The White movement and its military arm the White Army known as the White Guard, the White Guardsmen or the Whites, was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the Communist Bolsheviks known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War and to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until World War II. During the Russian Civil War, the White movement was a big tent political movement representing an array of political opinions in Russia united in their opposition to the Communist Bolsheviks, from the republican-minded liberals and Kerenskyite social democrats who had profited from the February Revolution of 1917 on the left to the champions of Tsarism and the Russian Orthodox Church of Eastern Orthodox Christianity on the right. Following their defeat, there were remnants and continuations of the movement in several organizations, some of which only had narrow support, enduring within the wider White émigré overseas community until after the fall of Communism in the Eastern European Revolutions of 1989 and the subsequent Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990–1991.
This community-in-exile of anti-communists was divided between the liberals and the more conservative segments, with some still hoping for the restoration of the Romanov dynasty, including several claimants to the empty throne like Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia living in Italy and Prince Andrew Romanov in the United States and other exiles, still hopes for a true constitutional democratic republic in Russia. In the Russian context after 1917, "White" had three main connotations: Political contra-distinction to "the Reds", whose revolutionary Red Army supported the Bolshevik government. Historical reference to absolute monarchy recalling Russia's first Tsar, Ivan III, at a period when some styled the ruler of Muscovy Albus Rex; the white uniforms of Imperial Russia worn by some White Army soldiers. Above all, the White movement emerged as opponents of the Red Army; the White Army had the stated aim to keep law and order in Russia as the Tsar's army before the civil war and the salvation of Russia.
They worked to remove Soviet functionaries in White-controlled territory. Overall, the White Army rejected ethnic particularism and separatism; the White Army believed in a united multinational Russia and opposed separatists who wanted to create nation-states. American historians Richard L. Rubenstein and John K Roth state that 60,000 Jewish members of the Red Army were killed in combat against White forces during the Civil War of 1917 to 1923. British parliamentary influential leader Winston Churchill warned General Anton Denikin of the Imperial Army and a major White military leader, whose forces effected pogroms and persecutions against the Jews: y task in winning support in Parliament for the Russian Nationalist cause will be infinitely harder if well-authenticated complaints continue to be received from Jews in the zone of the Volunteer Armies. Many of the White leaders were conservative, accepting autocracy while remaining suspicious of "politics". Aside from being anti-Bolshevik and anti-Communist and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader.
The White Armies did acknowledge a single provisional head of state in a Supreme Governor of Russia in a Provisional All-Russian Government, but this post was prominent only under the leadership in the war campaigns during of Admiral Alexander Kolchak of the previous Russian Imperial Navy. The movement had no set plan for foreign policy. Whites differed on policies toward the German Empire in its extended occupation of western Russia, the Baltic states and the Ukraine on the Eastern Front in the closing days of the World War, debating whether or not to ally with it; the Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies and thus saw an monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment. White-movement leaders such as Anton Denikin advocated for Russians to create their own government, claiming the military could not decide in Russians' steads. Admiral Alexander Kolchak succeeded in creating a temporary wartime government in Omsk, acknowledged by most other White leaders, only for it to fall with the loss of his armies.
Some warlords who were aligned with the White movement, such as Grigory Semyonov and Roman Ungern von Sternberg, did not acknowledge any authority but their own. The White movement had no set political leanings as members could be monarchists, rightists, or Kadets. Among White Army leaders, neither General Lavr Kornilov nor General Anton Denikin were monarchists, yet General Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel was a monarchist willing to soldier for a republican Russian government. Moreover, other political parties supported the anti-Bolshevik White Army, among them the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, others who opposed Lenin's Bolshevik October Revolution of 1917. Depending on the time and place, those White Army supporters might exchange right-wing allegiance for allegiance to the Red Army. Unlike the Bolsheviks, the White Armies did not share a single ideology, methodology, or political goal, they were led by conservative generals with different agendas a
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions in 1918. The stated goals were to help the Czechoslovak Legion, to secure supplies of munitions and armaments in Russian ports, to re-establish the Eastern Front. Overthrow of the new Bolshevik regime was an covert motivation. After the Bolshevik government withdrew from World War I, the Allied Powers backed the anti-communist White forces in Russia. Allied efforts were hampered by divided objectives, war-weariness from the overall global conflict, a lack of domestic support; these factors, together with the evacuation of the Czechoslovak Legion, compelled the Allied Powers to withdraw from North Russia and Siberia in 1920, though Japanese forces occupied parts of Siberia until 1922 and the northern half of Sakhalin until 1925. In 1917, Russia was in a state of political strife, public support for World War I and Tsar Nicholas II was dwindling; the country was on the brink of revolution. The February Revolution changed the course of the war.
The Provisional Government pledged to continue fighting the Germans on the Eastern Front. The Allied Powers had been shipping supplies to Russia since the beginning of the war in 1914 through the ports of Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok. In 1917, the United States entered the war on the Allied side. US President Woodrow Wilson dropped his reservations about joining the war with the despotic Tsar as an ally, the United States began providing economic and technical support to Kerensky's government; the war became unpopular with the Russian populace. Political and social unrest increased, with the Marxist anti-war Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin gaining widespread support. Large numbers of common soldiers either deserted the Imperial Russian Army. In the offensive of 18 June 1917, the Russian Army was defeated by the German and Austro-Hungarian forces as a result of a counter-attack; this led to the collapse of the Eastern Front. The demoralised Russian Army was on the verge of mutiny and most soldiers had deserted the front lines.
Kerensky replaced Aleksei Brusilov with Lavr Kornilov as Commander-in-Chief of the Army. Kornilov attempted to set up a military dictatorship by staging a coup in late August 1917, he had the support of the British military attaché, Brigadier-General Alfred Knox, Kerensky accused Knox of producing pro-Kornilov propaganda. Kerensky claimed Lord Milner, member of the British War Cabinet, wrote him a letter expressing support for Kornilov. A British armoured car squadron commanded by Oliver Locker-Lampson and dressed in Russian uniforms participated in the failed coup. In 1917, the October Revolution led to the overthrow of Kerensky's provisional government, the Bolsheviks assuming power. German troops invaded the Russian Empire and threatened to capture Moscow and impose its own regime in early 1918. Lenin wanted to cut a deal with Germany but was unable to get approval from his council until late February. Bolshevik Russia switched sides and supported the German position; the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The Allied Powers felt betrayed and turned against the new regime, aiding its "White" enemies and landing troops to prevent Russian supplies from reaching Germany. The betrayal removed. According to William Henry Chamberlin before Brest-Litovsk, "Downing Street contemplated a protectorate over the Caucasus and the Quai d'Orsay over Crimea and the Ukraine", began negotiating deals for funding White generals to bring them into being. R. H. Bruce Lockhart and another British agent and a French official in Moscow tried to organize a coup that would overthrow the Bolshevik regime, they were exposed and arrested. The Czechoslovak Legion was at times in control of most of the Trans-Siberian railway, all major cities in Siberia; the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ensured that prisoners-of-war would be transferred to and from each country. Austro-Hungarian prisoners were of a number of various nationalities. Czechoslovaks had long desired to create their own independent state, the Russians aided in establishing special Czechoslovak units to fight the Central Powers.
In 1917, the Bolsheviks stated that if the Czechoslovak Legions remained neutral and agreed to leave Russia, they would be granted safe passage through Siberia en route to France via Vladivostok to fight with the Allied forces on the Western Front. The Czechoslovak Legions travelled via the Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. However, fighting between the Legions and the Bolsheviks erupted in May 1918; the Allied Powers became concerned at the collapse of the Eastern Front and the loss of their Tsarist ally to communism, there was the question of the large quantities of supplies and equipment in Russian ports, which the Allied Powers feared might be seized by the Germans. Worrisome to the Allied Powers was the April 1918 landing of a division of German troops in Finland, increasing speculation they might attempt to capture the Murmansk-Petrograd railway, subsequently the strategic port of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. Other concerns regarded the potential destruction of the Czechoslovak Legions and the threat of Bolshevism, the nature of which worried many Allied governments.
Meanwhile, Allied materiel in transit accumulated in the warehouses in Arkhangelsk and Murmansk. Estonia had established a national army with the s
Novodevichy Cemetery is a famous cemetery in Moscow. It lies next to the southern wall of the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, the city's third most popular tourist site; the cemetery was designed by Ivan Mashkov and inaugurated in 1898. Its importance dates from the 1930s, when the necropolises of the medieval Muscovite monasteries were scheduled for demolition. Only the Donskoy survived the Joseph Stalin era intact; the remains of many famous Russians buried in other abbeys, such as Nikolai Gogol and Sergey Aksakov, were disinterred and reburied at the Novodevichy. A 19th-century necropolis within the walls of the Novodevichy convent, which contained the graves of about 2000 Russian noblemen and university professors underwent reconstruction; the vast majority of graves were destroyed. It was at that time, his grave served as the kernel of the so-called "cherry orchard" – a section of the cemetery which contains the graves of Constantin Stanislavski and the leading actors of his company. Under Soviet rule, burial in the Novodevichy Cemetery was second in prestige only to burial in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.
Among the Soviet leaders, only Nikita Khrushchev was buried at the Novodevichy rather than at the Red Square. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Kremlin Wall is no longer used for burials and the Novodevichy Cemetery is used for only the most symbolically significant burials. For example, in April 2007, within one week both the first President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin and world-renowned cellist Mstislav Rostropovich were buried there. Today, the cemetery holds the tombs of Russian authors, musicians and poets, as well as famous actors, political leaders, scientists. More than 27,000 are buried at Novodevichy. There is scant space for more burials. A new national cemetery is under construction in Mytishchi north of Moscow; the cemetery has a park-like ambience, dotted with large sculpted monuments. It is divided into the old and newest sections; the work of these sculptors, among others, can be found at Novodevichy Cemetery: Nikolay Andreyev Mikhail Anikushin Lev Kerbel Sergey Konenkov Vera Mukhina Ernst Neizvestny Ivan Shadr Nikolai Tomsky Yevgeny Vuchetich Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery Federal Military Memorial Cemetery Unofficial site.
Hi-resolution photos Famous and picturesque memorials photographed June 2005 Novodevichii Cemetery – article from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia Novodevichy Cemetery: Where History sleeps -VIDEO
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defense Forces and Air Forces were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and about a tenth that number of tank formations, their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the late war period were converted to tank divisions, from 1957 the rifle divisions were converted to motor rifle divisions. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a tank regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions.
The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946. Four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov became Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces in March 1946, but was succeeded by Ivan Konev in July, who remained as such until 1950, when the position of Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces was abolished for five years, an organisational gap that "probably was associated in some manner with the Korean War". From 1945 to 1948, the Soviet Armed Forces were reduced from about 11.3 million to about 2.8 million men, a demobilisation controlled first, by increasing the number of military districts to 33 reduced to 21 in 1946. The personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. To establish and secure the USSR's eastern European geopolitical interests, Red Army troops who liberated eastern Europe from Nazi rule, in 1945 remained in place to secure pro-Soviet régimes in Eastern Europe and to protect against attack from Europe.
Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing anti-Soviet resistance in Western Ukraine and the Baltic states. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur and Dalian on the northeast Chinese coast until 1955. Control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts. There were 32 of them in 1945. Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR. Yet, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, which put down the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania; the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, the Central Asian Military District, at Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.
In 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca. 2.8 million to ca. 5.3 million men. To maintain said strength range, Soviet law minimally required a three-year military service obligation from every able man of military age, until 1967, when the Ground Forces reduced it to a two-year draft obligation. By the middle of the 1980s, the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions. About three-quarters were the remainder tank divisions. There were a large number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations, other combat support formations. However, only few formations were war ready. Three readiness categories, A, B, V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force; the Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were equipped. B and V divisions were 50 -- 75 % and 10 -- 33 % respectively.
The internal military districts contained only one or two A divisions, with the remainder B and V series formations. Soviet planning for most of the Cold War period would have seen Armies of four to five divisions operating in Fronts made up of around four armies. In February 1979, the first of the new High Commands in the Strategic Directions were created at Ulan-Ude; these new headquarters controlled multiple Fronts, a Soviet Navy Fleet. In September 1984, three more were established to control multi-Front operations in Europe and at Baku to handle southern operations. In 1955, the Soviet Union signed the Warsaw Pact with its East European socialist allies, establishing military coordination between Soviet forces and their socialist counterparts; the Soviet Army created and directed the Eastern European armies in its image for the remainder of the Cold War, shaping them for a potential confrontation with the North Atlant
Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny was a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. During the Russian Civil War, Budyonny's large cavalry force helped the Bolsheviks to victory and Budyonny himself became the subject of several popular patriotic songs, he was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1935. He was an opponent against the pre-war development of Soviet mechanized forces. In World War II, he received the blame for many of Stalin's military strategy errors, but he was retained in the Soviet high command because of his bravery and popularity, he was a notable horse-breeder, who declared that the tank could never replace the horse as an instrument of war. Budyonny was born into a poor peasant family on the Kozyurin farmstead near the town of Salsk in the Don Cossack region of the southern Russian Empire. Although he grew up in a Cossack region, Budyonny was not a Cossack—his family came from Voronezh province.
He was of Russian ethnicity. He worked as a farm labourer, shop errand boy, blacksmith's apprentice, driver of a steam-driven threshing machine, until the autumn of 1903, when he was drafted into the Imperial Russian Army, he became a cavalryman reinforcing the 46th Cossack Regiment during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. After the war, he was transferred to the Primorsk Dragoon Regiment. In 1907, he was sent to the Academy for Cavalry Officers in the St. Petersburg Riding School, he graduated first in his class after a year, becoming an instructor with the rank of junior non-commissioned officer. He returned to his regiment as a riding instructor with a rank of senior non-commissioned officer. At the start of World War I, he joined a reserve dragoon cavalry battalion. During World War I, Budyonny was the 5th Squadron's non-commissioned troop officer in the Christian IX of Denmark 18th Seversky Dragoon Regiment, Caucasian Cavalry Division on the Western Front, he became famous for his attack on a German supply column near Brzezina, was awarded the St. George Cross, 4th Class.
However, there was a general ineptitude of the officers. In November 1916, the Caucausian Cavalry Division was transferred to the Caucasus Front, to fight against the Ottoman Turks, he was involved in a heated confrontation with the squadron sergeant major regarding the officers' poor treatment of the soldiers and the continual lack of food. The sergeant major struck out at Budyonny, who retaliated by punching the ranking officer, knocking him down; the soldiers backed Budyonny during questioning, claiming that the sergeant major was kicked by a horse. Budyonny was stripped of his St. George Cross, though he could have faced death. Budyonny would go on to be awarded the St. George Cross, 4th class, a second time, during the Battle of Van, he received the St. George Cross, 3rd class, fighting the Turks near Mendelij, on the way to Baghdad, he received the St. George Cross, 2nd class, for operating behind Turkish lines for 22 days, he received the St. George Cross, 1st class, for capturing a senior non-commissioned officer and six men.
After the Russian Revolution overthrew the Tsarist regime in 1917, Budyonny was elected chairman of the squadron committee and a member of the regimental committee. When the Caucasian Cavalry Division was moved to Minsk, he was elected chairman of the regimental committee and deputy chairman of the divisional committee. Returning to Platovskaya, Budyonny was elected deputy chairman of the Stanista Soviet of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks' and Soldiers' Deputies on 12 January 1918. On 18 February, he was elected to be a member of the Salsk District Presidium and head of the District Land Department. On the night of 23 February, Budyonny organized a force of 24 men to retake Platovskaya from the white guards, but Budyonny was soon joined by a large number of new recruits. By morning, they had killed 350 White Russian soldiers, his force now consisted of 520 men, of which he formed a cavalry squadron of 120. He was elected battalion commander. In October 1918, the 1st Socialist Cavalry Regiment was formed, with Budyonny as deputy commander.
He first met Stalin and Voroshilov in July 1918. Budyonny's cavalry regiment was reorganized as a cavalry brigade on 7 August; the Civil War broke out in 1918, Budyonny organised a Red Cavalry force in the Don region, which became the 1st Cavalry Army. This Army played an important role in winning the Civil War for the Bolsheviks, driving the White General Anton Denikin back from Moscow. Budyonny joined the Bolshevik party in 1919 and formed close relationships with Stalin and Voroshilov. In 1920 Budyonny's Cavalry Army took part in the invasion of Poland in the Polish–Soviet War, in which it was successful at first, pushing Polish forces out of Ukraine and breaking through Polish southern frontlines; however the Bolsheviks forces sustained a heavy defeat in the Battle of Warsaw because Budyonny's Army was bogged down at Lviv. After his army was defeated in the Battle of Komarów, Budyonny was sent south to fight the Whites in Ukraine and the Crimea. Despite the defeat in Poland, he was one of Soviet Russia's military heroes by the end of the Civil War.
In 1920, Soviet songwriter Dmitry Yakovlevich wrote the song "Budyonny's March", one of the first songs to become popular throughout the Soviet Union. From 1921-1923, Budyonny was deputy commander of the North Caucasian Militar
Military academies in Russia
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces. Russian institutions called "academy" are post-graduate professional military schools for experienced, commissioned officers who have the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. Upon graduation, officers receive the equivalent of a master's degree and, if trained in military leadership are appointed as battalion commanders or higher from Lt. Colonel and up. Graduates with non-command training are appointed to various staff positions equivalent to Major or Lt. Colonel. Commissioned officers can study on the Kandidat Nauk level, equivalent to a Ph. D. degree. This research-oriented degree is required for faculty positions in military schools and defense research institutes. Selected experienced researchers in military academies hold limited-term positions as senior scholars leading to the prestigious post-doctoral Doktor Nauk degree, the equivalent of a habilitation at Central European universities where it is a prerequisite for full professor positions in institutions of higher learning.
There are a number of "officer commissioning schools" for various services known as Higher Military Schools or Institutes. As of 2010, a major reorganization of Russian military officer education, spanning the range from General Staff Academy to officer commissioning school, was underway. Previous names include: Marshal Voroshilov Military Academy of the WPRA General Staff, it has been the senior Russian professional school for officers in their late 30s. The "best and the brightest" senior commissioned officers of all forces are selected to attend this most prestigious of all Soviet military academies. Students are admitted to the Academy in the ranks of lieutenant colonel and Major General. Most are newly promoted generals; the precedence and grouping of these academies are drawn from Michael Holm's site. In 1918 the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow was established as the academy of the General Staff, which became the RKKA Military Academy in 1921, it is named after Mikhail Frunze USSR Minister of Defense in mid-1920s.
It is the equivalent of the US army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas or the British army's Staff College, Camberley. Officers in their late twenties up to thirty-two years at the rank of Captain or Major enter if they pass the competitive entry examinations. In the 1930s, higher academic courses were added to the Frunze curriculum as an advanced training program for previous graduates. On, this program became the basis for the "Voroshilov General Staff Academy" and the Frunze Academy refocused upon combined arms ground warfare training at the tactical level; as of 1979, "..within the Academy are'chairs of operational-tactical disciplines, Marxism-Leninism, history of the CPSU and Party-political work, history of war and military art, foreign languages, other subjects and scientific research sections' the Frunze library had about two million volumes of books. In September 1998 the Frunze Academy and the "Malinovsky Academy" were amalgamated into the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, on the site of the former Frunze Academy, which since 2010 is known as Military Educational and Scientific Center.
The Military Educational and Scientific Center has been the site of a number of Russian-Western joint military activities, including an IISS conference in February 2001, U. S.-Russian exercises. After graduation from Military Educational and Scientific Center, every graduate officer receives a diploma and a silver diamond-shaped badge which has to be worn on the right side of his uniform or civilian clothes above all other military or civilian decorations or ribbon bars; as of 2004, the commander was Colonel General Vladimir I. Popov; the Lenin Military-Political Academy specialized in training political officers for the Soviet Armed Forces, until 1942, political commissars for the Armed Forces. After a number of reorganizations, it was in 1994 merged with the "Military Institute of Foreign Languages" and the "Armed Forces Humanities Academy" into the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation which offers cadets various courses and postgraduate studies. Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy was established in 1932 in Moscow as the "J.
V. Stalin Academy of the WPRA Mechanization and Motorization Program", it was named after Marshal Rodion Malinovsky in 1967. Its mission was to train Soviet and Warsaw Pact commanders, staff officers, engineers for armored and mechanized units; the best-qualified graduates were selected for the" centralized operations division" of the General Staff. Students entered as captains and majors, some as lieutenant colonels, about on an intermediate level with the Army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth and the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Commanding and staff officers underwent a three-year program while engineers were taught for 4 years. In 1998 the Academy merged with the Frunze Academy to become the "Combined Arms Academy". Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy in Saint Petersburg dates back to 1698. In 1849 it was named Mikhailovskaya after Grand Duke
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War. Denikin was born in Szpetal Dolny village, now part of the Polish city Włocławek in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, his father, Ivan Efimovich Denikin, had been born a serf in the province of Saratov. Sent as a recruit to do 25 years of military service, the elder Denikin became an officer in the 22nd year of his army service in 1856, he retired from the army in 1869 with the rank of major. In 1869 Ivan Denikin married Polish seamstress Elżbieta Wrzesińska as his second wife. Anton Denikin, the couple's only child, spoke both Polish growing up, his father's Russian patriotism and devotion to the Russian Orthodox religion led Anton Denikin to the Russian army. The Denikins lived close to poverty, with the retired major's small pension as their only source of income, their finances worsened after Ivan's death in 1885. Anton Denikin at this time began tutoring younger schoolmates to support the family.
In 1890 Denikin enrolled at the Kiev Junker School, a military college from which he graduated in 1892. The twenty-year-old Denikin joined an artillery brigade. In 1895 he was first accepted into the General Staff Academy, where he did not meet the academic requirements in the first of his two years. After this disappointment, Denikin attempted to attain acceptance again. On his next attempt he finished fourteenth in his class. However, to his misfortune, the Academy decided to introduce a new system of calculating grades and as a result Denikin was not offered a staff appointment after the final exams, he protested the decision to the highest authority. After being offered a settlement according to which he would rescind his complaint in order to attain acceptance into the General Staff school again, Denikin declined, insulted. Denikin first saw active service during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War. In 1905 he won promotion to the rank of colonel. In 1910 he became commander of the 17th infantry regiment.
A few weeks before the outbreak of the First World War, Denikin reached the rank of major-general. By the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 Denikin was a Chief of staff of the Kiev Military District, he was appointed Quartermaster of General Brusilov's 8th Army. Not one for staff service, Denikin petitioned for an appointment to a fighting front, he was transferred to the 4th Rifle Brigade. His brigade was transformed into a division in 1915, it was with this brigade. In 1916, he was appointed to command the Russian 8th Army Corps and lead troops in Romania during the last successful Russian campaign of the war, the Brusilov Offensive. Following the February Revolution and the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II, he became Chief of Staff to Mikhail Alekseev Aleksei Brusilov, Lavr Kornilov. Denikin supported the attempted coup of his commander, the Kornilov Affair, in September 1917 and was arrested and imprisoned with him. After this Alekseev would be reappointed commander-in-Chief. Following the October Revolution both Denikin and Kornilov escaped to Novocherkassk in the Northern Caucasus and, with other Tsarist officers, formed the anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army commanded by Alekseev.
Kornilov was killed in April 1918 near Ekaterinodar and the Volunteer Army came under Denikin's command. There was some sentiment to place Grand Duke Nicholas in overall command but Denikin was not interested in sharing power. In the face of a Communist counter-offensive he withdrew his forces back towards the Don area in what came to be known as the Ice March. After that, in June-November 1918, Denikin launched the successful Second Kuban Campaign which gave him control of the entire area between the Black and Caspian Sea. In the summer of 1919, Denikin led the assault of the southern White forces in their final push to capture Moscow. For a time, it appeared. Makhno duly turned his Black Army east and led it against Denikin's extended lines of supply, forcing the Whites to retreat. Denikin's army would be decisively defeated at Orel in October 1919, some 360 km south of Moscow; the White forces in southern Russia would be in constant retreat thereafter reaching the Crimea in March 1920. Meanwhile, the Soviet government tore up its agreement with Makhno and attacked his anarchist forces.
After a seesaw series of battles in which both sides gained ground, Trotsky's more numerous and better equipped Red Army troops decisively defeated and dispersed Makhno's Black Army. During the Russian Civil War, an estimated 50,000 Jews perished in pogroms. Ukrainian forces, nominally under the control of Symon Petliura, perpetrated 40 percent of the recorded pogroms; the White Army is associated with 17 percent of the attacks, was responsible for the most active propaganda campaign against Jews, whom they associated with communism. The Red Army is blamed for 9 percent of the pogroms. In the territories it occupied, Denikin's army carried out mass executions and plunder, in what was known as the White Terror. In the town of Maykop in Circassia during