Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on May 28,1937 by the German Labour Front and headquartered in Wolfsburg. It is the flagship marque of the Volkswagen Group and is the largest automaker worldwide, Volkswagen is German for peoples car, and the companys current international advertising slogan is just Volkswagen. American English pronunciation is approximately volks wagon, for vehicle timeline tables, Volkswagen. Volkswagen was originally established in 1937 by the German Labour Front, in the early 1930s, the German auto industry was still largely composed of luxury models, and the average German could rarely afford anything more than a motorcycle. As a result, only one German out of 50 owned a car, seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent peoples car projects – the Mercedes 170H, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, and Hanomag 1. 3L, among others. The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the design in the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior, in Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS Komissbrot, a small, cheap rear engined car, from 1925 to 1928.
Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinkas penned Tatra T77, Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family. He felt the cars at the time were just stripped down big cars. He wanted his German citizens to have the access to a car as the Americans. The Peoples Car would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a plan at 990 Reichsmark —about the price of a small motorcycle. Despite heavy lobbying in favor of one of the existing projects, Hitler chose to sponsor an all-new, state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsches design. The intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme, the entire project was financially unsound, and only the corruption and lack of accountability of the Nazi regime made it possible. Prototypes of the car called the KdF-Wagen, appeared from 1938 onwards, the car already had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine.
The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included such as tours. The prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but to products in Germany. On May 28,1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, more than a year later, on September 16,1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH. Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsches hand-picked team, developed the car body of the prototype and it was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s
A watch is a small timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep working despite the motions caused by the persons activities, a wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attached by a watch strap or other type of bracelet. A pocket watch is designed for a person to carry in a pocket, watches evolved in the 17th century from spring-powered clocks, which appeared as early as the 14th century. During most of its history the watch was a device, driven by clockwork, powered by winding a mainspring. In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery, by the 1980s the quartz watch had taken over most of the market from the mechanical watch. Today most inexpensive and medium-priced watches, used mainly for timekeeping, have quartz movements, various extra features, called complications, such as moon-phase displays and the different types of tourbillon, are sometimes included. Modern watches often display the day, date and year, time-related features such as timers and alarm functions are common.
Some modern designs incorporate calculators, GPS and Bluetooth technology or have heart-rate monitoring capabilities, some watches use radio clock technology to regularly correct the time. Developments in the 2010s include smartwatches, which are elaborate computer-like electronic devices designed to be worn on a wrist and they generally incorporate timekeeping functions, but these are only small fractions of what the smartwatch can do. The study of timekeeping is known as horology, watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in 15th century Europe. Watches werent widely worn in pockets until the 17th century, one account says that the word watch came from the Old English word woecce which meant watchman, because it was used by town watchmen to keep track of their shifts at work. Another says that the term came from 17th century sailors, who used the new mechanisms to time the length of their shipboard watches, the increased accuracy of the balance wheel focused attention on errors caused by other parts of the movement, igniting a two-century wave of watchmaking innovation.
The first thing to be improved was the escapement, the verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, invented by Thomas Tompion in 1695 and further developed by George Graham in the 1720s. The British had predominated in watch manufacture for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company. The concept of the wristwatch goes back to the production of the very earliest watches in the 16th century, elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an arm watch. The oldest surviving wristwatch is one made in 1806 and given to Joséphine de Beauharnais, from the beginning, wrist watches were almost exclusively worn by women, while men used pocket-watches up until the early 20th century. The Garstin Company of London patented a Watch Wristlet design in 1893, officers in the British Army began using wristwatches during colonial military campaigns in the 1880s, such as during the Anglo-Burma War of 1885.
In continental Europe Girard-Perregaux and other Swiss watch makers began supplying German naval officers with wrist watches in about 1880 and these early models were essentially standard pocket-watches fitted to a leather strap but, by the early 20th century, manufacturers began producing purpose-built wristwatches
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Adjutant is a military rank or appointment. An adjutant general is commander of an armys administrative services, Adjutant comes from the Latin adjutans, present participle of the verb adjuvare, to help, the Romans actually used adiutor for the noun. In various uniformed hierarchies, the term is used for number of functions, a regimental adjutant, garrison adjutant etc. is a staff officer, who assists the commanding officer of a regiment, battalion or garrison in the details of regimental, garrison or similar duty. In United States Army squadrons, the adjutant is often the officer-in-charge of the administrative platoon, in the British Army, an Adjutant is usually a senior captain. Until the 1970s the adjutant was the operations officer. In the British Army adjutants are given field rank and as such are senior by appointment to all other captains, unlike the RAO, the adjutant is a member of the corps or regiment of which their unit is a part. The adjutants job is not solely a backroom one, since he usually accompanies the colonel - Captain David Wood, normally, in a British Infantry battalion, the adjutant controls the battle whilst the CO commands it.
As such, the adjutant is usually a man of significant influence within his battalion, in the Foot Guards, the adjutant of the unit in charge of Trooping the Colour is one of three officers on horseback. In many Commonwealth armies, the adjutant performs much the role as in the British Army. There is no RAO position within the Australian Army, where an adjutant performs the role with the assistance of a Chief Clerk. In the US Army, historically the adjutant was generally a member of the branch or regiment of the parent unit. The adjutant general at the battalion-level is generally a captain or senior first lieutenant and, in conjunction with the S-1 section. There is a call announcing the adjutant that is still used in military ceremonies today. In the USMC, the adjutant serves as the administrator for their unit. Per the USMC MOS handbook, Adjutants coordinate administrative matters for Marine Corps staff sections and they ensure that every Marine in their command has administrative resources both for day-to-day tasks and long-term career progression.
Adjutants supervise the execution of administrative policies and they receive and route correspondence, preparing responses to any special correspondence. They manage their units legal matters and monitor fitness reports, in some armies, adjutant is a rank similar to a commonwealth staff sergeant or warrant officer. In the Belgian Army and Luxembourg Army, the ranks are Adjudant, Adjudant-Chef, in Dutch, they are collectively known as Keuronderofficier
Duke of Wellington's Regiment
The Duke of Wellingtons Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, forming part of the Kings Division. In 1702 Colonel George Hastings, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, was authorised to raise a new regiment, as was the custom in those days the regiment was named Huntingdons Regiment after its Colonel. As Colonel succeeded Colonel the name changed, but in 1751 regiments were given numbers, in 1782 the regiments title was changed to the 33rd Regiment, thus formalising an association with the West Riding of Yorkshire which, even then, had been long established. The first Duke of Wellington died in 1852 and in the following year Queen Victoria, in recognition of the regiments long ties to him, in 1881, following the Childers Reforms, the 33rd was linked with the 76th Regiment of Foot, who shared their depot in Halifax. The two regiments became, the 1st and 2nd battalions of the Duke of Wellingtons Regiment, in 1948 the 1st and 2nd battalions were amalgamated into a single battalion, the 1st Battalion.
On 6 June 2006 the Dukes were amalgamated with the Prince of Waless Own Regiment of Yorkshire, following further mergers, in 2012, the battalion was redesignated as the new 1st Battalion of the regiment. In Korea, the Dukes desperate defence of the Hook position halted the last major Chinese attempt to break the United Nations Line before the truce, in July 1953, brought the war to an end. In Cyprus the battalion was successful in Operation Golden Rain, destroying a major EOKA terrorist group operating in the Troodos Mountains in 1956. In 1964 the battalion joined the NATO deterrence in Germany on the front line in the Cold War and they were amongst the first units to cross the border from Kuwait in the 2003 Iraq War. The Duke of Wellingtons Regiment was originally formed in 1702 as Huntingdons Regiment, as regiments at that time took the name of the Colonel taking it over it became, - Henry Leighs Regiment, Robert Duncansons Regiment and George Wades Regiment. On 31 August 1782 Lord Cornwallis heard that the King had approved of the new title, the 76th Regiment was originally raised, by Simon Harcourt as Lord Harcourts Regiment on 17 November 1745 and disbanded in June 1746.
Following the loss of Minorca, to the French, it was reraised in November 1756 as the 61st Regiment, but renumbered to 76th, by General Order in 1758, and again disbanded in 1763. A second battalion raised by that regiment in October 1758, for service in Africa, was renumbered as the 86th Regiment and it was disbanded at Stirling Castle in March 1784. The regiment was raised for service in India by the Honorable East India Company in 1787. In 1881 the 76th Regiment, which shared the same Depot in Halifax as the 33rd, was linked to the 33rd, under the Childers Reforms, in January 1921 it was again retitled to The Duke of Wellingtons Regiment, or DWR for short. Within months of its raising the regiment was despatched to join Malboroughs army in Holland. After five months and only two battles it was sent to Portugal, along with five other of Malboroughs best regiments, the 33rd fought in many battles including Valencia de Alcantara and less favourably at Almansa and Brihuega. The 33rd itself had a reputation for its professionalism and capability
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony. Located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig, it lies about 75 km east of Hanover and 230 km west of Berlin, in 2013, Wolfsburg ranked as the richest city in Germany with a GDP per capita of $128,000, due to its thriving auto industry. Wolfsburg is famous as the location of Volkswagen AGs headquarters and the worlds biggest car plant, Wolfsburg is one of the few German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. From its foundation on 1 July 1938 as a home for workers producing the KdF-Wagen until 25 May 1945, in 1972, the population first exceeded 100,000. Wolfsburg is located at the Southern edge of the ancient river valley of the Aller at the Mittellandkanal and it is bordered by the districts of Gifhorn and Helmstedt. The total annual precipitation is about 532 mm which is low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst record lower data.
The driest month is October, most precipitation is measured in June where observation stations measure 1.9 times more precipitation than in October, precipitation hardly diversifies and is constantly distributed all over the year. Only 17% of observation stations measure lower annual deviation, the castle Wolfsburg was first mentioned in 1302 in a document as the domicile of the noble lineage of Bartensleben. Originally a keep next to the Aller, it was protected by a moat some centuries later, in 1372, the first documentary reference to the Burg Neuhaus near Wolfsburg appeared. After the extinction of the Bartensleben line in 1742, the property, the communal manor was an important employer for the nearby settlements Rothenfelde and Heßlingen. Some of todays urban districts, including Heßlingen, belonged to the Duke of Magdeburg during the 18th century, in 1932, these districts were detached from the Prussian province Saxony and integrated in the administrative district of Lüneburg belonging to Hannover.
Other urban districts, like Vorsfelde and the transferred to Wolfsburg from the county of Helmstedt. Fallersleben and other villages belonged to the Electorate of Braunschweig - Lüneburg or the Kingdom of Hanover, during World War II military cars and other military equipment were built there, mainly by forced workers and POWs. In 1942, the Nazis established the Arbeitsdorf concentration camp in the city for a few months, at the urging of the British occupying power, the city was renamed as Wolfsburg on 25 May 1945, after the eponymous castle located there. In 1951, Wolfsburg was separated from the District of Gifhorn, in 1955 the one-millionth VW Beetle was manufactured in Wolfsburg. Postwar Beetle production ended in Wolfsburg in 1974, though German Beetle production continued in Emden until 1978, the factories in Wolfsburg remain a key part of Volkswagens production capacity. During the German economic miracle Wolfsburg experienced an influx of immigrant workers
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the worlds most important economic sectors by revenue, the term automotive was created from Greek autos, and Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry, the automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, at that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U. S. produced about 75 percent of auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan, in 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, from 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially.
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, in the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies there is no risk of damage. Safety in the industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international. The standard ISO26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle and this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline, the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is expected that this trend will continue, especially as the generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore
This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself. The most familiar scale models represent the appearance of an object in miniature. Scale models are used in fields including engineering, film making, military command, salesmanship. While each field may use a model for a different purpose, all scale models are based on the same principles. The detail requirements vary depending on the needs of the modeler, in general a scale model must be designed and built primarily considering similitude theory. However, other requirements concerning practical issues must be considered, similitude is the theory and art of predicting prototype performance from scale model observations. The main requirement of similitude is all dimensionless quantities must be equal for both the model and the prototype under the conditions the modeler desires to make observations. Dimensionless quantities are generally referred to as Pi terms, or π terms, in many fields the π terms are well established.
For example, in dynamics, a well known dimensionless number called the Reynolds number comes up frequently in scale model tests with fluid in motion relative to a stationary surface. An example of the Reynolds number and its use in similitude theory satisfaction can be observed in the scale model testing of fluid flow in a horizontal pipe, one method to determine the dimensionless quantities of concern for a given problem is to use dimensional analysis. Practical concerns include the cost to construct the model, available test facilities to condition and observe the model, the availability of certain materials, and even who will build it. Practical requirements are very diverse depending on the purpose of the scale model. As an example, perhaps an aerospace company needs to test a new wing shape, however, if a facility such as this one cant be used, perhaps due to cost constraints, the similitude requirements must be relaxed or the test redesigned to accommodate the limitation. In this case, concessions must be made for reasons to the similitude requirements.
An example of this from fluid dynamics is flow of a liquid in a horizontal pipe, possible π terms to consider in this situation are Reynolds number, Weber number, Froude number, and Mach number. For this flow configuration, however, no tension is involved. Also, compression of the fluid is not applicable, so the Mach number can be disregarded, gravity is not responsible for the flow, so the Froude number can be disregarded. This leaves the modeler with only the Reynolds number to worry about in terms of equating its values for the scale model, in general, scale models can be classified into three classes depending on the degree of similitude satisfaction they exhibit
Royal Army Ordnance Corps
The Royal Army Ordnance Corps was a corps of the British Army. At its renaming as a Royal Corps in 1918 it was both a supply and repair corps, the RAOC was responsible for a major element of the repair of Army equipment. The RAOC retained repair responsibilities for ammunition and certain ranges of general stores, on 5 April 1993, the RAOC was one of the corps that amalgamated to form The Royal Logistic Corps. Thereafter followed thirty years of fluctuating allocation of responsibilities and a variety of titles of both corps and individuals. There were Master Generals of the Ordnance and Boards of Ordnance centuries before there were Secretaries of State for War or Commanders-in-Chief, in the years following the Crimean War three corps can be identified as the direct predecessors of the RAOC. The Military Store Department created in 1861 granted military commissions and provided officers to manage stores inventories, in parallel a subordinate corps of warrant officers and sergeants, the Military Store Clerks Corps, was created to carry out clerical duties.
These small corps based largely at the Tower of London, Red Barracks, Woolwich, in 1870 a further reorganisation, ostensibly to simplify management, resulted in the MSD, MSC and MSSC being grouped with the Army Service Corps under the Control Department. The officers remained a branch in the Control Department but the soldiers were absorbed into the ASC. The Control Department was disbanded in 1876, the Ordnance/Military Store officers joined a newly created Ordnance Stores Department. Five years later, in 1881, the soldiers left the ASC. In 1894 there were further changes, the OSD was retitled the Army Ordnance Department and absorbed the Inspectors of Machinery from the Royal Artillery. In parallel the OSC was retitled the Army Ordnance Corps and at the same time absorbed the Corps of Armourers, the RAOC and its predecessors were organised in two broad divisions, a static organisation of depots and other installations and field units that provided close support to operations. From the Second World War onwards there was increasing pressure to increase mobility on operations of stock holding units, the first modern depot to store weapons was constructed alongside the Grand Union Canal at Weedon in 1808.
After the Crimean War the main depot, and home of the RAOC and its predecessors. To this was added the Royal Army Clothing Department at Pimlico when it was taken over by the AOD in 1895. In 1881 there were detachments in Dublin, Gibraltar, Bermuda, Canada, St Helena, Cape of Good Hope, there was a substantial detachment supporting the Anglo-Zulu War in Natal. Thereafter there was support by the RAOCs predecessors to every late Victorian expedition with the major efforts being the two campaigns in Egypt and the Sudan and the Boer War. Both campaigns required the support of large numbers of troops, animals
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom. As of 2017 the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained Regular, or full-time and just over 26,500 trained Reserve, or part-time personnel. Therefore, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, day to day the Army comes under administration of the Ministry of Defence and is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. Repeatedly emerging victorious from these decisive wars allowed Britain to influence world events with its policies and establish itself as one of the leading military. In 1660 the English and Irish monarchies were restored under Charles II, Charles favoured the foundation of a new army under royal control and began work towards its establishment by August 1660. The Royal Scots Army and the Irish Army were financed by the Parliament of Scotland, the order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army.
At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, after William and Marys accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Marys father, James II. Spain, in the two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to Englands early transatlantic ambitions. The territorial ambitions of the French, led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. From the time of the end of the Seven Years War in 1763, Great Britain was the naval power. As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought the Kingdoms of Spain and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the Army conquered New France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War, the British Army suffered defeat in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but holding on to Canada. The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars and served in campaigns across Europe.
The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world and at its peak, in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A Coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian Armies under the Duke of Wellington, the English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the Pope in 1171. The campaign of the English republican Protector, Oliver Cromwell, involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War, the English Army stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution, the British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster in the 1798 rebellion. The Haldane Reforms of 1907 formally created the Territorial Force as the Armys volunteer reserve component by merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Great Britains dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, in the 20th century, most notably Germany