click links in text for more info

Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria

Ivan Asen II known as John Asen II or John Asan II, was emperor of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241. He was still a child when his father Ivan Asen I–one of the founders of the Second Bulgarian Empire–was killed in 1196, his supporters tried to secure the throne for him after his uncle, was murdered in 1207, but Kaloyan's other nephew, overcame them. Ivan Asen settled in the Rus' principalities. Boril could never strengthen his rule which enabled Ivan Asen to muster an army and return to Bulgaria, he captured Tarnovo and blinded Boril in 1218. He supported the full communion of the Bulgarian Church with the Papacy and concluded alliances with the neighboring Catholic powers and the Latin Empire of Constantinople, he tried to achieve the regency for the 11-year-old Latin Emperor, Baldwin II, after 1228, but the Latin aristocrats did not support Ivan Asen. He inflicted a crushing defeat on the Empire of Thessalonica, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, in the Battle of Klokotnitsa in 1230. Theodore's empire soon collapsed and Ivan Asen conquered large territories in Macedonia and Thrace.

The control of the trade on the Via Egnatia enabled Ivan Asen to implement an ambitious building program in Tarnovo and struck gold coins in his new mint in Ohrid. He started negotiations about the return of the Bulgarian Church to Orthodoxy after he learnt that the barons of the Latin Empire had elected John of Brienne regent for Baldwin II in 1229. Ivan Asen and the Emperor of Nicaea, John III Vatatzes, concluded an alliance against the Latin Empire at their meeting in 1235. During the same conference, the rank of patriarch was granted to the head of the Bulgarian Church in token of its autocephaly. Ivan Asen and Vatatzes joined their forces in attacking Constantinople, but Ivan Asen realized that Vatatzes could take advantage of the fall of the Latin Empire and broke off his alliance with Nicaea in 1237. After the Mongols invaded the Pontic steppes, several Cuman groups fled to Bulgaria, causing much destruction in the country during the last years of Ivan Asen's rule. Ivan Asen's father, Ivan Asen I, was one of the two leaders of the great uprising of the Bulgarians and Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire in 1185.

The nomadic Cumans, who dwelled in the Pontic steppes, supported the rebels, enabling them the restoration of the Bulgarian Empire. The empire encompassed the Balkan Mountains and the plains to the north of the mountains as far as the Lower Danube. Ivan Asen I was styled "basileus" of the Bulgarians from around 1187, his son and namesake was born between 1192 and 1196. The child's mother was called Elena, "the pious tsarina", in the Synodikon of Tzar Boril. A boyar, killed Ivan Asen I in 1196; the murdered emperor was succeeded by Kaloyan. He entered into correspondence with Pope Innocent III and offered to acknowledge the popes' primacy in order to secure the support of the Holy See; the Pope denied to elevate the head of the Bulgarian Church to the rank of patriarch, but he granted the inferior title of primate to the Bulgarian prelate. The Pope did not acknowledge Kaloyan's claim to the title of emperor, but a papal legate crowned Kaloyan king in Tarnovo on 8 November 1204. Kaloyan took advantage of the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade and expanded his authority over significant territories.

He was murdered while besieging Thessaloniki in October 1207. The teenager Ivan Asen had a strong claim to succeed his uncle, but Kaloyan's Cuman widow married Boril–the son of one of Kaloyan's sisters–who was proclaimed emperor; the exact circumstances of Boril's ascension to the throne are unknown. The 13th-century historian, George Akropolites, recorded that Ivan Asen soon fled from Bulgaria and settled in the "lands of the Russians". According to a source, Ephrem the Monk, Ivan Asen and his brother, were taken to the Cumans by their tutor before they moved to the Rus' principalities. Florin Curta and John V. A. Fine write that a group of boyars had tried to secure the throne to Ivan Asen after Kaloyan's death, but they were overcome by Boril's supporters, Ivan Asen had to leave Bulgaria. Historian Alexandru Madgearu proposes that boyars who opposed the Cumans' growing influence had supported Ivan Asen. Boril's rule was always insecure, his own relatives and Alexius Slav, denied to obey to him and he had to face frequent uprisings.

Ivan Asen stayed in Rus' "a considerable time", according to Akropolites, before he gathered about him "a certain of the Russian rabble" and returned to Bulgaria. Madgearu says, Ivan Asen could hire soldiers most because Boril's opponents had sent money to him. Historian István Vásáry associates Ivan Asen's "Russian rabble" with the semi-nomadic Brodnici, he defeated Boril and seized "not a little land". Curta and Fine write that Ivan Asen returned to Bulgaria after Boril's ally, Andrew II of Hungary, had departed for the Fifth Crusade in 1217. Boril withdrew to Tarnovo after his defeat. Akropolites claimed. Most modern historians agree that Akropolites confused months for years, but Genoveva Cankova-Petkova accepts Akropolites' chronology, she says that the three Cuman chieftains whom Andrew II's military commander, Count of Hermannstadt, defeated near Vidin around 1210 had been hired by Ivan Asen, because he wanted to prevent Joachim from supporting Boril against the rebels who had seized the town.

Vásáry states. Th

Moshe Hecht Band

The Moshe Hecht Band is an American Hasidic folk rock band based in Brooklyn, New York. Formed in 2010 by eponymous frontman Moshe Hecht, the band consists of several local musicians and has toured throughout New York. In 2011, they released their debut album, Heart Is Alive. In 2010, Brooklyn-based singer-songwriter Moshe Hecht gathered together several local musicians to form the Moshe Hecht Band. Since forming, the band has played at venues throughout New York such as the Knitting Factory and the Canal Room, as well as events like the 2012 Celebrate Israel Parade and a Shemspeed showcase at the CMJ Music Marathon, their debut album, Heart Is Alive, was recorded in Seattle and New York City with producers Steven Ray Allen, Alon Cohen, Jake Antelis, was released through Aderet Music on October 18, 2011. The Moshe Hecht Band's music is derived from rock and reggae, as well as traditional Hasidic melodies. Hecht himself has expressed his affinity for secular artists such as Bob Dylan, Simon & Garfunkel, Bob Marley, as well as Jewish musicians such as Shlomo Carlebach and Isaac Bitton.

Lyrically, Hecht's songwriting tends to be overtly religious, with Heart Is Alive mixing traditional Hebrew prayers with English lyrics about the life of the soul and man's relationship with God. Despite this, he has stated that he feels his music to be universal: "Any person of faith will find power and inspiration in my music." Moshe Hecht — lead vocals Schneur Menaker — guitar, keyboards Evgheni Goncear — bass guitar Bryan Hershkowitz — drums Paul Alpertpercussion Josh Hendersonviolin AlbumsHeart Is Alive Singles"Believers" Official website

Havelock-Allan baronets

The Havelock-Allan Baronetcy, of Lucknow, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 22 January 1858. Intended for the celebrated soldier Sir Henry Havelock, it was granted after his death to his eldest son and namesake Lieutenant-General Henry Havelock, with special remainder, in default of male issue of his own, to the male issue of his father. In 1880, having inherited the Durham estate of the Allans at Blackwell Grange, he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Allan, he was succeeded by the second Baronet. He represented Bishop Auckland in the House of Commons; the fourth Baronet was the husband of the actress Valerie Hobson. As of 2007 the title is held by their son, the fifth Baronet, who succeeded in 2003. Sir Henry Marshman Havelock-Allan VC, GCB, 1st Baronet Sir Henry Spencer Moreton Havelock-Allan, 2nd Baronet Sir Henry Ralph Moreton Havelock-Allan, 3rd Baronet Sir Anthony James Allan Havelock-Allan, 4th Baronet Sir Mark David Havelock-Allan, 5th Baronet, QC, FCIArb.

Havelock-Allan is a Circuit Judge. He is the son of the film-producer, Sir Anthony Havelock-Allan, his first wife, actress Valerie Hobson, he was educated at Eton and graduated from the University of Durham with a Bachelor of Arts in 1972 and Trinity College, Cambridge in 1974 with a Bachelor of Laws. That year he entered the Inner Temple and was a barrister until 1993 when he became an Assistant Recorder, a Recorder in 1997 and serves as a Senior Circuit Judge as of 2001. Havelock-Allan has been married twice, firstly to Lucy Clare née Mitchell-Innes in 1976 and lives with his second wife, Alison née Foster in Elephant and Castle, London. In 2003, Havelock-Allan succeeded to his father's baronetcy; the heir apparent to the baronetcy is Harry Caspar Francis Havelock-Allan, only son of the 5th Baronet. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets

Hari Singh Nalwa

Hari Singh Nalwa was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Fauj, the army of the Sikh Empire. He is known for his role in the conquests of Kasur, Attock, Kashmir and Jamrud, he is the founder of Haripur city in Pakistan, named after him. Hari Singh Nalwa was responsible for expanding the frontier of Sikh Empire to beyond the Indus River right up to the mouth of the Khyber Pass. At the time of his death, the western boundary of the empire was Jamrud, he served as governor of Kashmir and Hazara. He established a mint on behalf of the Sikh Empire to facilitate revenue collection in Kashmir and Peshawar. Hari Singh Nalwa was born in Gujranwala, in the Majha region of Punjab to Dharam Kaur and Gurdial Singh Uppal, in a Khatri family. After his father died in 1798, he was raised by his mother. In 1801, at the age of ten, he was baptized as a Sikh. At the age of twelve, he took up horse riding. In 1804, at the age of fourteen, his mother sent him to the court of Ranjit Singh to resolve a property dispute.

Ranjit Singh decided the arbitration in his favor because of his aptitude. Hari Singh had explained that his father and grandfather had served under Maha Singh and Charat Singh, the Maharaja's ancestors, demonstrated his skills as a horseman and musketeer. Ranjit Singh gave him a position at the court as a personal attendant. During a hunt in 1804, a tiger attacked him and killed his horse, his fellow hunters attempted to protect him but he refused their offers and killed the tiger by himself bare handedly by tearing the tiger apart from its mouth, thus earning the cognomen Baghmar. Whether he was by that time serving in the military is unknown but he was commissioned as Sardar, commanding 800 horses and footmen, in that year; the twenty major battles of Hari Singh Nalwa: Battle of Kasur Hari Singh's first significant participation in a Sikh conquest on assuming charge of an independent contingent was in 1807, at the capture of Kasur. This place had long been a thorn in the side of Ranjit Singh's power because of its proximity to his capital city of Lahore.

It was captured in the fourth attempt. This attack was led by Jodh Singh Ramgarhia. During the campaign the Sardar showed remarkable dexterity; the Sardar was granted a Jagir in recognition of his services. Battle of Sialkot Ranjit Singh nominated Hari Singh Nalwa to take Sialkot from its ruler Jiwan Singh; this was his first battle under an independent command. The two armies were engaged for a couple of days seventeen year old Hari Singh carried the day. Nalwa planted the Sikh Flag on top of the fort. Battle of Attock The fort of Attock was a major replenishment point for all armies crossing the Indus. In the early 19th century, Afghan appointees of the Kingdom of Kabul held this fort, as they did most of the territory along this frontier; this battle was fought and won by the Sikhs on the banks of the Indus under the leadership of Dewan Mokham Chand, Maharaja Ranjit Singh's general, against Wazir Fatteh Khan and his brother Dost Mohammad Khan, on behalf of Shah Mahmud of Kabul. Besides Hari Singh Nalwa, Hukam Singh Attariwala, Shyamu Singh, Khalsa Fateh Singh Ahluwalia and Behmam Singh Malliawala participated in this battle.

With the conquest of Attock, the adjoining regions of Hazara-i-Karlugh and Gandhgarh became tributary to the Sikhs. In 1815, Sherbaz Khan of Gandhgarh was defeated. Abortive attempt on Kashmir The Sikhs made an attempt to take Kashmir soon after the Battle of Attock; the army was under the general command of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The troops were led towards Srinagar by Ram Dayal, grandson of Dewan Mokham Chand, while Jamadar Khushal Singh commanded the van, Hari Singh Nalwa and Nihal Singh Attariwala brought up the rear. Lack of provisions, delay in the arrival of reinforcements, bad weather and treachery of the allies lead to the Sikhs to retreat; the next few years were spent in subduing Muslim chiefs within the Kashmir territory, en route Srinagar Valley. In 1815 -- 16, Hari Singh Nalwa destroyed the stronghold of the traitorous Rajauri chief. Conquest of Mahmudkot In preparation of the conquest of the fortified Mankera, Ranjit Singh decided to approach it from its southern extremity. After the Baisakhi of 1816, Misr Diwan Chand, Illahi Bakhsh, Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Nihal Singh Attariwala and Hari Singh Nalwa accompanied by seven paltans and the topkhana went towards Mahmudkot.

When news of its conquest arrived, it left the Maharaja so elated at the success of Sikh arms that he celebrated this victory with the firing of cannons. Two years on their way to Multan, the Sikhs captured the forts of Khangarh and Muzzaffargarh. Battle of Multan The winter of 1810 saw a jubilant Sikh army stationed near Multan in the Bari Doab, they were riding high on the success of having conquered the Chuj Doab. The possession of the city of Multan was taken with little resistance; the fort was mined without effect. Sardar Nihal Singh Attariwala and the young Hari Singh Nalwa were wounded. A fire pot thrown from the walls of the fort fell on Hari Singh and he was so badly burnt that it was some months before he was fit for service. Ranjit Singh was disconcerted beyond measure at the length of the siege and perforce had to abandon the attempt. Multan was conquered under the nominal command of Kharak Singh and the actual command of Misr Diwan Chand, it was a fiercely contested battle in which Muzzaffar Kha

Old Crow Flats

Old Crow Flats is a 6,170 km2 wetland complex in northern Yukon, Canada along the Old Crow River. It is north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Beaufort Sea, is nearly surrounded by mountains; the archaeological sites in the area demonstrate some of the earliest human habitation in North America. The site is protected by Migratory Birds Convention Act, it was identified as part of the International Biological Program inventory, was designated a wetland of international importance via the Ramsar Convention on May 24, 1982. The habitat is an important breeding area for aquatic mammals and peregrine falcons, is used for summer moulting by waterfowl, as well as an autumn staging site for various species of birds. For this reason, it is considered an Important Bird Area. Per the Vuntut Gwitchin Final Agreement, the southern extent of Old Crow Flats is classified as a Special Management Area by the Yukon Government. Old Crow Flats contains more than 2,000 marshes. "The area includes some of the richest archaeological sites of early human habitation in North America".

More than 20,000 fossils have been collected in the area, including some never reported in North America. The Bluefish Caves, another important area with early human presence, are located about 75 km southwest of the Old Crow Flats. Many northern Yukon rivers, including Old Crow River and Porcupine River, changed course recently, cut through the fossil-bearing deposits; as a result, millions of fossils were redeposited in new riverbanks. Many fascinating animals are represented by these fossils, they include "mammoths, giant beavers, ground sloths, several kinds of horses, giant bison, short-faced bears, American lions, short-faced skunks and many more." "Some of the mammoth bones are broken in distinctive ways reminiscent of human butchery and tool production, a selection of these yielded radiocarbon dates between 25 000 and 40 000 years old." Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Old Crow Flats Ecoregion

Clay Weiner

Clay Weiner is an American director and writer of commercials and television. Weiner grew up in Ohio. Clay studied philosophy at Columbia University. During college, Clay began working with Robert Smigel on The Dana Carvey Show. Weiner has now written for The Conan O'Brien Show, The Onion and is a contributor to Dazed & Confused, Vice and BlackBook. Many know Clay as MTV's "Intro Guy." The campaign, which he wrote and starred in, is rumored to be the inspiration for Napoleon's nerdy dance routine in the film Napoleon Dynamite. The vignettes won top honors at The One Show. Weiner began his official advertising career as a writer at Cliff Partners, he went to work with David Droga at Publicis New York, Bartle Bogle Hegarty New York and Wieden+Kennedy Portland. As a creative, he won numerous awards from D&AD and One Show Pencils, to Cannes Gold Lions and Clio Awards, to something vaguely resembling a pair of gilded athletic shorts, he has worked with agencies such as Wieden+Kennedy, Carmichael Lynch, DDB Worldwide, Droga5, 72&Sunny, Adam&Eve, Ground Zero and Goodby, Silverstein & Partners.

Clay launched an animated campaign for MTV called "Puberty," which he wrote and directed. In addition to MTV, Clay has directed commercial films for Ray-Ban, Bud Light, Facebook, Amazon, ESPN, Axe, Slim Jim, Hyundai, Liquid Plumber, Kraft and Snickers, his Bud Light "Dude" campaign has had over 100 million views. Clay is now represented by Biscuit Filmworks in Los Angeles for commercial directing. Clay's television directing credits include Fred: Blue Mountain State, he has created short films such as the Emmy-nominated "The Christmas Tree," "Dad's New Girlfriend" and "Happy Father's Gay." The latter two were co-created with Jenna Wright. Clay has produced two pilots for F/X and one for Adult Swim, he resides in New York City and Los Angeles. In 2010 Weiner’s first feature, Fred: The Movie, was released by Nickelodeon. Fred is the first Hollywood feature to star Fred Figglehorn; the character was created by Lucas Cruikshank and the screenplay was written by David A. Goodman, head writer of Family Guy.

The film went on to be the highest watched TV movie of the year with a debut of 7.6 million views. It opened in the No. 8 spot, taking in £257,133 in the first week, despite being shown in over 243 cinemas. Weiner's photography book, TRY-ONs, was published in 2010; the book chronicles Weiner's exploration of identity as he personifies an eccentric array of real and imaginary characters. Designer and stylist Jenna Wright helped transform Clay into over 140 different people; the book won the 2011 D&AD Award for Photography. Clay Weiner on IMDb Clay Weiner's channel on YouTube