant she would never win leading TV roles again.

Ash retaliated: Considering her own experience, Ash felt that it was "ironic" to be playing a CEO, but commented that it made the role easier to play, as she had spent a lot of time on wards and dealing with hospital politics. She noted an initial reluctance to enter the hospital set, but found it helpful that she was acquainted with co-stars Tina Hobley and Patsy Kensit Healy, as well as director Christopher King, who she worked with on ITV drama Where The Heart Is. Vanessa is described by the BBC as "scheming", "conniving and calculated". Ash called the role a "meaty, hard part", explaining of her character: "She's not had to work her way to the top and people resent her for it. She's used her toughness all the way." As part of the character's costume, she wears thick-rimmed glasses. Due to Ash's disability, Vanessa uses a walking stick. Ash commented: "Disability is misrepresented on television and it's fantastic that it did not worry the production team I was disabled." Of Vanessa's backstory, Ash explained: "She rose through the ranks from a nurse to become a CEO rather and we can only imagine that she’s done it by stepping over people along the way.

But with a smile on her face." With regards to Vanessa's nursing background and the difference it made to her position, Ash explained: "They’re all so used to CEOs being bureaucratic. I think, they can’t get away with things, because she understands what’s going on."Vanessa was introduced as an old friend of established character Michael Spence, who helped her win the CEO position at Holby City Hospital in return for her helping him to deal with his rival Connie Beauchamp. Ash commented: "Together I think her and Michael are going to whip the hospital up into a frenzy." She denied that Vanessa and Michael would be romantically involved, instead characterising their relationship as a case of "If you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours", explaining: " gets his own way rather more with Vanessa around, in return he helps her." With regards to Vanessa's personal life, Ash divulged that she lives with a man, unemployed, making Vanessa the main source of income in their relationship. Vanessa arrives in Holby as the new Chief Executive Officer of Holby City Hospital, replacing former CEO Jayne Grayson.

She is recruited by Director of Surgery Michael Spence, having worked

Ricardo Reis

Ricardo A. M. R. Reis is a Portuguese economist and the A. W. Phillips professor of economics at the London School of Economics. In a 2013 ranking of young economists by Glenn Ellison, Reis was considered the top economist with a PhD between 1996 and 2004. and in 2016 he won the Germán Bernácer Prize prize for top European-born economist researching macroeconomics and finance. He writes a weekly op-ed for the Portuguese newspaper Jornal de Noticias and participates in economic debates in Portugal. Reis earned his Bachelor of Science degree from the London School of Economics in 1999, his Doctor of Philosophy from Harvard University in 2004, he taught at Princeton University from 2004 to 2008 before moving to Columbia University where he became a full professor at the age of 29, one of the youngest in the history of the university. He is an academic advisor and visiting scholar at central banks around the world, sits on the board of multiple institutions. In 2002, with Gregory Mankiw he proposed the sticky-information Phillips curve and followed it with rational theories of inattention, sticky-information models in general equilibrium.

This model of nominal rigidities is based on the slow diffusion of information among the population of price setters and displays three related properties that are more consistent with accepted views about the effects of monetary policy. First, disinflations are always contractionary. Second, monetary policy shocks have their maximum impact on inflation with a substantial delay. Third, the change in inflation is positively correlated with the level of economic activity. In 2004, with Gregory Mankiw and Justin Wolfers, Reis started the modern empirical literature that focuses on disagreement in surveys. A large literature that followed has documented the empirical properties of disagreement, has shown that it is different from uncertainty, has used it as moments to evaluate imperfect information models. In 2010, with Mark Watson, Reis developed measures of pure inflation, which have become popular measures of core inflation used by central banks around the world. In 2011, Reis with Markus Brunnermeier, Luis Garicano, Philip R. Lane and others, argued that when banks hold significant amounts of bonds issued by their sovereign this creates a ``diabolic loop" whereby small changes in the perceived solvency of the sovereign can amplify into large crises.

This concept has become central in accounts of the Euro crisis, is referred to as the "doom loop" or the "bank-government nexus". They proposed creating European Safe Bonds a new financial vehicle allowing banks in the Eurozone to break the diabolic loop, without creating the problems of joint and several liability with Eurobonds; the European Systemic Risk Board proposed a variant of ESBies, labelled Sovereign Bond-Backed Securities as a crucial ingredient to have a more stable Eurozone. In 2012, Reis wrote the first model that merged the Aiyagari model of incomplete markets with a New Keynesian model of nominal rigidities.. In 2016, he published the first business-cycle model that merged the Krusell-Smith model of business cycles with the Christiano-Eichenbaum-Evans model of monetary policy.. These models were baptized HANK, or Heterogeneous Agent New Keynesian Models. In 2013, with Robert E. Hall he invented the concept of central bank insolvency to describe the impact of possible losses from quantitative easing programs.

In 2013, he proposed the misallocation hypothesis for crash. It contends that by joining the eurozone, countries in the European periphery enjoyed large capital inflows, but their underdeveloped financial and political systems misallocated this capital leading to a slump in productivity and sowing the seeds of the crisis. Fast financial integration without financial depth creates a crash; some accounts of why low real interest rates can be causing misallocation and low productivity build on his idea. In 2016, at the Kansas City Federal Reserve economic policy symposium, Reis proposed that a central bank's balance sheet should be just large enough to satiate the demand for bank reserves. In modern monetary systems, where deposits at the central bank are the key monetary instrument, ensuring that the deposit rate equals the private interbank rate achieves the Friedman rule. In 2016, with Alisdair McKay he showed that automatic stabilizers can be effective by reducing the need for precautionary savings at the start of recessions.

Official website at the LSE The Phillips lecture Russ. "Reis on Keynes and Monetary Policy". EconTalk. Library of Economics and Liberty

Hutchison Port Holdings

Hutchison Port Holdings Limited, trading as Hutchison Ports, is a private holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. The port operator group is a subsidiary of CK Hutchison Holdings; some operation of the company were listed as Hutchison Port Holdings Trust in Singapore Exchange. In 2016, the network comprised 48 port operations throughout Asia, the Middle East, Europe, the Americas and Australasia. In 2005, HPH was the largest port operator in the world, with a 33.2 million TEU throughput, 8.3% world market share. In April 2006, Hutchison Whampoa sold a 20% share of Hutchison Port Holdings Limited to PSA International, retaining ownership of the remaining 80%. In 2011, some of the assets was spin-off as a listed company as Hutchison Port Holdings Trust. In September 2016, HPH rebranded its network as Hutchison Ports. In December 2016, the Chornomorsk commercial seaport in western Ukraine, signed a cooperation agreement with Hutchison Ports. Among the agreed upon points are the company's entry into the port as a terminal operator as of 2017.

Hutchison will provide expert consultative services to improve Ukraine's port industry. Hutchison Port Holdings Trust is a listed trust in Singapore Exchange. Hutchison Whampoa only owned 25% stake, but had the rights to influence the trust by controlling the key stake of changing the trustee they nominated before the initial public offering. In December, 2016 The managers of Hutchison Port Holdings Trust announced an agreement to purchase 41.3 percent of Huizhou International Container Terminals from the sponsor of the trust for $86.26 million. In January, 2017 HPH Trust signed a strategic agreement to manage the operations at five terminals, including 16 berths in Kwai Tsing in Hong Kong. Official website

Alpine Sleigh Ride

The Alpine Sleigh Ride was a dark ride located in the Alpine Valley section of AstroWorld in Houston, Texas. It was one of the original attractions of the park and operated from 1968 until the end of the 1983 operating season. Featuring a ride control system and vehicles designed by Arrow Dynamics, the attraction's initial concept and design was by amusement park planner and architect Randall Duell. Duell’s company had been hired by Judge Roy Hofheinz to plan AstroWorld; the attraction took riders through an alpine themed forest before reaching the show building, designed to resemble a large mountain capped with snow. The ride had elements of both a roller coaster. During the first part of the ride, the sleighs moved through a pine forest, past a towering waterfall, into the “Der Hofheinzberg” mountain; the second half of the ride took riders through dark tunnels and icy caverns. A waterfall cascaded from atop the mountain and down into a catch pool below. After passing the waterfall, the sleigh themed vehicles entered the mountain's base and traveled through various chambers and tunnels inside.

These included an echo-tunnel, an avalanche room with simulated snow, an appearance by an "abominable snowman" character, a chamber themed with "Alpie" characters, among others. The avalanche room kept cooled down to 10 degrees Fahrenheit and contained an elaborate snow machine; this system was developed for the park by Carrier, the company responsible for Astroworld’s famous “outdoor air conditioning” in the park’s queues and other areas. In the Cold Room were two giant air curtains blowing down onto the track from above, one at the entrance of the room and one at the exit. After passing through the second level inside the mountain, the vehicles would exit and travel around the exterior of the mountain themed show building. Exterior features included the high bridge passing in front of the waterfall and a downhill canyon run. Vehicles were powered by an electrical bus bar along sections of track that ascended, they were gravity powered along the descents which featured several surprise drops.

Closed due to high maintenance costs in 1983, the attraction became part of the Enchanted Kingdom children's area, part of the Batman The Escape. Six Flags AstroWorld History of Houston The Alpine Sleigh Ride at DAFE

WQXR-FM

WQXR-FM is an American classical radio station licensed to Newark, New Jersey and serving the North Jersey and New York City area, owned by the nonprofit organization New York Public Radio, which operates WNYC AM & FM and the four-station New Jersey Public Radio group. New York Public Radio acquired WQXR on July 14, 2009, as part of a three-way trade which involved The New York Times Company – the previous owners of WQXR – and Univision Radio. WQXR-FM broadcasts from studios and offices located in the Hudson Square neighborhood in lower Manhattan and its transmitter is located at the Empire State Building. At 8:00 p.m. on October 8, 2009, Univision's WCAA moved to the 96.3 FM frequency while WQXR-FM moved to 105.9 FM, becoming a non-commercial radio station run by New York Public Radio. Within that next week WCAA, now on 96.3, changed its call letters to WXNY-FM. WQXR-FM is the outgrowth of a "high-fidelity" AM station, WQXR, founded in 1936 by John V. L. Hogan and Elliott Sanger. Hogan began this station as a mechanical television station, W2XR, which went on the air on March 26, 1929.

The radio station broadcast classical music recordings. One of the station's listeners was the inventor of Edwin Howard Armstrong; when Armstrong put his experimental FM station, W2XMN, on the air, he arranged to rebroadcast some of WQXR's programming. This ended in 1939, when Hogan and Sanger put their own experimental FM station on the air, W2XQR, just down the dial from Armstrong at 42.3 MHz. In 1941, the station began transmitting from the top of the Chanin Building, where it remained until 1965 when it moved to the top of the Empire State Building. Remnants of the original tower remain on the Chanin Building; when the Federal Communications Commission began licensing commercial FM stations, W2XQR moved to 45.9 MHz and became W59NY. In 1944, Hogan and Sanger sold their holding company, Interstate Broadcasting Company, to the New York Times Company; when the FM broadcast band was moved from 42–50 MHz to its present frequency range of 88–108 MHz in 1945, WQXQ moved to 97.7 MHz. Within a few years, the station had adopted its current callsign, WQXR-FM, its frequency for the next 64 years, 96.3 MHz.

WQXR was the first AM station in New York to experiment with broadcasting in stereo, beginning in 1952. During some of its live concerts, it used two microphones positioned six feet apart; the microphone on the right led to its AM feed, the one on the left to its FM feed, so a listener could position two radios six feet apart, one tuned to 1560 and the other to 96.3, listen in stereo. During the 1950s, WQXR-FM's programming was heard on the Rural Radio Network on several stations in Upstate New York, including ones targeting Buffalo, Rochester and Albany; this ended. Both the AM and FM sides continued to simulcast each other until 1965, when the FCC began requiring owned AM and FM stations in large markets to broadcast separate programming for at least part of the day. WQXR-FM concentrated on longer Classical works, while WQXR aired lighter Classical music and talk programs produced in conjunction with The New York Times. While this plan gave Classical music fans two options, it increased expenses for the stations.

In 1962, the QXR network was purchased by Novo Industrial Corporation but WQXR remained under the New York Times Company ownership. After attempting to sell the WQXR stations in 1971, The New York Times was able to get a waiver of the simulcasting rules; the stations continued to duplicate each other until 1992, when the AM side changed its programming from classical to popular standards, becoming WQEW. In 1998, the Times entered into a long-term lease for WQEW with ABC, a move which brought Radio Disney to New York City; the Times Company included a purchase clause in the lease contract, ABC exercised the option in 2007. This left WQXR-FM as the Times's lone radio station and, following a sale of its group of television stations to the Local TV LLC company that same year, the Times Company's sole remaining broadcasting property. On July 14, 2009, the New York Times Company announced it was trading the 96.3 frequency to Univision Radio in return for the 105.9 frequency of Univision's WCAA. The sale was slated to close in the second half of 2009.

At 8 p.m. on October 8, 2009, WCAA and WQXR traded frequencies. The frequency swap was part of a three-way deal among Univision, the New York Times Company, New York Public Radio. Univision paid the New York Times Company $33.5 million to trade broadcasting licenses with the Times. New York Public Radio paid the New York Times Company $11.5 million for 105.9 FM’s license and the WQXR call letters, music library and website. As a result of the deal, WQXR became a non-commercial public radio station operated by New York Public Radio and now runs three on-air pledge drives a year. WQXR-FM has less range and population coverage on 105.9 than it had with its old signal on 96.3. WQXR-FM's old and new signals both radiate from the same FM master antenna atop the Empire State Building; the calculated signal strength of the current signal at 30 miles is less than the previous 96.3 FM signal at 42 miles. Further compromising coverage is Hartford's WHCN, which broadcasts on 105.9 MHz. While WHCN has a directional signal with reduced wattage toward WQXR's transmitter, the two stations do interfere with each other where