Galdakao is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located in the Greater Bilbao, in the valley of the Ibaizabal river, near the Ganguren mountain range, it is surrounded by some summits such as Arrezurriaga and Santa María in the north and Upo and Mandoia in the south. It is conterminous with Zamudio and Larrabetzu in the north, with Zaratamo and Zeberio in the south, with Amorebieta and Bedia in the east and with Etxebarri and Basauri in the west. Aperribai Arteta Bekea Bengoetxe Berezikoetxe Elexalde Erletxe Olabarrieta-Txistulanda Urreta Usansolo Tximelarre Bekoa Tximelarre Goikoa Muguru Zabalea GALDAKAO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Derio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao and was part of the municipality of Bilbao until 1983 and hosts Bilbao's biggest municipal cemetery, it has a population of 5,107. The flag of Derio is similar to Quebec's flag DERIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Sopela known as Sopelana, is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The town is 820 hectares in area, located in the comarca Mungialdea on the north east side of Bilbao and due east of the Nervión river estuary. In the municipality, other former towns like Larrabasterra are now merged to make Sopela larger; the population is 11,185 people. Thriving expansion of the town puts this number to well over 13,000 people; the area of Sopela is situated among green beaches. This makes it a attractive suburb of Bilbao, with a short commute of 35 minutes on the metro. Since the late 1980s, the population of Sopelana has continued to grow and has 13.000 citizens. During the industrialization the citizens moved to the urban centres that were more crowded but from that decade on this tendency has reversed. Sopelana has become a residential municipality well communicated with bigger municipalities and with Bilbao, it was at first an eminently turistic destination, where the properties and house owners only moved to spend summer holidays but it has turned into a residential town.
At the moment, it is one of the village's with the highest per capita income of the state. Sopela belongs to a region called Uribe, composed by 15 municipalities that are: Arrieta, Barrika, Gámiz-Fica, Gatika, Górliz, Lemoniz, Maruri-Jatabe, Meñaka, Plencia and Urduliz, it borders with the Cantabrian sea in the north, what makes Sopelana have spectacular cliffs and beaches. The municipality of Barrika is located to the Northeast, Getxo to the Northwest, Urduliz to the Southeast and Berango to the Southwest. Sopela's oceanic climate is different from the one of southern Spain. Harsh winds tend to pick up speed along the coast and precipitation is common all year round. Northern winds bring the winter temperature to just above the freezing point, but summers are comfortable from late May to early September. Snow is common three days each winter on average; the summer climate is warm and the temperatures are moderated by the constant sea breezes. Sopela is known for three beaches Atxabiribil and Arrietara.
They have good conditions for surfers. A fourth beach, Meñakoz is of less appeal for sun worshippers and more for the surfer crowd due to the pebble bed ground. Sopela is the host of regional surf competitions as conditions are adequate for surfing in its beaches. A less famous, but internationally known event, is the yearly nude race on Barinatxe beach in the fall. Barinatxe is a clothing optional beach. Another special place in Sopela is a small creek called Ikatza known only by its citizens; the town is connected to the main transport arteries with two metro stations on the Line 1 of Bilbao Metro and highways. Larrabasterra station is located to the far south of Sopela in Larrabasterra, while Sopela station is at the center of the municipality. Several bus routes connect Sopela to Bilbao and nearby towns, like Barrika, Plentzia and Armintza; these buses are: Bizkaibus: A3451: Las Arenas - Arminza. A3531: Sopelana - Munguía - Gatica. A2166: Uribe Kosta - UPV/EHUThere is a local bus service which connects the town centre with the beaches, it joins the following neighbourhoods: Larrabasterra / Arrietara / Beaches / Sopelmar / Ugeraga / Moreaga / Centre.
The patron saint of the town is San Pedro or Saint Peter and his feast days are the most representative ones. They are held at the end of the month of June and they last up to a week and a half; the big day is the 29th. The patroness of the neighbourhood of Larrabasterra is Virgen del Carmen and her feast days are held in mid-July; the big day is the 16th. There are no large shopping malls in Sopela; the shopping centres are located a short car ride away in nearby towns like Getxo, Barakaldo or Bilbao. However, the centre of Sopela is full of small shops with a wide variety of goods. Along the main road to West Sopela, there are several youth oriented shops and surf shops open all year round. SOPELA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Leioa is a municipality in Biscay, Basque Country, in northern Spain. It is located south of Getxo and Berango delimitating south with Erandio. Today it is part of the Bilbao conurbation, its population stands at 30,400. Leioa has an area of 8.36 square kilometres. The Udondo river constitutes the eastern limit of the municipality. Leioa has its origins in 1526, before which it was part of the "anteiglesia de Erandio", it was a village with no more than 8000 people until the 1960s, when development came its way, as Bilbao expanded. Its population experienced a rapid increase in the 1970s, a more moderate growth afterwards, it has become a part of metropolitan Bilbao. Peruri, Sarriena and Lertutxe. Tellería, Artatzagane and Aldekoane. Artaza, Ikea Mendi, Udondo and Santimami. Pinueta, Txopoeta, Txorierri and Ibaiondo; the municipality of Leioa still retains much of its agricultural past and out of the urban centre many traditional Basque houses can still be seen on little family farms, though rapid development puts their long-term future in question.
The University of the Basque Country has most faculties within this municipality. May 29: “Lamiako maskarada” festivity in Lamiako. June 24: “San Joan Bataiatzailea” festivity in Elexalde. August 24: “San Bartolomé” festivity in Basaez. September 8: “Ntra. Sra. De los Remedios” festivity in Ondiz. May 15: “San Isidro” festivity. August 17: Santi Mami jaiak. September 10: Udondoko jaiak. September 29: San Miguel Txopoetako jaiak. Two consecutive stations of Line 1 of the Metro Bilbao rapid transit system are located in Leioa: Leioa and Lamiako. LEIOA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia http://www.leioa.eu/ Tourism.euskadi.eus Leioa
Mungia is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country of northern Spain. The town has 17,000 inhabitants. Mungia lies 20 metres above sea level in an area full of open spaces, with a landscape of rolling hills; the more important mountains nearby are Jata. There are many small streams and underground springs, such as the Atxuri, Lauromendi, Atebarri, or Mantzorriko Erreka, which are all tributaries of the Butroi river and provide water to the numerous fountains built in the town. In the past those waters helped to run more than 20 mills. Although there are still traces which show that the area where Mungia stands today was inhabited in prehistoric times the first documented reference we have dates back to the year 1051, when an abbot from Mungia confirmed a gift from the Lord of Biscay to the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. At the beginning, whose name comes from the Basque Mune - Ganean, was not much more than a tiny village with a dispersed population.
At that time the church was the only focus of the community, but the settlement began to acquire its own significance as a result of the presence of an abbot and of its location in a strategic pass between the interior of the feudal holding and the coast at Bermeo, which had begun to stand out as an export harbour. Under these conditions, important families belonging to the nobility settled in the surrounding areas of the village and built there their tower houses; the economic power of these noblemen was based on landholdings. However, as a consequence of a stockbreeding and agricultural crisis at the end of the 13th century, these families began to suffer. To face this situation they sought hard to improve their income streams, the easiest recourse they could have was to violence. On the pretext of "being more worthy" they fought with each other, their peasants were decimated and deprived of their scarce belongings, or involved in faction fights themselves. In the area of Mungia, we find representatives of two factions: the Billela family, part of the Ganboar faction. and the Butroi family which led the faction of Oinaz.
As the tower houses of both families were next to each other their fights were a common event. The borough of Mungia came to be as a consequence of this situation; some of the inhabitants in the area, witnessing the outrages of the nobility, requested the Lord of Biscay, the Infante Juan, to grant the title of borough to their town, in order to enable the fortification of the town and thus effective defence against attacks. By this means on 1 August 1376, under the Fueros of Logroño, the borough of Mungia was created in the centre of an anteiglesia similar in extent to the Parish) of the same name. Both belonged to the merindad of Uribe, each had an autonomous municipality. In the same way, they each had their own representation in the Juntas of Gernika, numbering 69 for the anteiglesia and 15 for the borough, but the fact of designating a borough did not avoid a great number of fights in the area. Thus, there were various episodes of different nature, arising from the wars between the factions.
Just to name a few of the most important of those small skirmishes, we mention the battle of Berteiz or the battle of Mungia, which took place on 27 April 1479 and in which the factions of Oinaz and Ganboa, enemies up to that moment, formed an alliance to fight against the Earl of Haro. Leaving these episodes aside, life in Mungia is thought to have been calm. Economic activity was based on farming, with a few mills located on the banks of the many streams which washed the area, as well as small craft workshops settled down in the borough; the daily round was disturbed. In 1602 there was a fire, a larger fire 1778 on 9 November with fourteen of the main buildings in the village burned down. From this time, to prevent accidents happening, all inflammable products such as straw and coal were stored in a place outside the enceinte; this site was known as Atzekaldeta, a basque name which refers to the location of the place in the rear part of the town. Thus time passed for both the borough of Mungia and the anteiglesia of the same name.
They were independent entities, although they joined together for the sake of some services and improvements. Thus, the school was common to both, when the time arrived to canalise the water from the Gondramendi mountain to the village both shared the expenditure. Little by little, more tasks were performed together and as a result of this co-operation bigger problems arose leading to the idea of joining both bodies and becoming one unique entity; this happened on 6 October 1900. The fountain which today lies in Beko Kale, in front of Arnaga, is the symbol of this unity under the motto "Biak bat eta biena". Up to 1936 life for the inhabitants passed by without major events, based on fundamental rural and agricultural activities, but with an i
A town meeting is a form of direct democratic rule, used in portions of the United States – principally in New England – since the 17th century, in which most or all the members of a community come together to legislate policy and budgets for local government. This is a town- or city-level meeting where decisions are made, in contrast with town hall meetings held by state and national politicians to answer questions from their constituents, which have no decision-making power. Town meeting is a form of local government practiced in the U. S. region of New England since colonial times, in some western states since at least the late 19th century. Conducted by New England towns, town meeting can refer to meetings of other governmental bodies, such as school districts or water districts. While the uses and laws vary from state to state, the general form is for residents of the town or school district to gather once a year and act as a legislative body, voting on operating budgets and other matters for the community's operation over the following 12 months.
In 1854, Henry David Thoreau said, in a speech entitled "Slavery in Massachusetts": When, in some obscure country town, the farmers come together to a special town-meeting, to express their opinion on some subject, vexing the land, that, I think, is the true Congress, the most respectable one, assembled in the United States. The painting Freedom of Speech depicts a scene from a town meeting; the Puritans, whose churches used the Congregationalist church governance sysytem, established town meetings when they established the various New England colonies. Its usage in the English language can cause confusion, since it is both an event, as in "Freetown had its town meeting last Tuesday", an entity, as in "Last Tuesday, Town Meeting decided to repave Howland Road." In modern times, "town meeting" has been used by political groups and political candidates as a label for moderated discussion group in which a large audience is invited. To avoid confusion, this sort of event is called a "town hall meeting."
Connecticut town meetings are bound to a published agenda. For example, in Connecticut, a Town Meeting may discuss, but not alter, an article placed before them, nor may they place new items on the agenda. If a Town Meeting rejects a budget, a new Town Meeting must be called to consider the next proposed budget. State Law allows the Board of Selectmen to adopt an estimated tax rate and continue operating based on the previous budget in the event a Town Meeting has not adopted a new budget in time, they do not exercise the scope of legislative powers as is seen in Massachusetts. A moderator is chosen at each meeting. Meetings are held in school auditoriums, however they may be moved to larger venues as needed. Town meetings can physically meet in another town if necessary to find a proper space to host the attendance. Votes are taken by voice, if close by show of hands. Meetings on controversial topics are adjourned to a referendum conducted by machine vote on a date in the future; such adjournment may come from the floor of the meeting, or by a petition for a paper or machine ballot filed before the meeting.
In towns with an Open Town Meeting, all registered voters of a town, all persons owning at least $1,000 of taxable property, are eligible to participate in and vote at Town Meetings, with the exception of the election of officials. Representative Town Meetings used by some larger towns consist of a large number of members elected to office; some towns utilize a so-called Financial Town Meeting, where an Open Town Meeting exists with limited jurisdiction to only vote on financial affairs and the town's legislative powers have been vested in a Town Council. In Maine, the town meeting system originated during the period when Maine was a district of Massachusetts. Most cities and towns operate under a modified version of it. Maine annual town meetings traditionally are held in March. Special town meetings may be called from time to time; the executive agency of town government is an elected, part-time board, known as the Board of Selectmen or Select Board, having three, five, or seven members. Between sessions, the board of selectmen interprets the policy set at Town Meeting and is assigned numerous duties including: approving all town non-school expenditures, authorizing highway construction and repair, serving as town purchasing agent for non-school items, issuing licenses, overseeing the conduct of all town activities.
The part-time selectmen serve as town assessors, overseers of the poor, as road commissioners. There are other elected town officers whose duties are specified by law; these may include clerks, tax collector, school committee and others. In 1927 the town of Camden adopted a special charter, became the first Maine town to apply the manager concept to the town meeting-selectmen framework. Under this system, the manager is administrative head of town government, responsible to the select board for the administration of all departments under its control; the manager's duties include acting as purchasing agent, seeing that laws and ordinances are enforced, making appointments and removals, fixing the compensation of appointees. From 1927 to 1939, eleven other Maine towns adopted special act town meeting-selectmen-