Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Kołobrzeg is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants. Kołobrzeg is located on the Parsęta River on the south coast of the Baltic Sea, it has been the capital of Kołobrzeg County in West Pomeranian Voivodship since 1999, was in Koszalin Voivodship from 1950 to 1998. During the Early Middle Ages, Slavic Pomeranians founded a settlement at the site of modern Budzistowo. Thietmar of Merseburg first mentioned the site as Salsa Cholbergiensis. Around the year 1000, when the city was part of Poland, it became seat of the Diocese of Kołobrzeg. During the High Middle Ages, the town was expanded with an additional settlement a few kilometers north of the stronghold and chartered with Lübeck law; the city joined the Hanseatic League. Within the Duchy of Pomerania, the town was the urban center of the secular reign of the prince-bishops of Cammin and their residence throughout the High and Late Middle Ages; when it was part of Brandenburgian Pomerania during the Early Modern Age, it withstood Polish and Napoleon's troops in the Siege of Kolberg.
From 1815, it was part of the Prussian province of Pomerania. After the Nazis took power in Germany, the local Jewish population was discriminated against, deemed to be subhuman and subjected to genocide. In 1945 Polish and Soviet troops seized the town, while the remaining German population which had not fled the advancing Red Army was expelled. Kołobrzeg, now part of post-war Poland and devastated in the preceding Battle of Kolberg, was rebuilt but lost its status as the regional center to the nearby city of Koszalin. "Kołobrzeg" means "by the shore" in Polish. Kashubian: Kòłobrzeg has a similar etymology; the original name of Cholberg was taken by Polish and Kashubian linguists in the 19th and 20th centuries to reconstruct the name. After German settlement, the original name of Cholberg evolved into German: Kolberg. According to Piskorski and Kempke, Slavic immigration reached Farther Pomerania in the 7th century. First Slavic settlements in the vicinity of Kołobrzeg were centered around nearby deposits of salt and date to 6th and 7th century.
In the late 9th century, a Slavic Pomeranian fortified settlement was built at the site of modern part of Kołobrzeg county called Budzistowo near modern Kołobrzeg, replacing nearby Bardy-Świelubie, a multi-ethnic emporium, as the center of the region. The Parseta valley, where both the emporium and the stronghold were located, was one of the Slavic Pomeranians' core settlement areas; the stronghold consisted of a fortified burgh with a suburbium. The Pomeranians mined salt in salt pans located in two downstream hills, they engaged in fishing, used the salt to conserve foodstuffs herring, for trade. Other important occupations were metallurgy and smithery, based on local iron ore reserves, other crafts like the production of combs from horn, in the surrounding areas, agriculture. Important sites in the settlement were a place for periodical markets and a tavern, mentioned as forum et taberna in 1140. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Budzistowo stronghold was the largest of several smaller ones in the Persante area, as such is thought to have functioned as the center of the local Slavic Pomeranian subtribe.
By the turn from the 10th to the 11th century, the smaller burghs in the Parseta area were given up. With the area coming under control of the Polish Duke Mieszko I, only two strongholds remained and underwent an enlargement, the one at Budzistowo and a predecessor of Białogard; these developments were most associated with the establishment of Polish power over this part of the Baltic coast. In the 10th century the trade of salt and fish led to the development of the settlement into a town. During Polish rule of the area in the late 10th century, the chronicle of Thietmar of Merseburg mentions salsa Cholbergiensis as the see of the Bishopric of Kołobrzeg, set up during the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 and placed under the Archdiocese of Gniezno; the congress was organized by Polish duke Bolesław Chrobry and Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, led to the establishment of bishoprics in Kraków and Wrocław, connecting the territories of the Polish state. The city mentions this as an important event not only in religious, but political dimension as it unified Polish territories.
The missionary efforts of bishop Reinbern were not successful, the Pomeranians revolted in 1005 and regained political and spiritual independence. In 1013 Bolesław Chrobry removed his troops from Pomerania in face of war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry III; the Polish - German war ended with Polish victory, confirmed by the 1018 Peace of Bautzen. During his campaigns in the early 12th century, Bolesław III Wrymouth reacquired Pomerania for Poland, made the local "Griffin" dynasty his vassals; the stronghold was captured by the Polish army in the winter of 1107/08, when the inhabitants including a duke surrendered without resistance. A previous Polish siege of the burgh had been unsuccessful; the army had however looted and burned the suburbium, not or only fortified. The descriptions given by the contemporary chroniclers make it possible that a second, purely militarily used castle existed near the settlement, yet neither is this certain nor have archaeological efforts been able to locate traces thereof.
During the subsequent Christianization of the area by Otto of Bamberg at the behest of Boleslaw, a St
Link Tochigi Brex
Link Tochigi Brex is a Japanese professional basketball team based in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. After winning the JBL 2 in 2008, the team plays in the National Basketball League. In July 2015 it was announced that the team would compete in the first division of the new Japan Professional Basketball League, which started in October 2016; the team became the first champions of the B. League in 27 May 2017, defeating the Toshiba Kawasaki Brave Thunders by the final score of 85-79. Yoshinori Kaneta Mitsuhiko Kato Jason Rabedeaux Bruce Palmer Antanas Sireika Thomas Wisman Kenji Hasegawa Ryuzo Anzai Darius Dimavičius Michael Katsuhisa Brex Arena Utsunomiya TKC Strawberry Arena Tochigi Prefectural North Gymnasium Tochigi Prefectural South Gymnasium TKC Strawberry Arena Team Profile
Oklahoma State Cowboys basketball
The Oklahoma State Cowboys basketball team represents Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, United States in NCAA Division I men's basketball competition. The Cowboys compete in the Big 12 Conference. Since 1938, the team has played its home games in Gallagher-Iba Arena. Prior to 1957, the school was known as Oklahoma A&M College, the teams were nicknamed the Aggies. On March 21, 2016, Brad Underwood was hired as head coach at Oklahoma State, replacing the fired Travis Ford. Just short of one year, on March 2017, Underwood left the program for Illinois. Assistant Mike Boynton was promoted to head coach on March 24. Oklahoma State University began varsity intercollegiate competition in men's basketball in 1908; the Cowboys rank 35th in total victories among all NCAA Division I college basketball programs, with an all-time win-loss record of 1517–1053 at the end of 2010–11 season. The Cowboys have made 28 total appearances in the NCAA Tournament, reaching the NCAA Final Four six times and the NCAA Regional Finals eleven times.
Oklahoma State won the NCAA Championship in 1945 and 1946. The Cowboys seventh in total NCAA Championships. Under nine head coaches in this period Oklahoma A&M found little success, with only six winning seasons. Little success was found early on and after a six-win fifteen-loss season under first-year coach John Maulbetsch things were not looking well. However, in the next three seasons Maulbetsch turned around the program, leading the Aggies to a 41–20 record culminating with a first-place finish in their last season in the Southwest Conference; the move to the Missouri Valley Conference in 1925 would halt the progress under this budding coach. After Maulbetsch resigned from the positions of football and basketball coach the Aggies would not have another winning season until Henry Iba took the reins in 1934. However, despite an overall record of 7-9, the Aggies did win the Missouri Valley Conference Co-Championship in 1930-31 under Coach George E. Rody with a conference record of 5-3; this period in Oklahoma State basketball history was marked with football coaches heading the football and basketball teams.
Henry Iba remained for 36 years. He retired after the 1969–70 season. For most of his tenure at A&M/OSU, he doubled as athletic director. Iba's teams were methodical, ball-controlling units that featured weaving patterns and low scoring games. Iba's "swinging gate" defense was applauded by many, is still effective in today's game, he was known as "the Iron Duke of Defense". Iba's Aggies became the first to win consecutive NCAA titles, his 1945–46 NCAA champions were led by Bob Kurland, the game's first seven-foot player. They beat NYU in North Carolina in the 1946 finals, he was voted coach of the year in both seasons. His 1945 champions defeated National Invitation Tournament champion, DePaul, 6' 9" center George Mikan in a classic Red Cross Benefit game. Iba's 1949 and 1951 teams reached the Final Four of the NCAA Tournament. Oklahoma A&M/Oklahoma State teams won 655 games, 14 Missouri Valley Championships, one Big Eight Championship, in 36 seasons with Iba as head men's basketball coach. "Mr. Iba," as he is still popularly known at OSU, remained a fixture on campus until his death in 1993 giving advice to players during practice.
One seat in the southeast concourse level of Gallagher-Iba Arena remains unused in his honor. The poor results of the final five years of Iba's tenure remained the status quo for Oklahoma State during the two decades following his retirement. From the 1970–71 to 1989–90 seasons, the Cowboys finished with winning records six times, finished in the top half of the Big Eight Conference standings only three times, earned a berth in the NCAA Tournament only once. After being an assistant for the Cowboys in 1958–59, Eddie Sutton returned to Oklahoma State in 1990 to coach. In the years leading up to his hiring, the team had made postseason play only three times since joining the Big Eight Conference in 1957; the Pokes began to turn around immediately with Sutton's presence, in 1991, Oklahoma State returned to the NCAA Tournament, winning their first NCAA Tournament game since making the Elite Eight in 1965. Sutton’s Cowboys advanced all the way to the Sweet Sixteen during his first two seasons. In 1995, the Pokes, under the leadership of Bryant "Big Country" Reeves and Randy Rutherford, captured the Big Eight Conference Tournament and won a bid to the 1995 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament.
They advanced to the Final Four in Seattle, where they lost to eventual champion UCLA. It was the Cowboys' deepest advance in the tournament since 1951. Led by John Lucas III, Joey Graham, 2004 Big 12 Player of the Year Tony Allen, Sutton's 2003–04 team finished with a school-record 31 wins, won both the Big 12 regular season and tournament championships, advanced to the Final Four as a No. 2 seed in the 2004 NCAA Tournament. The Cowboys finished the season ranked No. 4 in Coaches' Poll. In his 16 seasons in Stillwater, the Cowboys reached the postseason 15 times, including 13 NCAA Tournament bids and two Final Four appearances, they captured three regular-season conference titles an
Liga Leumit (basketball)
Liga Leumit is the second tier level league of basketball competition in Israel. It is the league level, below the first tier Israeli Premier League; the league contains 14 clubs. At the end of the season, the top eight clubs advance to the play-offs; the first round is played on a best-of-three basis. The four winning clubs advance to two best-of-five playoffs, the winners of which are promoted to the Super League; the two teams that finish at the bottom of the table are relegated to Liga Artzit. Israel Basketball Association Basketball in Israel Facebook page Twitter account
Power forward (basketball)
The power forward known as the four, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. It has been referred to as the "post" position. Power forwards play a role similar to that of center, they play offensively with their backs towards the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a zone defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense. The power forward position entails a variety of responsibilities, one of, rebounding. Many power forwards are noted for their mid-range jump-shot, several players have become accurate from 12 to 18 feet. Earlier, these skills were more exhibited in the European style of play; some power forwards, known as stretch fours, have since extended their shooting range to three-point field goals. In the NBA, power forwards range from 6' 8" to 7' 0" while in the WNBA, power forwards are between 6' 1" and 6' 4". Despite the averages, a variety of players fit "tweener" roles which finds them in the small forward or center position depending on matchups and coaching decisions.
Some power forwards play the center position and have the skills, but lack the height, associated with that position
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner